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This book should be returned on or oefore the date last marked below* 



DJSc., F.A.S.B., R.B., I.E.S., 
Professor of Botany, Panjab University 

Revised and completed by 
Amar Chand Joshi, M.Sc., 

Assistant Professor of Botany, Benares Hindu University 

With a Foreword by 
Haraprasad Chaudhuri, 

Head of the Department of University Teaching in Botany and 
Director, Kashyap Research Laboratory, Panjab University 








Professor Shiv Ram Kashyap died on the 26th November, 1934 
For the last several years before his death, he was working on this 
* Flora ', for in India there are very few small local floras, specially in 
those districts which are seats of University instruction. Tt is not 
possible for all students of the B.Sc. (Pass) or even for B.Sc. (Honours 
School) classes to consult a work like ' Flora of British India '. They 
need a smaller volume which could be used both in the classroom' and 
in the field. It was to meet this difficulty that the late Professor took 
up the writing of the Lahore District Flora. 

Prof. Kashyap made tho collection of plants on which this book is 
based and also made all the sketches illustrating this volume ; but before 
he could complete the book his life was suddenly and prematurely cut 
short by the cruel hand of death. He had written out the descriptions 
of plants from the Itananculacece to Leguminosece . Mr. Amar Chand 
Joshi, an old student of ours/now Assistant Professor of Botany, Benares 
Hindu University, who had been helping the late Professor during his 
holidays in the preparation of the manuscript, readily agreed at my 
request to check> rewse^ and complete the manuscript of the 'Flora'. 
Mr. Joshi checked by comparing with the specimens nu": only in the 
Panjab University Herbarium but also in the Herbarium of the Royal 
Botanical Gardens, Sibpur, Calcutta. Mr. Joshi followed the plan 
adopted by Professor Kashyap in describing the plants. 

The book deals with all the flowering plants found wild in the Lahore 
District except the grasses and the sedges. Tho more important 
cultivated plants are also mentioned at the end of the families to which 
they belong. Sometimes a brief description of these is given in smaller 
types, but no attempt has been made to describe them fully. Vernacular 
names of the plants are given when these are more or less definite and 
are in common use. 

Though the authors have consulted all the important Indian floras 
published so far, special mention should be made of Hooker's Flora 
of British India, Duthie's Flora of the Upper Gangetic Plain and Parker's 
Forest Flora of the Punjab with Delhi and Hazara. The descriptions of 
the genera are largely based on the first work. 

In conclusion, I have to thank Mr. Joshi for completing the volume ; 
Mr. K. P. Biswas, Curator of the Herbarium, Royal Botanical Gardens, 


Sibpur, Calcutta, for the facility given to Mr. Joshi for work in the 
Herbarium and the Syndicate of the Panjab University for the special 
grant to meet the cost of the publication of the volume. 

Kashyap Research Laboratory, 

Panjab University Botany Department, H. CHAUDHURI 

Lahore, November 26, 1936. 


The families of flowering plants in the present account are mostly 
arranged according to Bentham and Hooker's ' Genera Plantarum/ 
the arrangement which has been followed by the writers of most of the 
other Indian Floras. According to this system of classification, the 
various families are divided into the following main groups : 

I. Angiosperms. Ovules present inside a closed ovary. Pollination takes 
place through the stigma and the stylo. 

A. Dicotyledons. Vascular bundles in the transverse section of a young 
stem arranged in a circle. Stem, when perennial, with concentric 
layers of wood and a separable bark, growing in thickness by 
means of a cambium. Leaves net-veined. Perianth mostly 4- 
or 5-merous. Embryo with 2 cotyledons ; radicle elongates to 
form the primary root. 

i. Polypetalae. Flowers with both calyx and corolla l ; 
petals free 2 . 

a. Thalamiflorae. Flowers mostly regular and bi- 

sexual ; sepals mostly free ; sepals, petals and 
stamens hypogyrious ; disk mostly absent ; 
ovary superior s . Families : I- XVI. 

b. Disciflorae. Sepals free or united ; torus general- 

ly expanded into a cushion -like or cupular disk 
between the petals and the ovary ; disk rarely of 
glands ; ovary often immersed in the disk *. 
Families : XVII-XXII. 

c. Calyciflorae. Flowers regular or irregular; sepals 

mostly connate, superior or inferior ; disk mostly 
absent ; stamens perigynous or epigynous & ; 
ovary superior or inferior. Families : XXIII- 

ii. Gamopetalas. Flowers with both calyx and corolla ; 
petals united 6 . Families : XXX V-L. 

1 Corolla is sometimes wanting in the Cruciferce, Caryophyllacece, Lythracece 
and Ficoidece. 

2 Flowers with petals more or less united at the base occur in Malvaceae and 

3 Calyx and ovary are J-inferior in Portulaca. 

4 Disk is absent in Oxalis. 

6 Stamens obscurely perigynous in Papilionacece, Ccesalpiniaceas, and Mi- 

6 Limb of the calyx is suppressed in many Compositce ; free petals sometimes 
occur in Campanulacece ; corolla scarious in Plantaginacece. 


iii. Monochlamydeae. Perianth 1 -seriate, rarely entirely 
absent, or if "2 -seriate, both series sepaloid 1 ; flowers often 
urn-sexual. Families : LI-LVIII. 

B. Monocotyledons. Generally herbs. Vascular bundles in a trans- 
verse section of the stern, mostly scattered and without cambium. 
Secondary growth in thickness in the stem generally absent. Leaves 
largely parallel -veined. Perianth generally trimerous. Embryo 
with a single cotyledon ; radicle not growing into a tap root, but 
soon stopping its growth, its function being taken up by adventitious 
roots from the base of the stem. Families : LIX-LXXI. 

II. Gymnosperms. Ovules not present inside a closed ovary. Pollination takes 
place through the direct contact of the pollen grains with the ovules. 
Family : LXXII. 


i. Polypetalae. 
a. Thalamiflorae, 

1. Pistil apocarpous (carpels embedded in the receptacle in Nymphwaccce). 
Flowers regular, bisexual (unisexual in Mentbpermaccce). 

1. Ranunculaceae (Ranunculus). Herbs with radical and al- 
ternate leaves. Calyx often petaloid ; stamens and carpels indefinite. 
Fruit a head of achenes. 

II. Menispermaceae. Twining shrubs with alternate exstipulate 
leaves. Flowers small, dioecious or polygamous, usually 3-merous ; 
stamens 0, in two series, opposite the petals ; stamiiiodes present or 
in the female flowers ; carpels 3. 

III. Nymphaeaceae. Aquatic herbs with usually large peltate 
leaves. Sepals 4-5 ; petals and stamens many ; carpels many, in pits 
of the torus or confluent with it. Fruit a spongy berry or of nuts sunk 
in the pits of a turbinate torus. 

2. Pistil syncarpous, 1 -celled (2-relled in Polygala] ; placentas parietal (meeting 

in the middle to form a 2-celled fruit in Cruci force). 

IV. Papaveraceae. Herbs with milky or coloured latex. Leaves 
alternate, exstipulate. Flowers regular ; sepals 2 or 3, caducous ; 
petals 4 or 6 ; stamens indefinite, free ; ovary 1- celled ; ovules many, 
on parietal placentas which project into the ovary. Fruit a capsule. 

1 Corolla is present in some Euphorbiacece and Illecebracece. 


V. Fumariaceae. Herbs with watery juice and much divided 
leaves. Flowers small, /x^'MiKirpliic ; sepals 2, small, scale -like ; petals 
4, in usually two very dissimilar pairs ; 2 outer large, one gibbous or 
spurred ; stamens 2, tripartite ; ovary 1- celled ; ovules 2 or more on 
parietal placentas. Fruit indehiscent, 1 -seeded. 

VI. Cruciferae. Herbs with alternate, exstipulate leaves. Flowers 
regular ; sepals 4 ; petals 4, jimmied in a cruciform manner, rarely ; 
stamens tetradynamous, sometimes less ; ovary usually 2- celled by the 
projection inwards of the parietal placentas ; ovules generally many. 
Fruit a siliqua or silicula, rarely indehiscent or transversely septate. 

VII. Capparidaceae.. Herbs, shrubs or trees, with alternate, 
simple or compound leaves ; stipules modified into spines in Gapparis. 
Flowers regular or irregular ; sepals 4 ; petals 4 ; stamens 4-many, at 
the base of or on a long or short gynophore ; ovary sessile or stalked, 
1 -celled ; ovules many, on 2-4 parietal placentas. Fruit capsular or 

VIII. Resedaceae (Oligomeris). Herbs with linear fascicled leaves- 
Flowers small, in spikes ; calyx 4-partite ; petals 2, free or connate ; 
stamens 3-8 ; ovary 4-lobed, open above ; ovules many, on 4 parietal 
placentas. Fruit a capsule. 

IX. Violaceae. Herbs with alternate, usually stipulate leaves. 
Flowers irregular ; sepals 5, imbricate, persistent ; petals 5, lowest 
largest, spurred or saccate at the base ; stamens 5 ; ovary 1- celled with 
3 parietal placentas. Fruit a 3-valved capsule. 

X. Polygalacea^ Herbs with simple entire alternate exstipulate 
leaves. Flowers irregular ; sepals 5, unequal, the 2 inner petaloid ; 
petals 3, the anterior keel-shaped and generally crested ; stamens 8, 
united in their lower half ; ovary 2 -celled, with one pendulous ovule 
in each cell. Capsule 2-celled, 2-seeded. 

3. Ovary syncarpous, 1 -celled ; ovules on. free central or basal placentas. 

XI. Caryophyllaceae, Herbs. Leaves opposite, simple ; stipules 
or scarious. Flowers regular, in dichasial cymes ; sepals 4-5, free or 
connate ; petals 4-5, rarely ; stamens usually twice the petals, some- 
times less ; ovary usually unilocular, at least in the lower part ; styles 
2-5 ; ovules 2-rnany, on basal fuiiicles or on a free central column. Fruit 
a 2-6-valved capsule. Embryo curved round the mealy perisperm. 

XII. Portulacaceae. Succulent herbs with entire leaves having 
scaly or hairy nodal appendages. Flowers regular ; sepals 2, connate 
below, the free portion deciduous ; petals 4-6, p<Tiiynou^ ; stamens 
4-many, porigynous ; ovary ^-inferior. Fruit a capsule dehiscing trans- 


XIII. Tamaricaceae* Shrubs or trees with minute alternate ex- 
stipulate leaves. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular ; sepals and 
petals and stamens mostly 5 ; ovary 1- celled ; ovules many, basal. 
Fruit a 3-valved capsule. Seeds with a tuft of hairs. 

4. Ovary syncarpous, 2-many-celled ; placentation axile. 

XIV. Elatinaceae. Herbs or undershrubs. Leaves opposite. 
Flowers minute, regular ; sepals and petals 5 ; stamens 5 or 10 ; ovary 
3-5-celled ; cells many-ovuled. Fruit a 3-5-valved septicidal capsule. 

XV. Malvaceae, Herbs, shrubs or trees, generally with stellate 
hairs and mucilaginous juice. Leaves alternate, stipulate. Flowers 
regular, usually bisexual ; sepals 5, valvate, free or connate ; epicalyx 
often present ; petals 5, twisted ; stamens many, monadelphous ; anthers 
1 -celled ; ovary 2-many-celled ; ovules 1, 2 or many in each cell, axile. 
Fruit schizocarpic or capsular. 

XVI. Tiliaceae, Herbs or shrubs. Leaves usually alternate, 
simple, stipulate. Flowers mostly bisexual, regular ; sepals 5 or 4, free 
or connate ; petals 5 or 4 ; stamens usually many, free ; anthers 2- celled ; 
ovary 2-5- celled ; ovules 2-many in each cell ; style simple. Fruit capsu- 

b. Disciflor*. 

XVII. Zygophyllaceae, Herbs with alternate or opposite leaves. 
Flowers regular, bisexual ; sepals and petals 4-5, free, imbricate ; stamens 
10-15, inserted at the base of the lobed disk ; ovary 2-12-lobed and 
-celled ; ovules 2-many in each cell. Fruit schizocarpic or capsular. 

XVIII. Geraniaceae (Oxalis). Herbs with 3-foliolate leaves and 
acid taste. Flowers regular, bisexual ; sepals 5, imbricate ; petals 5, 
contorted ; stamens 10 ; disk ; ovary 5- celled ; cells few- or many- 
ovuled. Fruit a capsule. 

XIX. Rutacea^ Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple or compound, 
exstipulate, dotted with pellucid glands. Flowers bi- or uni-sexual, 
regular ; sepals and petals generally 4-5 ; disk large or small ; stamens 
definite or many ; ovary 4-1 0- celled ; ovules 1, 2 or many in each cell. 
Fruit fleshy. 

XX. Meliaceac, Trees with alternate exstipulate compound leaves. 
Flowers regular, bisexual; calyx 5-6-lobed ; petals 5-6; stamens 5-12, 
monadelphous or free ; disk annular ; ovary 3-6- celled ; ovules 1-many 
in each cell. Fruit capsular or drupaceous. 

XXI. Rhamnaceae. Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, 
with 3-5 main nerves ; stipules spinose. Flowers bisexual, regular ; 
calyx 4-5-lobed, segments valvate; petals 4-5, small, sometimes 0; 


disk lining the calyx- tube ; stamens 4-5, opposite the petals ; ovary 
2-4-celled, with 1 ovule in each cell. Fruit indehiscent. 

XXII. Anacardiaccae. Trees with alternate, simple, exstipulate 
leaves. Flowers male and bisexual ; calyx 4-5-partite ; petals 4-5 ; 
disk fleshy, 5-lobed ; stamens 4-5, one only perfect ; ovary 1-celled, 
1-ovuled. Fruit a drupe. 

c. Calyciflora?, 
1. Ovary superior, of 1 -many free carpels. 

XXIII. Papilionaccaz* Herbs, shrubs or trees, often climbing. 
Leaves, alternate, stipulate, simple or compound. Flowers bisexual, 
zygomorphic ; sepals 5, generally more or less connate ; petals 5, im- 
bricate, posterior outermost and usually largest, two anterior innermost 
and connate ; stamens 10 or 9, diadelphous or rnonadelphous, rarely 
free ; carpel 1 ; ovules 1-many on the ventral suture. Fruit a legume, 
sometimes indehiscent or lomentaceous. Endosperm generally absent. 

XXIV. Caesalpiniaccas. Like Papilionaceae, but petals some- 
times fewer by abortion and the posterior innermost in bud (just the 
reverse of what is found in the Papilionaceae) ; stamens 10 or fewer by 
abortion, sometimes many, free or variously connate. 

XXV. Mimosaceaa* Trees or shrubs. Leaves bipinnate. Flowers 
small, bisexual, rarely polygamous, regular, actinomorphic, 4- or 5- 
merous ; calyx generally tubular ; lobes valvate ; petals also usually 
valvate and connate below ; stamens as many or twice as many as petals 
or numerous, free or connate below, usually exserted ; gynsecium, fruit 
and seeds as in Papilionaceae. 

XXVI. Rosaccae (Potentilla) . Herbs with alternate, compound, 
stipulate leaves. Flowers regular, bisexual ; calyx 5-lobed ; petals 
5 ; stamens many, free ; carpels few to many, free ; ovules solitary. 
Achenes on a dry receptacle. 

2. Ovary inferior or included in the calyx-tube, synoarpotis ; style simple. 

XXVII. Cactaceae. Steins flattened, jointed, succulent, prickly, 
apparently leafless. Flowers large, regular ; sepals and petals alike, 
in several series ; stamens numerous ; ovary inferior, 1-celled ; placentas 
3 or more, parietal. Fruit a succulent berry. 

XXVIII. Combretaceae. Trees or shrubs with simple exstipulate 
leaves. Flowers regular, bisexual ; sepals 5, superior ; petals 5 or ; 
stamens 10, 2-seriate ; ovary 1-celled, inferior ; ovules 1-5, pendulous 
from the top. Fruit indehiscent, generally angled or winged. 

XXIX. Myrtaceas, Trees or shrubs with simple, entire, usually 
gland-dotted leaves. Flowers regular, bisexual ; calyx 4-5-lobed ; petals 


4-5, free or united in a cap ; stamens many, epigynous ; ovary inferior, 
2-4-celled ; ^cells many-ovuled ; style simple. Fruit capsular or fleshy. 

XXX. Lythraceae, Herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves commonly 
opposite, exstipulate. Flowers bisexual, regular ; calyx-tube free, 
persistent, 3-6 or more-lobed ; petals 3-6 or 0, inserted near the top of 
the calyx-tube ; stamens 4-many, inserted on the calyx-tube ; ovary 
free, in the bottom of the calyx-tube, 2-6- celled ; ovules numerous ; 
style simple. Fruit generally a many-seeded capsule. 

XXXI. Onagraceae (Trapa). Floating herbs. Leaves alternate. 
Flowers regular, bisexual ; calyx-lobes 4, valvate ; petals 4 ; stamens 
4, epigynous ; ovary ^-inferior, 2-celled ; ovules solitary in each cell. 
Fruit indehiscent, 1 -seeded. 

3. Ovary inferior or superior, syncarpous (apocarpous in Gisekia], 1-5 -celled ; 
styles free or only commie below. 

XXXII. Cucurbitaceae. Large, weak, cirrose herbs. Leaves 
alternate, simple, lobed or compound. Flowers regular, unisexual ; 
calyx-tube short, 5-lobed ; petals 5, usually connate ; stamens 3, on the 
calyx-tube ; anthers free or connate ; cells usually conduplicate ; ovary 
inferior, 1 -celled ; placentas 3, fleshy, often meeting in the centre ; 
stigmas 3 ; ovules many. Fruit fleshy. 

XXXIII. Ficoideae* Herbs with simple, opposite or whorled 
leaves. Flowers regular, bisexual ; sepals 5 ; petals ; stamens perigy- 
nous or \' : ". '. . 3-20; ovary free, 1-5-celled with many ovules or 
of 5 free 1-ovuled carpels. Fruit capsular or of 5 achenes. Seeds 
reniform ; embryo curved round the mealy perisperm. 

XXXIV. Umbelliferae, Herbs with alternate, simple or com- 
pound, exstipulate leaves, usually with sheathing bases. Flowers in 
simple or compound umbels, bisexual, regular or corolla of outer flowers 
of an umbel rayed ; calyx superior, limb 5-fid or ; petals 5, often in- 
flexed, free ; stamens 5, epigynous, free ; ovary 2-celled, crowned with 
a large epigynous disk ; styles two ; ovules solitary in each cell, pendu- 
lous. Fruit of two indehiscent mericarps, pendulous from the summit 
of the carpophore. 

ii. Gamopetalae. 

1. Ovary inferior. 

XXXV. Rubiaceae (Galium). Herbs with simple, entire leaves, 
in whorls of 3-8. Flowers bisexual, regular ; corolla 4-5-lobed ; stamens 
4-5, epipetalous ; ovary inferior, 2-celled ; ovules solitary in each cell ; 
styles 2. 

XXXVI. Composite, Herbs or shrubs. Flowers arranged in 
a head on a common receptacle and surrounded by an involucre of bracts, 


aJl tubular, or the outer or all ligulate ; calyx superior, limb of hairs, 
scales or ; corolla tubular in disk flowers, with 4 or 5 valvate lobes, 
ligulate in ray flowers ; stamens 5, epipetalous, syngenesious ; ovary 
inferior, 1 -celled ; ovule 1, basal, erect. Fruit an achene, with or without 

XXXVII. CampanulaccaB* Herbs. Leaves simple, alternate, 
exstipulate. Flowers regular, bisexual ; calyx superior or ^-superior, 
limb 5-partite ; corolla 5-lobed, lobes valvate ; stamens 5, epipetalous ; 
anthers free or connate ; ovary 2-3-celled, many-ovuled ; stigma 2-3-lobed. 
Fruit a many- seeded capsule. 

2. Ovary superior ; placentation free central. 

XXXVIII. Primulaceae. (Anagallis). Herbs with opposite, ex- 
stipulate leaves. Flowers regular, bisexual ; calyx 5-lobed, persistent ; 
corolla 5-lobed, lobes imbricate ; stamens 5, epi- and anti-petalous ; 
ovary 1- celled ; ovules many, on a free central column. Fruit capsular. 

3. Ovary superior; placentation not free central; flowers regular; leaves 
opposite (see also tfolanacccv and Plantaginacece). 

XXXIX. Salvadoraceae. Trees or shrubs with opposite, entire, 
exstipulate leaves. Flowers small, bisexual or functionally unisexual ; 
calyx 4-partite; corolla 4-lobed; stamens 4, epipetalous; ovary 1 -celled, 
with a solitary erect ovule. Fruit a 1 -seeded drupe. 

XL. AsclepiadacetE, Herbs or shrubs with milky juice, often 
twining. Leaves opposite, exstipulate, entire. Flowers regular, bi- 
sexual ; calyx with 5 imbricate lobes ; corolla 5-lobed ; corona simple 
or of 5 or more scales, either corolline or starninal ; stamens 5, epipetalous ; 
filaments usually connate into a fleshy tube ; anthers 2- celled, coherent 
round the stigma ; pollen forming a pollinium in each cell, rarely granular ; 
pollinia of contiguous cells of different anthers attached to glands at 
the angles of the stigma ; carpels 2, free, enclosed in the staminal-tube, 
many-ovuled ; styles 2 ; stigma 1, disk-like. Fruit of two follicles. 
Seeds crowned with a large tuft of hairs. 

XLI. Gcntianaceae, Herbs with opposite exstipulate leaves. 
Flowers regular, bisexual ; calyx 4-5-partite ; corolla 4-5-lobed ; stamens 
4-5, epipetalous ; ovary 1- celled ; ovules many, on two parietal 
placentas ; style simple ; stigmas 2. Fruit a many-seeded capsule. 

4. Ovary superior ; placentation not free central ; flowers regular ; leaves 


XLII. Boraginace. Herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate 
(sub-opposite in Cordia Rothii), mostly entire, exstipulate. Flowers, 


bisexual, regular ; calyx 4-8, usually 5-, lobed, persistent ; corolla generally 
5-lobed, lobes imbricate ; stamens as many as the corolla-lobes, epipe- 
talous ; ovary 2 -celled, with 2 ovules in each cell, or 4- celled, with 1 
ovule in each cell ; style commonly gynobasic. Fruit drupaceous or of 
2-4 nutlets. 

XLIII. Convolvulaceae. Herbs or shrubs, generally twining. 
Leaves alternate (absent in Cuscuta). Flowers regular, bisexual ; calyx 
of 5 sepals or 5-partite, persistent ; corolla campanula te or funnel- 
shaped, plaited or contorted in bud ; stamens 5, epipe talons ; ovary 
often surrounded by an annular disk, 2 -celled, with 2 ovules in each cell, 
or 4-celled with one ovule in each cell ; style simple or 2-fid ; stigmas 2. 
Fruit capsular, opening by valves or a lid, or indehiscent. 

XLIV. Solanaceae, Herbs or imder-shrubs. Leaves alternate 
(rarely in unequal pairs), simple. Calyx 5-cleft, persistent, often ac- 
crescent ; corolla 5-lobed ; stamens 5, epipetaious ; ovary 2- celled or 
4- celled ; ovules many on large axile placentas. Fruit many-seeded, a 
berry or capsule. 

6. Ovary superior ; plaoentation not free central ; flowers zygomorphic. 

XLV. Scrophulariaceae. Herbs. Leaves opposite or all or the 
upper alternate. Flowers zygomorphic, bisexual ; calyx 5-fid or -partite ; 
corolla 4-5-lobed, generally 2-lipped, lobes imbricate; stamens 4, or 2, 
or 5 ; ovary 2-celled ; ovules many ; placentas axile, generally large ; 
style simple ; stigmas 2. Fruit a many-seeded capsule. 

XLVI. Orobanchaceae. Herbaceous root -parasites of a yel- 
lowish colour. Leaves only scaly. Flowers on a scape, bisexual, zygo- 
morphic ; calyx 5-partite or spathulate ; corolla-tube funnel-shaped, 
with 5 imbricate lobes ; stamens 4, didynamous ; anthers cohering in 
pairs, 1- or 2-celled ; ovary 1-celled ; ovules many, on 2 or 4 parietal 
placentas. Fruit a many-seeded capsule, opening by valves. 

XLVIL Acanthacea>, Herbs with opposite, exstipulate, simple 
leaves. Flowers zygomorphic, bisexual, generally with conspicuous 
bracts and bracteoles ; calyx 4-5-partite ; corolla 2-lipped ; stamens 
4 or 2, epipetaious ; anthers 2-celled ; ovary 2-celled ; ovules 1 or more, 
superposed in each cell ; stigmas often of unequal size. Fruit a loculi- 
cidal capsule. Seeds often on hook-like processes (retinaculse). 

XLVIII. Verbenaceae. Herbs, shrubs or trees with generally 
opposite or whorled, exstipulate leaves. Flowers zygomorphic, bi- 
sexual, in heads, spikes or racemes ; calyx persistent, usually 4-5-toothed ; 
corolla 4-5-lobed, bilabiate or not ; stamens generally 4, didynamous ; 
disk present ; ovary 2-^t-celled (sometimes 1-celled in Verbena) ; ovules 
1 or 2 in each cell (4 in Verbena). Fruit drupaceous, rarely capsular. 


XLIX. Labiata^ Usually aromatic herbs or undershrubs. 
Leaves opposite, exstipulate. Flowers zygomorphic, bisexual, usually in 
axillary cymose clusters ; calyx persistent, 4-5-cleft or bilabiate ; corolla 
mostly bilabiate ; stamens 4, didynamous, or 2 ; disk present ; ovary 
4-lobed, 4-celled ; ovule 1 in each cell ; style gynobasic. Fruit of 4 small 
indehiscent nutlets. 

6. Ovary superior ; placontation not free central ; calyx, corolla and andrce- 
cium 4-rnerous ; corolla scarious. 

L. Plantaginaceae. Scapigerous herbs with radical leaves. 
Flowers in spikes, bisexual, regular ; sepals 4, imbricate, persistent ; 
corolla scarious, tubular, 4-lobed ; stamens 4, epipetalous ; filaments 
long, flexuous ; ovary 2-celled ; ovules many in each cell. Fruit a cap- 
sule opening transversely. 

iii. Monochlamydeae. 

LI. Nyctaginaceae (Boerhaavia) . Herbs with opposite, exstipulate 
leaves. Flowers small, bisexual ; perianth 5-lobed, coloured, tube 
persistent; stamens 1-5, hypogynous, exserted ; ovary 1 -celled, with 1 
erect ovule. Fruit membranous, enclosed in the hardened perianth- 

LII. Illecebraceafc (Herniaria). Small, tufted herbs. Leaves 
opposite or upper alternate, narrow, with scarious stipules. Flowers 
minute, in green axillary clusters ; calyx 4-5-partite, persistent, closing 
over the fruit ; petals 4-5, minute, setaceous or ; disk annular ; stamens 
5 ; ovary superior, 1-celled, 1 with 1 erect ovule ; style 2-fid. Fruit a 
small nut. Embryo annular, enclosing the mealy perisperm. 

LIII. Amarantaceae, Herbs or undershrubs. Leaves opposite 
or alternate, exstipulate, simple. Flowers uni- or bisexual, generally 
with scarious bracts or bracteoles ; perianth-leaves 3-5, generally 
scarious, imbricate, persistent ; stamens mostly 3-5, opposite the perianth 
leaves, filaments free or connate, or united with intervening staminodes 
into a hypogynous cup ; anthers 1- or 2-celled ; ovary superior, 1-celled ; 
ovule 1 ; styles 1-3. Fruit a small nut, occasionally opening by a lid. 
Embryo annular, enclosing the mealy perisperm. 

LIV. Chenopodiaceae* Herbs or shrubs with simple, alternate, 
exstipulate leaves. Flowers small, 1- or 2-sexual ; perianth- segments 
3-5, rarely in female flowers 0, free or connate, imbricate, generally 
herbaceous, persistent ; stamens mostly as many as and opposite the 
perianth-segments, hypogynous or perigyiious ; ovary superior, 1-celled, 
1-ovuled; stigmas 2-5. Fruit a small nut or achene enclosed within 


the perianth. Seeds with or without perisperm ; embryo annular or 
spirally coiled. 

LV. Polygonaceae. Herbs with alternate, usually ochjgate 
leaves. Perinath- segments 5 or 6, often coloured, persistent ; stamens 
5-8; ovary superior, 2-3-gonous, 1 - celled ; ovule 1, basal, orthotropous ; 
styles 2 or 3. Fruit a small nut, generally enclosed in the perianth. 

LVI. Euphorbiaceae* Herbs, shrubs or trees, often with milky 
juice. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple or rarely compound. Flowers 
small or minute, always 1 -sexual (in Euphorbia, the males consisting 
of single naked stamens surround a female consisting of a solitary 
pistil and the whole surrounded by a perianth-like involucre formed by 
united bracts) ; perianth single, rarely double or ; disk often present ; 
stamens 1 or more ; ovary superior, generally 3-celled ; ovules 1 or 2 
in each cell, axile. Fruit schizocarpic, rarely drupaceous. Seeds al- 
buminous, with or without an aril. 

LVII. Urticaceae. Shrubs or tree, often with milky juice. Leaves 
alternate, stipulate. Flowers unisexual, small or minute, often sunk in a 
fleshy disk or enclosed in a fleshy receptacle ; perianth gamophyllous, 
lobed or partite ; stamens as many as and opposite the perianth -segments 
or fewer ; ovary superior, 1- celled, 1-ovuled. Fruit simple achenial, 
or compound of confluent pericarps, perianths and the inflorescence 

LVIIT. Salicaccae, Dioecious trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, 
stipulate. Flowers in catkins, bract eate ; perianth ; disk of glands 
or cupular ; stamens 2-many ; ovary 1 -celled, with many ovules on 2-4 
parietal placentas. Fruit a capsule opening by 2-4 valves. Seeds with 
a basal tuft of long silky hairs. 


1 . Ovary inferior. 

LIX. Hydrocharitaccas. Aquatic herbs. Flowers monoecious 
or dioecious, enclosed in an entire or toothed spathe ; sepals 3, green or 
petaloid ; petals 3 or ; stamens 3-12 ; anthers 2-celled ; ovary inferior, 
1 -celled, with 3-6 parietal placentas ; styles or style-arms 3-6. Fruit 
fleshy or membranous. Seeds exalbummous. 

LX. OrchidaccaB. Terrestrial herbs. Flowers zygomorphic, bi- 
sexual ; perianth -segments 6, in two series, inner or both petaloid, one of 
the inner greatly modified and different from the rest ; stamen 1, confluent 
with the style in a column ; anther 2-celled ; pollen grains cohering into 
pollinias ; ovary inferior, 1 -celled, with 3 parietal placentas, generally 
resupinate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. Seeds minute ; embryo not 
differentiated before germination. 


LXI. Scitamine#* Perennial herbs, sometimes quite large. 
Flowers zygomorphic, bisexual ; perianth in two whorls, inner or both 
petaloid ; fertile stamens 1-5 ; ovary inferior, generally 3-celled ; style 
not adnate to any stamen, generally long ; ovules a few or many. Fruit 
capsular or baccate. 

2. Ovary superior. 

LXTT. Liliace#, Terrestrial herbs. Flowers bisexual, regular ; 
perianth -segments 6, free or connate, 2-seriate, petaloid ; stamens 6, 
hypogynous or on the perianth ; ovary superior, 3-celled ; cells 2- or 
more-ovuled. Fruit capsular. Seeds albuminous. 

LXIII. Pontederiacea>, Aquatic herbs. Leaves generally with 
spongy swollen petioles. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic ; perianth in 
2 whorls ; inner larger, corolline ; stamens 6 ; ovary superior, 3-celled ; 
ovules many. Capsule 3-valved. 

LXIV. CommelinaceaB (Commdina). Terestrial herbs. Leaves 
alternate, sheathing at the base. Flowers more or less zygomorphic, 
bisexual ; perianth-segments 6, corolline, 2-seriate, inner larger ; stamens 
6, only 3 perfect ; filaments often bearded ; ovary superior, 3-celled ; 
cells 1- few-ovuled. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. 

LXV. Juncaceae (Juncus). Herbs. Leaves terete or com- 
pressed, sheathing, often reduced to mere sheaths. Flowers bisexual, 
bracteate, green, or whitish and membranous, or brown and coriaceous ; 
perianth-segments 6, 2-seriate, persistent ; stamens 6, rarely 3 ; ovary 
superior, 3-celled, rarely 1-celled ; ovules many. Fruit a 3-valved 
loculicidal capsule. 

LXVI. Palmse (Phoenix). Dioecious trees with a columnar stem 
and a crown of pinnate leaves. Inflorescence large, at first enclosed 
in coriaceous spathes. Flowers 1 -sexual, regular ; perianth-segments 
6, 2-seriate ; stamens 6, at the base of perianth- segments ; anthers ver- 
satile ; ovary superior, of 3 free carpels. Fruit a berry. 

LXVII. Typhaceae. poivimuil herbs. Leaves linear, erect, 
distichous, thick and spongy. Flowers monoecious, minute, densely 
crowded in cylindrical bracteate spikes ; perianth of fine hairs or ; 
stamens in male flowers 2-5 ; filaments capillary ; anthers erect, 2-celled ; 
ovary in female flowers 1-celled, 1-ovuled. Fruits minute. 

LXVI1I. Aracea. Perennial herbs with radical leaves, some- 
times scandent and leaves alternate. Flowers 1- or 2-sexual, sessile 
on a spadix enclosed in a green or coloured spathe, when 1-sexual, the 
female flowers in the lower part of the spadix ; perianth or not promi- 
nent ; stamens in male flowers 1-8, free or connate ; anthers 2-4-celled ; 
ovary in female flowers sessile, 1 -3-celled ; cells 1- or more-ovuled. Fruit 
a 1- or a few- seeded berry. 


LXIX. Lemnaceae, Small or minute, floating, green, thalloid 
plants, rootless or with a few simple roots. Flowers monoecious, very 
minute, in fissures of the frond, naked or in a sheath ; perianth ; 
stamens in male flowers 1 or 2 ; anther 1- or 2-celled ; ovary in 
female flowers 1 -celled ; ovules 1 or more. Fruit a membranous 

LXX. Alismacese, Marsh or aquatic herbs, with radical, erect 
or floating leaves. Flower 2- or 1 -sexual or polygamous ; perianth- 
segments 6, 2-seriate, outer sepaloid, inner petaloid ; stamens 6 or more, 
free, hypogynous ; carpels 3, 6 or many, free, 1-ovuled. Fruit a cluster 
of small achenes. 

LXXI. Naiadace. Aquatic herbs. Root-stock creeping. 
Stems elongate, branched. Leaves with sheathing bases ; stipules or 
axillary within the .sheath. Flowers inconspicuous, 1- or 2-sexual ; 
perianth tubular, or of 2-4 segments, or ; stamens mostly 1-4, hypogy- 
nous ; anthers 1-4-celled ; ovary superior, of 1-4 one-ovuled free carpels. 
Fruit of 1-4 one-seeded achenes or drupelets. 


LXXII. Gnctaceae, (Ejihedra). Erect or scandent shrubs with 
jointed stems. Leaves minute, generally scaly, sometimes green, sheath- 
ing at the base, in whorls of 2 or 3. Flowers small, 1- sexual ; male in 
small bracteate spikes, with 2-lobed perianth and 2-8 2-celled stamens 
sessile on a central column ; female mostly in groups of 2, bracteate, 
1-ovuled, enclosed by perianth which becomes fleshy in fruit. 


Annual or perennial herbs, rarely climbing shrubs. Leaves radical 
or alternate, rarely opposite, simple or compound ; stipules or adnate 
to the petiole. Flower regular or irregular, usually 2 -sexual, hypogy- 
nous ; sepals usually 5, free, petaloid when the petals are wanting, or 
rudimentary, imbricate, rarely valvate ; petals 0, or 3-5 or more, 
imbricate ; stamens numerous, free ; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal 
slits ; carpels usually many, free, 1 -celled ; stigma simple ; ovules 1 or 
more on the ventral suture, pendulous or erect. Fruit of numerous 
1 -seeded achenes or many-seeded follicles, rarely a capsule or berry. 
Seed albuminous ; embryo minute. Genera about 30, species about 300, 
distributed chiefly in cold parts of the world. 

Ranunculus Linn. 

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves entire, lobed or dissected ; 
stipules membranous or 0. Flowers usually panicled, yellow ; sepals 
3-5, green, refloxed, caducous, imbricate in bud ; petals usually 5, with 
pocket-like nectaries at the base on the upper surface, rarely ; stamens 
many ; carpels many, with short style and a solitary ascending ovule. 
Fruit a head or spike of beaked or apiculate achenes. 

Key to the species. 

Heads of achenes oblong, achenes turgid . . 1. R. sceleratus. 

Heads of achenes globose, achenes flattened. 

Achenes smooth or granular ; plant very hairy 2. R. pensylvanicu* . 
Achenes tuberculatc or spinous, rarely smooth ; 
plant glabrous or slightly hairy. 

Radical leaves not divided to the rachis . . 3. R. muricatus. 
Radical leaves divided to the rachis . . 4. R. sardous. 

1. R, sceleratus Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., /, p. 19. An erect glabrous 
annual. Stem 2 ft. or more high, much divided, succulent, hollow. 
Radical leaves long-stalked, 3 -partite, segments lobed, obtusely toothed 
near the top ; cauline shortly stalked or sessile, 3-fid, with linear segments. 
Achenes numerous, small, in oblong cylindrical heads, turgid, glabrous, 
1/25 in. long, beak small ; fruiting receptacle pilose. (Fig. 1.) 
Common, particularly near water. Flowers : Feb.-April. 



Fig. 1, Ranunculus sceleratus, (a) a twig, X}, (b) two leaves, X J, (c) a head, of 
achenes, X 2 ; Fig. 2, RanuncAiluspensylvanicus, (a) a twig, X J, (b) a head of a< i hene3, 
X 1, (c) a single achene, x4; Fig. ,3, Ranunculus muricatus, (a) a twig, x J, (b) leaf, 
X |, (c) a flower with one petal removed, X 2, (dd') t two achenes, X3; Fig. 4, 
Ranunculus sanlouft, (a) a plant, x , (^) a head of aehenoa, X 1, (c) achene, x4. 

2. R pensylvanicus Lirm. ; F 
very hairy annual ; hairs spreading. 

. .Brif. Ind., /, p. 19. An erect 
Stem up to 2 ft. tall, branched. 


Radical leaves long-stalked, up to 1 ft. in length including the petiole, 
ternatisect, segments stalked and again deeply 3-lobed, lobes irregularly 
divided ; upper cauline leaves sessile. Peduncles leaf -opposed, up to 
about 1 in. long. Head of achenes globose or ovoid, 1/2 to 2/5 in. in 
diameter ; achenes 1/10 in. across, suborbicular or ovoid, with an 
intramarginal rib ; surface smooth or granular ; beak very short ; 
fruiting receptacle oblong, hairy. (Fig. 2.) 

Very common. Flowers: March- April. 

3. R, muricatus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., L p. 20. An erect glabrous 
annual, 1 ft. or more high. Radical leaves long-stalked, up to 6 in. long 
including the petiole ; lamina 1-2 in. broad, 3-fid, segments irregularly 
and shortly lobed, base more or less cordate. Peduncles leaf-opposed, 
about 1 in. long. Heads of achenes globose, 1/2 to 3/4 in. in diameter ; 
achones largo, flat, 1/5 in. by 1/8 in. without the beak ; beak hooked, 
1/10 in. long ; surface tubereulate or spiiious near the margin or all over, 
rarely smooth ; fruiting receptacle small, hairy. (Fig. 3.) 

Very common. Flowers : Feb. -April. 

4. R. sardous Crantz. ; Strip. Austr., ed. 7, fasc. ii, 84. An erect 
branched annual, up to H ft. high, sparsely hairy or glabrous; 
hairs particularly conspicuous at the sheathing leaf-bases. Radical 
leaves long-stalked, up to 7 in. including the petiole, ternatisect, with 
the terminal pinna long-stalked and the lateral pinnae sessile or shortly - 
stalked, the terminal and sometimes the lateral pinnae also deeply 3-lobed, 
lobes irregularly divided ; upper cauline sessile or shortly-stalked. 
Peduncles leaf-opposed, up to 2 in. long. Head of achenes globose ; 
achenes 1/10 in. in diameter, flat, suborbicular, with an intramarginal 
rib, tubereulate ; beak almost absent ; fruiting receptacle oblong, hairy. 
(Fig. 4.) 

Common in grass plots. Greatly resembles R> pensi/lvanicvs, but quite or 
nearly glabrous and with tubereulate achenes. 
Flowers : March- April. 


Climbing, rarely erect, shrubs or small trees. Leaves alternate, 
entire or lobed, usually palmi-nerved ; stipules 0. Flowers small, hypo- 
gynous, dioecious or polygamous ; sepals usually 6, imbricate, in 2 series, 
the outer often miiiuto ; petals usually (), in 2 series ; stamens as many 
as and opposite to the petals, hypogynous ; filaments free or united in 
a column ; reduced to staminodes or wanting in female flowers ; carpels 
distinct, 3 or more, or only 1 ; ovule 1 in each carpel. Fruit drupaceous ; 
style scar subterminal or by excentric growth near the base. Seed 



hooked or reniform, often horse-shoe-shaped. Genera about 30, species 
about 100, mostly tropical. 

Cocculus DC. 

Climbing or sarmentose shrubs, rarely sub-erect. Petiole not dilated 
at the base. Flowers panicled ; sepals 6, 2 -seriate, outer smaller ; petals 
6, smaller, usually auricled ; stamens (in male flowers) embraced by the 
petals, anthers subglobose, cells bursting transversely ; staminodes (in 
female flowers) 6 or ; carpels 3-6 ; styles usually cylindric. Drupes 

laterally compressed ; 
endocarp horse-shoe- 
shaped, dorsally keeled 
and tubercled, sides ex- 
cavate. Seed curved ; 

albumen fleshy; 


C. Lcaeba DC. ; Fl. 

Brit. 2nd., /, p. 102. 
A climbing shrub, grey 
pubescent. Loaves 
1/2-2 in. long, ovate, 
ovate -oblong or nar- 
rowly oblong, some- 
times lobed, cmieate or 
rounded at the base, 
rnucronatc. Flowers 
minute ; the male in 
dense axillary clus- 
ters ; the female axil- 
lary, solitary (rarely 
paired). Drupe obo- 
void, compressed, 

black. (Fig. 5.) 

Not common. Flowers practically throughout the year. 

Tinospora cordifolia Mierv. ; FL Brit. Ind., /, p. 97. Vern., Galo, is some- 
times cultivated. 


Large aquatic herbs possessing perennial rootstock. Leaves usually 
floating, often peltate, margins involute before unfolding. Flowers 
solitary on long leafless scapes ; perianth parts and stamens all free, 

Fig. 5, Cocculus Laeba, (a) two twigs, X 
flower, x 8, (c) a petal and a stamen, x 10. 

, (6) male 


hypogynous, or adnate to a fleshy disk surrounding or enveloping the 
carpels ; sepals 3-5 ; petals 3-5 or many ; stamens many ; carpels 3 or 
more, in one whorl, free or connate, or irregularly sunk in pits on the 
disk ; stigmas as many as the carpels, peltate or decurrent ; ovules 1- 
many, scattered over the walls of the cells. Fruit a berry formed from 
connate carpels, or of an enlarged top -like fleshy receptacle containing 
nut-like carpels in its crown. Seeds with or without an aril, albuminous 
or exalbuminous. Genera 8, species about 40, distributed in temperate 
and tropical countries. 

Key to the genera. 

Leaves floating ; seeds albuminous . . 1 . Nymphaea. 

Leaves and flowers raised above water ; seeds 

exalbuminous . . . . 2. Nelumbium. 

1. Nymphaea Linn. 

Rootstock short, suberect or creeping. Leaves and flowers floating. 
Flowers large ; sepals 4 ; petals many -seriate, gradually passing into 
stamens ; all adnate to the disk ; filaments petaloid ; anthers small, 
linear, dehiscing lengthwise, introrso ; carpels many, sunk in the fleshy 
disk and with it forming a many-celled ovary crowned by connate radia- 
ting stigmas ; ovules many. Fruit a spongy berry, ripening under 
water. Seeds small, buried in the pulp. 

Key to the species. 
Leaves sharply toothed ; anthers without 

li.L'i^ .. .. ..1. N.Lotus. 

Leaves entire or obtusely toothed ; anthers with 

long appendages . . . . . . 2. N. stellata. 

1. N* Lotus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 114. Leaves 6-12 in. 
across, on long cylindrical submerged petioles up to 7 ft. long, sharply 
sinuate-toothed, downy and mostly purple beneath, sagittate and entire 
when young. Flowers 4r-10 in. in diameter , white or pink ; sepals oblong, 
obtuse, 5-10-ribbed ; petals oblong ; filaments broadly dilated at the 
base ; anthers without appendages. Fruit 1 J in. in diameter ; stigmatic 
rays with clubbed appendages. Seeds broadly ellipsoid, rough. 
Vern., Nilofar. 

At Kala Shah Kaku and near Shahdara. 

2. N. stellata Willd. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 114. Leaves orbicular 
or elliptic, quite entire or. obtusely sinuate-toothed, often blotched with 



purple beneath. Flowers 5-10 in. in diameter, blue, white, rose or purple, 
slightly scented ; sepals not ribbed, but often streaked with short purple 
lines ; petals 10-30, linear-oblong or lanceolate, acute or acuminate ; 
stamens 10-50 ; anthers with long appendages ; stigmatic rays without 

Not collected from tho neighbourhood of Lahore so far, but may be expected 
to occur within the district. 

2. Nclumbium Juss. 

Largo water herbs with milky juice. Rhizome stout, elongated, 
<-nv|)iu^r. Leaves raised high above tho water, peltate. Flowers rose- 
red or white, raised above water ; sepals 4-5, caducous ; petals hypogy- 
nous, many -seriate, caducous ; stamens many ; anthers with a club- 
shapod appendage ; carpels many, sunk in the flat top of an obconic 
fleshy receptacle; styles shortly exsertcd ; stigmas terminal, dilated; 
ovules I -2 in each carpel, pendulous. Fruiting carpels ovoid, loose in tho 
cavities of the enlarged spongy receptacle, 1 -seeded ; pericarp bony, 
smooth. Seed exalbuminous ; testa spongy ; cotyledons fleshy, thick, 
enclosing the large folded plumule. 

N. speciosum WillcL ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 116. Petiole 3-6 ft. 
long, smooth or with scattered prickles ; leaves 2-3 ft. in diameter, cup. 
like, smooth, shining. Flowers 4-10 in. in diameter, white or rose. 
Fruiting torus 2-4 in. in diameter Vern., Kanwal. 

Commonly cultivated in tanks. Tho rhizomes and tho seeds are eaten. 
Flowers during the hot months. 

Occasionally the pits containing the carpels are so shallow that the carpels 
are situated practically on the surface, thus showing clearly the apocarpous nature 
of the pistil. 


Annual or perennial latidferous herbs. Leaves radical or alternate, 
exstipulate. Flowers generally large, showy, nodding in bud, herma- 
phrodite ; sepals 2-3, hypogynous, caducous ; petals 4-6, in two whorls, 
crumpled in bud ; stamens indefinite ; filaments slender ; anthers erect, 
dehiscing by lateral slits ; ovary superior, 1 -celled ; style short or ; 
stigmas 2-8, free or connate into a radiating structure, above or alter- 
nating with the placentas ; placentas parietal, generally 2-8, protruding 
into the ovary ; ovules many-seriate. Fruit a capsule dehiscing by 

pores or valves. Seeds many, small, albuminous ; embryo minute. 

Genera 17, species about 70, chiefly natives of the north temperate zone. 


Key to the genera. 

Not spinous ; perianth bimerous ; capsule opening 

by pores under the stigmatic lobes . . 1 . Papaver. 

Spinous all over ; perianth trimerous ; capsule 

opening by valves . . . . . . 2. Argemone. 

1. Papaver Linn. 

Annual or perennial, unarmed herbs ; juice milky. Leaves lobed 
or cut. Flowers large, on long peduncles, markedly nodding in the 
bud ; perianth bimerous ; ovary 1-cellcd ; stigma discoid or pyramidal, 
with radiating lobes above the large protruding placentas. Capsule 
opening by small pores under the persistent stigma-lobes. Seeds 
small, pitted. 

1. P, somniferum Linn,.; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 117. An erect, 
glaucous annual, 2-4 ft. tall. Stem simple, rarely branched. Leaves 
ovate-oblong or linear -oblong, amplexicaul, lobed ; lobes dentate or 
serrate. Flowers generally white, or purple or scarlet. Capsule globose, 
glabrous, 1 in. in diameter, stalked; stigmatic rays 5-12. Seeds white 
or black. The opium poppy ; Vorn., Post. (Fig. 0.) 

Cultivated in fields. 

P. Rhoeas Linn.; the field poppy of England with usually scarlet single or 
double flowers is commonly grown during winter as an ornamental annual. 

2. Argemone Linn. 

Erect glaucous spiny herbs ; juice yellow. Flowers largo ; sepals 
generally 3 ; petals 6 ; stamens many ; ovary I -eel led ; stylo very shori ; 
stigma 3-6-lobod ; ovules many on parietal placentas. Capsule prickly, 
dehiscing by short valves at the top. Seeds small. 

A. mexicana Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., I, p. 117. 1-2 ft. high, simple 
or sparingly branched, spinous all over. Leaves sessile, half-arnplexi- 
caul, sinuate-piimatifid, spiny-toothed, variegated greoii and white. 
Flowers yellow ; sepals horned at the top, prickly. Capsule 1-lf in. 
long, elliptic or oblong, prickly. Seeds globose, pitted, beaked. 
Mexican or prickly poppy ; Vern., Kandiari or Kandiali. (Fig. 7.) 

Introduced from America, but common in fields and waste places. Flowers 
largely during March and April, but a few flowering specimens can be found prac- 
tically throughout the year. 


Annual or perennial herbs ; juice watery. Leaves usually divided. 
Flowers small, in racemes, invjulu 1 . transversely zygomorphic, hernia- 



Fig. 6, Papavcr somniferum, (a) a twig with a young 
capsule, x, (6) leaf, xj; Fig. 7, Argemone mexicana, (a) a 
branch with rather small leaves and a fruit, X J, (b) flower, X ; 
Fig. 8, Fwnana indica, A branch bearing flowering and 
fruiting racemes, X . 


phrodite ; sepals 2, small, scale-like, deciduous ; petals 4, in usually 
very dissimilar pairs ; 2 outer large, one or both gibbous or spurred ; 
2 inner smaller, erect, tips often coherent ; stamens 2, opposite to the 
outer petals, tripartite ; anther of the central lobe 2-celled, of lateral 
lobes 1 -celled ; ovary superior, 1 -celled ; style long or short ; stigma 
obtuse or lobed ; ovules 2 or more, parietal. Fruit a 2-valved, few- 
or many-seeded capsule, or an indeliiscent 1 -seeded nut. Seed albu- 
minous ; embryo minute. Genera 7, species about 100, distributed in 
the northern hemisphere. 

Fumaria Linn. 

Annual, often scandent, usually branched herbs, rarely perennial. 
Leaves much divided, segments very narrow. Flowers small, white, 
rose-coloured or purplish, in terminal or leaf-opposed racemes ; two 
outer petals dissimilar, one flat or concave, the second gibbous or spurred 
at the base ; 2 inner clawed, tips free or cohering, keoled ; one of the 
stamens with a basal nectariferous spur enclosed in the petal-spur ; 
ovary 1 -celled ; style filiform ; stigma entire or shortly lobed ; ovules 
2, on 2 parietal placentas. Fruit indeliiscent, globose, 1 -seeded. 

F, indica Pugslcy ; Jour. Linn Hoc. Lond. Hot., 1019. Syn. F. 
parviflora Lamk. sub-sp. Vaillantii Loi.s. ; Fl. Brit, hid., /, p. 
128. Diffuse, pale-green, much branched annual. Leaf -segments ilat. 
Racemes lax, 1-2 in. long. Flowers 1/4-1/3 in., whitish or pinkish, 
tips purple ; pedicels exceeding the bracts ; sepals much smaller than 
the petals. Fruit globose, rugose when dry, rounded at the top and 
with 2 pits. Vorn., Pitapara or Papra. (Fig. 8.) 

Abundant in fields as a weed of cultivation. Flowers : Doc. April. 


Annual or perennial herbs, rarely somewhat woody ; juice watery, 
often pungent. Leaves radical or alternate, exstipulate. Inflorescence 
racemose, often corymbose. Flowers bisexual, generally ebracteate ; 
sepals 4, in two series, free, imbricate or rarely valvato, two lateral 
often larger ; petals 4 or rarely 0, hypogynous, free, placed cross- wise, 
often long-clawed, imbricate ; stamens (>, tetradynamous, 2 outer shorter 
to the inside of the lateral sepals, 4 inner longer in median pairs, very 
rarely stamens fewer ; disk -glands commonly present opposite the sepals ; 
ovary superior, with two parietal placentas and divided by a false mem- 
branous septum into two cells, sometimes 1 -celled, or transversely many- 
celled ; ovules generally many, 1- or 2-seriate ; style short or ; stigma 
simple or 2-lobed. Fruit 2-celled, 2-valved, long (siliqua) or short 



(silicula) ; valves on dehiscence leaving the seeds on the margins of the 
false septum (replum) ; sometimes fruit indehiscent or transversely 
jointed. Seeds small, mostly oxalbuminous ; radicle turned up on the 
back of one cotyledon (incumbent) or facing the edges of both (accum- 
bent). Genera about 175, species about 1200, distributed largely over the 
north temperate regions of the Old World. 

Key to the genera. 
Fruit dehiscent. 

Fruit elongate, or if short not compressed. 
Flowers pink 
Flowers purple or white 
Flowers yellow. 

Seeds bi seriate in the fruit 

Seeds mostly unisoriate in the fruit. 

Fruit without a beak ; cotyledons flat . . 
Fruit with an indehiscent 1 -seeded beak ; 

cotyledons not flat 

Flowers yellow, veined with violet or lilac 
Fruit short, compressed laterally. 

Fruit many -seeded, valves not winged 
Fruit few -seeded, valves winged 
Fruit long or short, indehiscent. 

Fruit small, broader than long ; flowers minute 
Fruit elongate, beaked. 
Beak long, acuminate 
Beak broad, flat 








8. Senebiera. 



1. Nasturtium R. Br. 

Terrestrial or aquatic, glabrous or hairy herbs, with entire, lobed 
or pinnatifid leaves. Flowers small, yellow ; sepals short, spreading, 
equal at the base ; petals short, narrowed at the base, hardly clawed, 
or ; stamens 2, 4 or 6. Fruit long or short, cylindric ; valves faintly 
1 -nerved ; replum thin, transparent ; style short or long ; stigma 2-lobed. 
Seeds small, turgid, mostly biseriate ; cotyledons accumbent. 

N. indicum DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 134. An erect annual herb 
up to 2 ft. tall, glabrous or hairy. Radical leaves stalked, mostly deeply 
pinnatifid, lobes usually toothed ; cauline with small lateral lobes 
and a large terminal lobe, irregularly toothed. Racemes long, many- 


flowered. Fruit 1/2-1 in. long, shortly stalked, horizontal or ascending. 
Seeds very numerous, small, dark brown, transversely wrinkled. (Fig. 9.) 

Common along drains and other moist places. Flowers in winter and spring. 
Towards the end of the flowering season, in April and May, many flowers develop 
no petals or only rudimentary ones. 

2. Farsetia Desv. 

Hoary much-branched undorshrubs or herbs, with small, linear- 
oblong, entire leaves. Flowers pink, borne in spikes or racemes ; sepals 
erect, connivent, lateral saccate at the base ; petals long-clawed. Fruit 
sessile, linear or elliptic, much flattened ; valves convex, plane or with 
a midrib ; roplum membranous. Seeds 1-2-seriate, sub-orbicular, broadly 
winged ; cotyledons accumbent. 

F. Jaquemontii H. f. & T. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 140. An erect 
rigid much branched hoary perennial, hairs closely adpressed, attached 
in the middle. Leaves 1/4-1 in. long, linear or linear-oblong. Sepals 
strigose ; petals half as long again as the sepals, pink. Fruit 1-1/2-2 
in. by 1/8-1/6 in., compressed ; valves flat, with adpressed hairs, 
nerveless or with a faint median nerve, slightly constricted between the 
seeds. Seeds biseriate, with a broad annular wing. (Fig. 10.) 

Tu waste places. 

3. Malcolmia Br. 

Branching herbs with simple or stellate hairs. Leaves entire or 
pinnatifid. Flowers in lax racemes, white or purple ; sepals erect, equal 
at the base ; petals linear, long-clawed ; filaments free, the longer ones 
sometimes united in pairs. Fruit elongate, cylindric, hard and dehiscing 
late ; peduncle usually thickened ; valves 3 -nerved ; replum membranous ; 
stigma erect, lobes often united into an acute cone or decurrent along the 
short style. Seeds bi-seriate towards the base of the pod, oblong, not 
margined ; cotyledons incumbent. 

M, africana Br. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 146. An erect stout branched 
leafy annual. Stem woody at the base and rough with stiff forked 
and simple hairs. Leaves stalked, 1-6 in. long, oblong or lanceolate, 
distantly and iiiviruliirh toothed, scabrid. Petals twice as long as the 
sepals, purple or white. Fruit 2-3 in. long, straight, cylindrical, linear, 
very rough. Seeds bi-seriate towards the base, brown, oblong, plano- 
convex. (Fig. 11.) 

Common in waste places. Flowers : Feb. -March. 



Fig. 9, Nasturtium indicum, X J ; Fig. 10, Farsetia Jacquemonti, xj ; 
Fig. 11, Malcolmia a/ricana, X \ ; Fig. 12, Sisymbrium Irio, (a) a twig with 
flowers and fruits, x J, (6) leaf, X i ; Fig. 13, Capsdla Bursa-pastoris, A 
small plant, X J. 


4. Sisymbrium Linn. 

Glabrous or hairy, annual or biennial herbs. Leaves entire or 
pinnately lobed. Flowers yellow, white or rose-coloured, in lax often 
bracteate racemes ; petals long-clawed. Fruit elongate, cylindric or 
compressed ; valves convex, usually 3-nerved ; replum membranous ; 
style short ; stigma 2-lobed. Seeds generally numerous, uniseriate, 
not margined, with filiform cords ; cotyledons incumbent. 

S. Irio Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., /, p. 150. An erect annual, 1-3 ft. high, 
glabrous or slightly pubescent below. Leaves long-stalked, runcinate- 
pinnatipartite ; segments spreading, toothed ; terminal large, sometimes 
hastate. Flowers yellow, very small. Fruit l|-2 in. long, erect, slender, 
glabrous, subtorulose ; fruiting pedicel 1/4-1/2 in. long. Seeds small, 
brown, grooved lengthwise. Vern., Khub Kaldn. (Fig. 12). 

Very common everywhere. Flowers : Fob. -March. 

5. Brassica Linn. 

Glabrous or hispid herbs, often woody below. Lower leaves pin- 
natifid or lyrate, the upper nearly entire. Flowers yellow, in long 
racemes ; sepals erect or spreading, lateral usually saccate at the base. 
Fruit elongate, cylindric, or somewhat compressed, often with an inde- 
hiscent 1 -seeded beak extending beyond the valves. Seeds uniseriate ; 
cotyledons incumbent, concave or conduplicate, the radicle within the 
longitudinal fold. 

No species of this gonna is truly wild within the area, but many forms are 
cultivated. The following are the sprcios usually cultivated in. the neighbourhood 
of Lahore. For fuller information about this genus reference may be made to a 
paper by Dr. Prairi, entitled ' A note on the mustards cultivated in Bengal ', pub- 
lished in Bulletin No. 4 (1898) of the Department of Land Records and Agriculture, 

Key to the species. 

Stem-leaves tapering to the base, not amplexicaul 1. B.juncea-. 
Stein -leaves broad-based, the upper ones am- 

Stem simple or branched only in the upper 

part . . . . 2. B. campestris, 

var. sarson. 

Stem branched from the base . . 3. B. Napus, var. 


1. B. juncea Ilk. f. & T.\ Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 157, in part. 
A tall erect annual, 3-6 ft. high, much branched. Stems often tinged 
with purple, especially at the joints. Leaves large, piixnatifid, without 


basal lobes, terminal lobe much the largest ; lower leaves stalked, their 
blade 6-8 in. long, toothed ; upper decreasing in size, toothed or the 
uppermost entire. Flowers 1/2 in. in diameter. Fruit less than 2 in., 
usually 14- in. long including the beak, 1/5 in. thick, slender, torulose ; beak 
narrowly conical, nearly 1/3 in. long. Seeds mostly about 20 in a pod, up 
to 40, globose, brown, finely rugose. Vern., Arhon. 
Flowers in spring. 

2. B, campestris Linn., var. sarson Prain ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 
156, under B. campestris, sub-sp. Napus, in part. A tall annual, up to 
4 or 5 ft. high, simple or branched near the top, sometimes near the base 
also. Loaves large, glabrous, all except the lowest with stem-clasping 
auricles ; the lower pinnatipartito, terminal lobe much the largest, 6 to 
8 in. by 2 to 3 in. ; the upper smaller, oblong or lanceolate, entire or a 
little undulate. Fruit a little flattened, erect or pendent, 2 to 3-1/4 in. 
long including the beak, usually 2-celled and 2-valved, sometimes shorter, 
beak conical. Seeds usually 20 to 24, up- to 80, nearly smooth, dingy- 
white, yellow or brown. Vern., Sarson. 

Flowers in spring. 

3. B, Napus Linn., var. dichotoma Prain ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 
156, uyuler B. campestris, sub-sp. Napus., in part. A much branched 
annual, 1-3 ft. high. Leaves small, all except the lowest with stem- 
clamping auricles ; basal leaves not exceeding 4 by 2 in., more or less 
pinnatifid, terminal lobe much the largest ; upper triangular-lanceolate, 
smaller, entire. Flowers about 1/2 in. in diameter. Fruit about 2 in. long 
including the beak, 1/3 in. broad, much flattened, ascending, 2-valved ; 
beak conical, about 1/2 in. long. Seeds about 20 in each pod, bright 
brown, finely rugose. Vern., Toria. 

Flowers in spring. 

Besides the mustards described abovo, a number of common vegetables also 
belong to the genus Brassica and are largely grown in fields. Cauliflower (Vern., 
phnl-gobi), cabbage (Vern., bawl-gob i or pat (jobi), knol-khol (Vern., yanth gobi), 
and brussels-sprouts are all different varieties of Brawica oleracea Linn., a native of 
S.W. coasts of Europe. Turnip (Vern., shabjam] is Brassica Napus Linn. 

0. Eruca Tourn. 

Erect branching herbs. Leaves lyrate-pinnatifid. Flowers lilac 
or yellow, veined with violet ; sepals erect, lateral saccate at the base. 
Fruit closely adprossed to the axis, ovoid-oblong, turgid, terete, with a 
large seedless ensiform beak ; valves concave, 3-nerved ; stigma simple. 
Seeds numerous, biseriato, globose ; cotyledons conduplicate. 

E, sativa Lamk. ; FL Brit. 2nd., 7, p. J58. An erect branching 
herb, up to 5 ft. in height, glabrous or slightly hairy. Leaves lyrate- 


pinnatifid, up to 10 in. long, segments coarsely toothed. Fruit about 
1 in. long including the beak ; beak flat, pointed, seedless, half the length 
of the valves. Seeds in two rows. Vern., Taramira. 

7. Capsella Moench. 

Small, branched, annual or perennial herbs, with entire or pinna- 
tifid leaves. Flowers small, white, racemed ; sepals spreading, equal 
at the base ; petals short. Fruit obcordate-cvmeate, laterally compressed ; 
valves convex or boat-shaped ; replum very narrow ; style short. Seeds 
numerous, biseriate, narrowly margined ; cotyledons incumbent. 

C. Bursa-pastoris Medic. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 159. An erect annual 
herb, up to 1 i ft. tall, glabrous or more or less covered with forked hairs. 
Radical leaves in a rosette, usually pinnatifid, with a triangular terminal 
lobe ; cauline little divided, with basal lobes. Flowers 1/10 in. in 
diameter. Fruit 1/4-1/3 in., nearly flat, triangular or obcordate. Seeds 
oblong, punctate. Shepherd's Purse. (Fig. 13.) 

A common weed. Flowers in the cold season. 

8. Senebiera DC. 

Annual or biennial brauching prostrate herbs. Leaves entire or 
divided. Flowers minute, white, in leaf-opposed racemes ; sepals short, 
spreading ; petals minute, sometimes absent ; stamens 2, 6 or 4. Fruit 
small, didymous, indehiscent, laterally compressed ; lobes subglobose, 
rugose or crested ; style short or 0. Seed 1 in each cell ; cotyledons 
incumbent, induplicate. 

S. didyma Pers. (S* pinnatifida DC.). A slightly hairy, branched 
and leafy, prostrate or ascending annual. Leaves finely cut, deeply 
1-2 -pinnatifid, lobes small, obovate, spreading. Flowers very minute, 
in leaf-opposed racemes ; petals minute, tapering upwards, pointed ; 
stamens 2. Fruit 1/12 in. broad, separating into 2 indehiscent hard 
lobes ; pedicels spreading. Seeds reniiorm, punctate-striate. (Fig. 14.) 

Believed to be a native of tropical America and introduced into India quite 
recently. Not included in Fl. Br. Ind. Common everywhere. Flowers for a 
very large part of the year ; Nov. June. 

9. Lepidium Linn. 

Diffuse or erect herbs, rarely shrubs. Leaves entire or divided. 
Flowers small, white, ebracteate ; sepals short, equal at the base ; petals 
short or 0. Fruit more or less orbicular, laterally much compressed, 
tip notched or entire; valves boat-shaped, keeled or winged; repluin 




Fig. 14, Senebiera didyma, x I ; Fig. 15, Qoldbachia 
laevigata, (a) a twig with flowers and fruits, X J, (b) 
a lower leaf, x J, (c) siliqua, x 1 . 

narrow, membranous. Seed solitary in each cell ; cotyledons incum- 

L. sativum Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind. y /, p. 159. A glabrous erect annual 
up to 2-1/2 ft. high. Radical leaves long-petioled, bipinnatisect ; cauline 
quite sessile, entire or pinnatifid. Flowers smal), white, in long race- 
mes. Fruit orbicular-ovate, deeply notched at the top ; margins winged. 
Garden cress ; Vern., Halim or Halon. 

Cultivated or self-sown during eold weather. 


10. Raphanus Linn. 

Rough or glabrous, annual or biennial herbs, often with tuberous, 
conical or fusiform root. Radical leaves lyrate. Flowers large, in long 
racemes ; sepals erect, lateral saccate at the base. Fruit indehiscent, 
elongate, coriaceous, constricted or continuous within, or filled with 
pith separating the seeds. Seeds globose ; cotyledons conduplicate. 

R, sativus Linn. ; PL Brit. Ind., /, p. 166. Root fleshy, variable 
in size and form. leaves roughly pilose. Flowers white, or lilac with 
purple veins. Pods terete, variable in length. Radish, Vern., Muli. 

Cultivated in the cold season. The ordinary plant bears small pods known 
as mungras, while a variety (R. vaudatus) has whip -like pods as long as the entire 
plant which are known as sungras. 

11. Goldbachia DC. 

Glabrous shining branched annual. Lower leaves petioled, upper 
auricled. Flowers small, pale rose, in elongate ebracteate racemes ; 
sepals erect, equal at the base. Fruit coriaceous, indehiscent, KM i-jiirunal, 
slightly constricted between the seeds, but scarcely jointed, curved, 
tapering above into a broad flattened beak ; cells 2 or 3, superimposed 
in one row, each 1 -seeded. Seeds oblong ; cotyledons incumbent. 

G, laevigata DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 166. An erect annual, about 
1 ft. high. Radical leaves many, 4-5 in. long, ovate-oblong, sinuate- 
toothed ; cauline lanceolate, usually slightly toothed, shortly auricled. 
Fruits pendulous, 1/3 in. long, reticulately veined, costate at the angles ; 
pedicels rather slender, shorter than the pods. (Fig. 15.) 

In fields or waste places. Not very common. 


Erect or climbing, herbs, shrubs or trees, with simple or digitately 
compound leaves. Stipules present or not, sometimes spinescent. 
Flowers regular or irregular, usually bisexual and tetramerous ; sepals 
4, free or connate ; petals 4, hypogynous or seated on a disk, imbricate 
or open in bud ; stamens 4 to many, hypogynous, or at the base of or 
on a long or short gynophore ; ovary superior, sessile or stalked, 1 -celled ; 
placentas 2 or 4, parietal ; ovules numerous ; style short or ; stigma 
depressed or capitate. Fruit a capsule or a globose berry. Seeds 
exalbuminous. Genera about 25, species nearly 300, chiefly tropical. 


Key to the genera. 

Herbs ; fruit capsular. 

Stamens sessile on the disk . . 1. Cleome. 

Stamens raised on a gynophore . . 2. Gynandropsis. 

Shrubs or trees ; fruit a berry. 

With spines ; leaves simple, on young shoots 

only . . . . 3. Capparis. 

Unarmed ; leaves trifoliolate . . 4. Crataeva. 

1. Cleome Linn. 

Herbs with simple or digitately 3-9-foliolate leaves. Flowers in 
racemes ; sepals 4, spreading ; petals 4 ; stamens 4 to many, sessile on 
the disk ; ovary sessile or on a short gynophore ; style short or ; ovules 
many on 2 parietal placentas. Capsule oblong or linear, valves sepa- 
rating from the seed-bearing placentas. Seeds reniform. 

Key to the species. 

Stamens 6 . . . . 1. C. brachycarpa. 

Stamens 12-24 . . . . . . 2. C. viscosa. 

1. C. brachycarpa Vahl ex DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 169. A much 
branched coarse musky-scented glandular viscid perennial herb, up to 
18 in. tall. Leaves 3-5-foliolate, lower long-stalked, floral sub-sessile ; 
leaflets 1/4-1/2 in. long, obovate or elliptic -oblong. Flowers in leafy race- 
mes, yellow ; pedicel about 1/2 in. long ; stamens 6. Capsule 1/3 in. 
long, rough. Seeds minute, smooth. (Fig. 16.) 

Common. Flowers in summer. 

2. C* viscosa Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 170. An annual erect 
viscidly pubescent herb, 1-4 ft. high. Leaves stalked, 3-5-foliolate ; 
petiole up to 11/4 in,, long ; leaflets sessile, up to 1^ in. by 3/4 in., ovate or 
obovate, lateral oblique. Flowers on long pedicels, yellow, sepals ovate- 
oblong, acute ; petals clawed, limb ovate, reflexed ; stamens 12-24. 
Capsule 2-3 J in. long, long-stalked, densely glandular-pubescent, striate, 
narrowed above, with persistent glabrous style. Seeds small, dark 
brown, with numerous transverse ridges connected by faint longitudinal 

A common weed. Flowers in the rainy season. 

2. Gynandropsis DC. 

An annual glandular-pubescent or glabrate herb. Leaves 3-5- 
foliolate, long-petioled. Flowers in leafy racemes ; sepals 4, spreading ; 



Fig. 16, Cleome brachycarpa, x ; Fig. 17, Capparis aphylkt, (a) a 
flowering twig, xf, (6) flower, X|; Fig. 18, Grataeva religiosa, xf. 

petals 4, spreading, long-clawed ; stamens 6, inserted on the gynophore ; 
ovary on a long gynophore ; ovules many on two parietal placentas. 
Capsule elongate, stalked ; valves 2, separating from the seed-bearing 
placentas. Seeds reniform, black, rough. 

G, pentaphylla DO. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 171. An erect glandular- 
pubescent herb, 1-3 ft. high. Leaves long-stalked, 3-5-foliolate ; leaflets 
sessile, broadly obovate or elliptic -oblong, acute or obtuse, entire or 


serrulate. Racemes corymbose ; flowers white or purplish, very viscid ; 
bracts leafy, 3-foliolate. Capsule 2-4 in. long, striated, rough, viscid. 
Common in fields during the rainy season. 

3. Capparis Linn. 

Erect, decumbent or climbing shrubs or trees. Leaves simple or 
; stipules usually spiny. Racemes often corymbose ; flowers often 
showy ; sepals 4, free, in 2 series ; petals imbricate ; stamens many, 
inserted on the disk at the base of the long gynophore ; ovary stalked, 
1-4-celled ; stigma sessile ; ovules many on 2-6 parietal placentas. Fruit 
fleshy. Seeds many, embedded in pulp. 

C, aphylla Roth ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., /, p. 174. A much branched glabrous 
shrub or a small tree, leafless or nearly so. Twigs smooth, green, with 
nearly straight paired spines about 1/6 in. long. Leaves on young 
shoots only, up to 1/2 in. long, linear-oblong, acute, caducous, sessile or 
nearly so. Flowers red, rarely yellow, nearly 1 in. in diam., in corymbs 
or elongated racemes ; pedicel 1/2 in. long, slender ; sepals unequal, outer 
sub-valvate, inner very saccate ; petals narrowly oblong ; stamens 18-20 ; 
gynophore as long as the stamens. Berry 1/2-2/3 in. in diameter, globose, 
glabrous, red when ripe. Vern., Krir. (Fig. 17.) 

Common. Often occurs with Salvadora oleoides. Flowers in March-April 
and occasionally at other times. The fruit is known as dela. The flower buds 
and young and ripe fruits are pickled. 

4. Crataeva Linn. 

Trees. Leaves digitately trifoliolate. Flowers large, yellow or 
purplish, in corymbose clusters ; sepals 4, inserted below on a large 
lobed disk ; petals 4, long-clawed, open in bud ; stamens many, inserted 
on the base of the gynophore ; ovary on the gynophore, 1 -celled ; ovules 
many, on 2 parietal placentas ; stigma sessile, depressed. Fruit a berry. 

C, religiosa Forst. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 172. A small unarmed 
deciduous tree. Leaves long-stalked, 3-foliolate, exstipulate, appearing 
with the flowers; leaflets 2-6 in. long, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acu- 
minate, entire, glabrous, lateral oblique. Flowers 2-3 in. in diameter, 
greenish-yellow, in corymbs ; stamens longer than the petals ; gyno- 
phore short. Berry 1-2 in. in diameter, many-seeded, globose, woody; 
seeds imbedded in pulp. Vern., Barna. (Fig. 18.) 

Cultivated, especially near tombs. Flowers : April-May. 




Generally herbs, with alternate, entire or pinnatisect leaves ; stipules 
or small and gland-like. Flowers small, mostly zygomorphic, in spikes 
or racemes, bracteate ; calyx persistent, 4-7-partite, lobes generally 
irregular, imbricate ; petals 2-7, hypogynous, entire or lobed, equal or the 
posterior larger, open in bud ; disk present or ; stamens 3-many, free 
or connate, equal or unequal ; ovary superior, of 2-6 connate carpels, 
1 -celled, often lobed at the top and open between the lobes which bear 
the sessile stigmas ; ovules numerous, on 2-6 parietal placentas. Fruit 
an open capsule, rarely fleshy. Seeds many, reniform, exalbuminous ; 
embryo curved or folded ; cotyledons incumbent. Genera 6, species about 
20, in Europe, Asia and Africa. 

Oligomeris Camb. 

Herbs with linear fascicled leaves. Flowers small, in spikes ; 
calyx 4-partite ; petals 2, free or 
connate ; disk ; stamens 3-8, free or 
monadelphous ; ovary 4-lobed, open at 
the top ; placentas 4 ; ovules many. 
Capsule subglobose, angled, 4-pointed. 

(X glaucescens Cambess. ; Fl. Brit. 
Ind.j /, p. 181. A much branched 
annual up to 18 in. high ; branches 
erect. Leaves 1-2 in. long, narrowly 
linear, glaucous ; stipules minute, subu- 
late. Spikes long, terminal. Flowers 
small, greenish- white ; petals 2, united, 
alternating with the posterior sepal. 
Capsule deeply 4-lobed, membranous, 
1/10-1/8 in. in diameter. Seeds minute, 
shining black, deeply notched. (Fig. 

Common in waste places. Flowers in the 
cold season. 

Reseda odor at a Linn., the Mignonette, is 
commonly grown in gardens as a winter 


Fig. 19, Oligomeria glaucescens, X f . 

Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, entire 
or pinnately divided, stipulate. Flowers arranged variously, regular 
or irregular, bisexual, rarely polygamous, sometimes cleistogamous ; 



sepals 5, persistent ; petals 5, equal or unequal, imbricate or contorted 
in bud ; stamens 5 ; filaments short, broad ; anthers free or connate, 
connective broad, produced beyond the cells ; ovary superior, sessile, 
1 -celled ; style simple ; ovules numerous, inserted on 3 parietal placentas. 
Fruit a 3-valved capsule, rarely fleshy. Seeds small, albuminous. 
Genera about 20, species nearly 250, in the temperate and tropical 

Viola Linn. 

Herbs, rarely woody 

Fig. 20, Viola Patrinii, X J. 

below. Flowers on 1- rarely 2 -flowered 
peduncles, often dimorphic, some with large 
petals and producing few seeds, others with 
small-petals or apetalous and very prolific ; 
sepals produced at the base ; petals erect or 
spreading, lower largest, spurred or saccate 
at the base ; style clavate or truncate, tip 
straight or oblique ; stigma obtuse, lobed or 
cupular. Capsule 3-valved. Seeds many, 
ovoid or globose. 

V. Patrinii DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 183. 
A glabrous or pubescent perennial herb 
with a short root-stock. Leaves all radical, 
petioled, triangular, usually narrowly elon- 
gate, 1J-3 in. long, coarsely crenate, base 
hastate or cordate ; petiole 2-4 in., some- 
times up to 8 in. in plants growing in dense 
grass, often winged ; stipules entire, adnate. 
Flowers lilac, 1/3-1/2 in., peduncles up to 7 
in. long ; spur saccate ; stigma 3-lobed. 
Capsule 1/4-1/2 in. ; valves narrow, acute. 
(Fig. 20.) 

In grassy places. Flowers in the cold season. 

V. tricolor Linn., the Pansy or the Heartsease, 
is commonly grown in gardens during winter. 


Herbs, erect or scandent shrubs, or rarely small trees. Leaves 
alternate, rarely whorled or opposite, simple, quite entire, exstipulate. 
Flowers irregular, bisexual, 3-bracteate ; sepals 5, imbricate, unequal, 
2 inner larger often petaloid, wing-like ; petals 5 or 3, unequal, the 
anterior usually keel-shaped ; stamens 8, rarely less, hypogynous ; fila- 
ments united into a sheath, rarely distinct ; anthers opening by terminal 



pores, rarely by slits ; ovary superior, generally 2-celled ; ovules solitary 
or more in each cell ; style commonly curved ; stigma capitate. Fruit 
generally a 2-celled, 2-seeded, loculicidal capsule. Seeds usually with 
a conspicuous strophiole, albuminous. Genera 16, species nearly 500, 
chiefly in warm countries. 

Polygala Linn. 

Herbs with alternate leaves. Sepals usually persistent ; 2 inner 
larger, usually petaloid ; petals 3, united at the base with the staminal 
sheath, the anterior keel-shaped and generally crested ; stamens 8 ; 
filaments united in their lower half ; anthers opening by pores ; ovary 
2-celled ; ovules solitary, pendulous. 

P. chinensis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., I, p. 204. A glabrous or pube- 
scent, erect or diffuse 
annual; branches 3-12 
in. long. Leaves ses- 
sile, 3/4-l| in. long, 
linear to oblong, ob- 
tuse, rather thick, 
coriaceous. Flowers 
yellow, crowded in 
short axillary racemes, 
1/5-1/4 in., outer 
sepals small, ovate ; 
wings oblique ; crest 
of keel small. Cap- 
sule orbicular-oblong, 
notched at the apex, 
pubescent, fringed 
along the margins, 
obscurely winged. 
Seeds silky; strophiole 
with 3 very short 
appendages . ( Fig .21.) 

Not very common. Flowers in the cold season. 


Herbs. Stem often with swollen nodes. Leaves opposite, simple; 
stipules or scarious. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, regular, 
solitary or in cymes ; sepals 4-5, free or connate, imbricate ; petals 4-5 
(absent in Sagina), free; stamens 8 or 10, rarely fewer, inserted with the 
petals ; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise ; ovary superior, sessile 

Fig. 21, Polygala chinensis, X 


or shortly stalked, 1 -celled or imperfectly 3-5-celled; placentation free 
central; ovules mostly numerous; styles 2-5, free or connate. Fruit 
a capsule opening by valves equal in number or double that of the styles, 
rarely indehiscent or opening irregularly. Seeds few or many, some- 
times with prominent funicles ; albumen mealy, rarely fleshy ; embryo 
more or less curved, surrounding the albumen. Genera 35, species newly 
800, cosmopolitan but chiefly in cold parts , many arctic or alpine. 

Key to the genera. 

Calyx gamosepalous ; petals clawed. 

Styles 2 . . . . 1. Saponaria. 

Styles 3 . . . . . . 2. Silene. 

Sepals free ; petals subsessile. 
Stipules 0. 

Petals present. 

Capsule cylindric . . . . 3. Cerastium. 

Capsule ovoid . . . . . . 4. Stellaria. 

Petals absent ; very small herb . . 5. Sagina. 

Stipules scarious . . . . 6. Spergula. 

1. Saponaria Linn. 

Herbs. Flowers in dichotomous cymes ; sepals 5, connate, tube 
cylindric in flower ; petals 5, clawed, limb entire or notched, with or 
without a basal scale ; stamens 10 ; ovary 1 -celled or imperfectly 
2-3-celled, on a short stalk ; styles 2, rarely 3 ; ovules many. Capsule 
ovoid or oblong, rarely subglobose, 4-toothed. Seeds reniform or sub- 
globose ; embryo annular. 

S* Vaccaria Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind. 9 /, p. 217. An erect annual, up 
to 2J ft. high. Leaves 1-3 by 1/3-3/4 in., connate at the base, lower oblong, 
upper oblong-lanceolate. Flowers erect ; pedicel about 1-1/2 in. long ; 
calyx 1/2 in., tubular in flower, with 5 broad green nerves, ventricose in 
fruit ; petals obovate, without basal scales, irregularly dentate at the 
margin, rosy. Capsule included, broadly ovoid. Seeds large, globose, 
deep brown or blackish, granulate. (Fig. 22.) 

Common in fields, etc. Flowers in the cold weather. Juice is said to be used 
as a substitute for soap. 

2. Silene Linn. 

Herbs. Flowers solitary or in cymes ; sepals 5, connate, tube 
more or less inflated, ovoid or tubular, 10-many -nerved ; petals 5, narrowly 
clawed ; limb entire, bifid or laciniate, usually with 2 basal scales ; 



stamens 10, 5 usually adnate to the petals ; ovary incompletely 3-celled, 
rarely 1-celled, mostly on a long gynophore ; styles 3, rarely 5 ; ovules 
numerous. Capsule 3-6-toothed or valved. Seeds reniform, usually 
tubercled ; embryo annular. 

S. conoidea Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 218. An erect ulaiiflular- 
pubescent annual, 6-18 in. high, dichotomously branching. Leaves 
connate at the base, 2-4 in. long, lowermost spathulate, upper oblong- 
to linear-lanceolate, acute. Calyx 1 in. long, inflated, ovoid in fruit, 
finely grooved, 30-ribbed ; teeth 1/3 of the length of the tube, linear- 
lanceolate ; petals pink, small, auricled at the base ; limb obovate, 
entire or toothed. Capsule sessile, ovoid, contracted above, crusta- 
ceous, shining. Seeds brown, cochleate, with 5-6 dorsal and as many 
lateral rows of tubercles. (Fig. 23.) 

Common in fields. Flowers : March-April. 

Fig. 22, Saponaria Vaccaria, X \ ; Pig. 23, Silene conoidea, X ; Fig. 24, Ceras- 
tium vulgatum, X J. 


3. Cerastium Linn. 

Pubescent, rarely glabrous, herbs, often glandular, annual or 
perennial. Leaves usually small. Flowers white, in terminal dichotomous 
cymes ; sepals 5, rarely 4, free ; petals as many, rarely 0, notched or 
bifid, rarely quite entire or more cut ; stamens 10, rarely 5 or fewer, 
hypogynous ; ovary 1 -celled; styles usually 3-5 ; ovules many. Capsule 
cylindric, often curved, with twice as many teeth as styles. Seeds 
compressed, not arillate ; embryo annular. 

C, vulgatum Linn. ; Fl. Brit.Ind., I, p. 228. An erect hairy annual, 
glandular above, simple or branched, 612 in. high. Lower leaves 
spathulate, upper oblong-ovate or lanceolate, obtuse. Cymes at first 
sub-umbellate; pedicels 1/10 in. long, in fruit shorter than the sepals; 
sepals acute, very hairy ; petals sometimes ; stamens 10, rarely 5. 
Capsule nearly double the length of the calyx, 3/10 in. long, cylindrical, 
slightly curved, teeth very small. Seeds minute, brown, finely tuber- 
culate. (Fig. 24.) 

In cultivated places. Not very common. Flowers about March. 

4. Stcllaria Linn. 

Usually slender herbs. Flowers in dichotomous cymes, white ; 
sepals free ; petals 5, rarely 4 3 bifid or bipartite, or ; stamens 10, rarely 
8 or fewer, hypogynous or perigynous ; ovary 1 -celled, rarely 3 - celled ; 
styles mostly 3, ovules many, rarely few. Capsule short, splitting to 
below the middle or to the base into as many entire or bifid valves as 
there are styles. Seeds compressed ; embryo annular. 

S. media Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 230. A decumbent much 
branched annual, stems 6 in. to 2 ft. long, glabrous except for a line of 
hairs on either side, flaccid, green. Leaves entire, 1/2 to 1-1/2 in. by 3/4 
in. ; lower petioled, ovate- cordate, acuminate ; upper sessile, ovate, oblong 
or lanceolate. Flowers 1/4-1/3 in. in diameter, in axillary and terminal 
cymes ; pedicel slender, glabrous or glandular-pubescent, 1 in. long ; sepals 
free to the base, elliptic-oblong, obtuse or sub- acute, glandular hairy or 
covered with minute points ; petals shorter than the sepals or ; stamens 
5-10 ; styles 3. Capsule ovoid, longer than the sepals. Seeds brown, 
flat, reniform, acutely tubercled. (Fig. 25.) 

An extremely common weed. Flowers in the cold season. 

5. S agin a Linn. 

Small annual or perennial herbs. Leaves subulate, connate at 
the base ; stipules 0. Flowers solitary, axillary and terminal, pedi- 



Fig. 25, Stellaria media, x ; Fig. 26, Sagina apetala, (a) a plant, xf , (6) fruit, 
X 3 ; Fig. 27, Spergula pentandra, X J ; Fig. 28, Spergula rubra, x . 

celled ; sepals 4-5, free ; petals 4-5, entire, or ; stamens 4, 5, 8 or 10, 
perigynous ; ovary 1 -celled ; styles 4-5 ; ovules numerous. Capsule 
4-5-valved to the base ; valves opposite to the sepals. Seeds reniform. 

S, apetala Linn. (Not included in Fl. Brit. Ind.). A slender 
wiry annual tufted herb ; branches ascending, 4-10 in. long. Leaves 
1/10-1/4 in., subulate, connate at the base. Flowers 1/12 in. in diameter, 
green, usually 4-merous ; pedicels capillary ; petals 0. Seeds minute. 
(Fig. 26.) 

Introduced. Very common in flower-beds, grass plots and even in flower- 
pots. Flowers in the cold season. 


6. Spergula Linn. 

Annual or perennial herbs, with forked or fascicled branches. 
Leaves opposite, often with leafy buds in their axils, hence the foliage 
commonly appears to be whorled ; stipules small, scarious. Flowers 
on peduncled panicled cymes ; sepals 5, free ; petals 5, entire ; stamens 
5 or 10, rarely fewer, inserted on a perigynous disk ; ovary 1 -celled ; 
styles 3 or 5 ; ovules many. Capsule with 3 or 5 entire valves. Seeds 
compressed, margined or winged. 

Key to the species. 

Leaves apparently whoried. 

Seeds granulate, with a narrow wing . . 1, S. arvensis. 

Seeds smooth ; wing often as broad as the seed 2. S. pentandra. 

Leaves opposite, not apparently whorled . . 3. S. rubra. 

1. S 4 arvensis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 243. A green 
sparingly pubescent annual herb, branching from the base ; branches 
1/2-1^ ft. long. Leaves 1/2 to 2 in. long, in false whorls, linear-subulate, 
spreading, half- terete, grooved beneath, rather fleshy. Flowers 1/6-1/4 in 
in diameter, in sub-umbellate cymes ; sepals ovate, obtuse ; petals obtuse^ 
white ; styles 5 or 3. Seeds keeled or narrowly winged, granulate or 
papillose, black. 

In cultivated places. Flowers in the cold season. 

2. S, pentandra Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., I, p. 243. A glabrous 
prostrate or ascending annual, branched from the root ; branches 6-18 in. 
long. Leaves 1/2 to 2 in. long, in apparent whorls, linear-subulate, half- 
terete, rather fleshy. Sepals ovate, obtuse, petals ovate to oblong, 
acute, often faintly dentate at the apex, shorter than the sepals, white. 
Seeds black, smooth, winged, 1-1 mm. in diameter with the wing ; wing 
broad, with radial striations. (Fig. 27.) 

Very common in cultivated places. Flowers during the cold season. 

3. S, rubra Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 244. A sub-erect or prostrate 
gland-pubescent annual herb. Branches up to 9 in. long. Leaves 
simply opposite, 1/2 to 1-1/2 in. long, flat, linear, fleshy, 1-nerved; stipules 
broad, silvery. Flowers 1/4 to 1/3 in. across ; sepals lanceolate, with 
scarious margins ; petals oblong, white ; stamens 5 or 10, often 2 or 3, 
some or all rudimentary. Seeds not winged, more or less flat, ovate, 
brown to black, rough. (Fig. 28.) 

Common in cultivated places. Flowers during the cold season. 




Herbs with opposite or alternate, entire leaves ; often succulent ; 
nodes generally with scarious or hairy stipular appendages. Flowers 
bisexual, regular ; sepals 2, imbricate, free or connate at the base ; petals 
4-5, hypogynous or perigynous, free or united at the base, fugacious ; 
stamens 4-many, inserted with or upon the petals ; filaments slender ; 
anthers 2-celled ; ovary superior or half- inferior, 1 -celled ; ovules 2-many, 
on a basal placenta ; style 2-8-fid. Capsule dehiscing transversely or 
by 2-3 valves. Seeds 1-many, globose-reniform ; embryo curved, 
surrounding the mealy albumin. Genera about 17, species about 225, 
mainly American. 

Portulaca Linn. 

Diffuse, usually succulent, annual or perennial herbs. Leaves 
with scaly or hairy stipular appendages at the 
nodes. Flowers terminal, surrounded by a 
whorl of leaves, solitary or clustered ; sepals 
connate below, the free part deciduous ; petals 
46, perigynous ; ovary half-inferior ; ovules 
many ; style 3-8-fid. Capsule crustaceous, 
dehiscing transversely. Seeds many, reniform. 

Key to the species. 
Leaves generally more than 

1/2 in. long ; petals 5 . . 1. P. oleracea. 
Leaves less than 1/2 in. long ; 

petals 4 . . 2. P. quadrifida- 

1. P. oleracea Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., /, p. 
246. A stout succulent glabrous annual, with 
prostrate or ascending branches 6-12 in. long. 
Leaves alternate or sub-opposite, clustered at 
the ends of the branches, 1/4-1 in. long, very 
shortly stalked, thick, cuneate-oblong or spathu- 
late, truncate or retuse at the apex ; stipular 
appendages minute or 0. Flowers sessile, in 
terminal clusters ; sepals persistent, fleshy, 
acute ; petals 5, bright yellow ; stamens 8-12 ; 
style 3-5-fid. Seeds minute, many, dark- 
brown, tubercled-punctate. Vern., Kulfa, Salu- 
nak, Lunak. (Fig. 29.) 

A very common weed, flowering through the greater 
part of the year. Flowers open during noon. Used as 
a pot-herb, particularly the variety mentioned below. 

Var. erecta ; branches erect, leaves spathulate -linear, bright green. Cultivated. 

Fig. 29, Portulaca 
racea, x f ; Fig. 30, 
ulaca quadrifida, X f . 


2. P. quadrifida Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 247. A glabrous 
annual, with numerous prostrate slender branches rooting at the nodes 
up to 8 in. long. Leaves opposite, 1/4-2/5 in. long, shortly stalked, ovate, 
oblong or lanceolate, fleshy ; stipular appendages copious, of long white 
hairs. Flowers solitary, terminal ; calyx-tube 1/2-immersed in the extre- 
mity of the axis, surrounded by a 4-leaved involucre and long silky hairs ; 
petals 4, yellow ; stamens about 8 ; style 4-fid to the middle. Seeds 
dark-brown, minutely tubercled. (Fig. 30.) 

A common weed. In dry places the nodal hairs become long and shaggy and 
the whole plant becomes stunted. 


Shrubs or small trees with alternate, minute, usually scale-like, 
exstipulate leaves. Flowers in spikes or racemes, regular, bisexual 
or unisexual ; sepals and petals each 5, rarely 4 or 6, imbricate, free ; 
stamens 5-10, inserted on the disk, free or connate below ; anthers 
2-celled, opening lengthwise, versatile ; ovary superior, 1-celled or im- 
perfectly septate ; styles 2-5, free or united below ; stigmas 2-5 ; ovules 
many, ascending, on basal placentas. Fruit a capsule opening generally 
by 3 valves. Seeds erect, plumed or winged ; endosperm present or 
; embryo flat. Genera 5, species about 100, in temperate and sub- 
tropical countries. 

Tamarix Linn. 

Shrubs or small trees. Leaves minute, scale-like. Flowers in 
lateral or terminal spikes or dense racemes, white or pink ; stamens 4, 
5, 8 or 10 (5 in the following species) ; anthers apiculate ; disk more 
or less lobed ; styles 3-4, short, dilated into the stigmas. Seeds plumed 
at the apex, exalbuminous. 

Key to the species. 

Dioecious shrub ; flowers in dense spikes . . 1. T. dioica. 

Hoary tree ; flowers polygamous, scattered along 

slender spikes , . . . . . 2. T. articulata. 

1. T. dioica Roxb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 249. A shrub or a small 
tree, with long spreading or drooping branches. Leaves with a tubular 
sheath, closely adpressed acuminute apex and broad white margins. 
Flowers dioecious, purple or pink, in compact cylindrical loosely panicled 



spikes ; bracts triangular, acuminate, nearly as long as the flowers ; 

stamens in the male 

flowers 5, inserted in 

the notches of the 

5-lobed disk, abortive 

in the female flowers, 

forming hastate stami- 

nodes ; styles as long 

as the ovary. Vern., 

Pilchi. (Fig. 31.) 

Common on the river- 
side. Flowers in the rainy 
season. Branches used 
for making brooms and 
baskets. Insect galls in 
the form of swellings of 
various parts of the shoot 
are extremely common on 
this plant. 

2. T. articulata Vahl ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 249. A middle-sized 
tree with articulated branches. Leaves sheathing, the free portion 
consisting of a minute triangular tooth, impressed-punctate and often 
hoary with saline efflorescence. Flowers pink, monoecious or bisexual, 
scattered on long slender spikes arranged in terminal loose panicles ; 
bracts sheathing, shorter than the flowers ; stamens 5, inserted in the 
alternate notches of the 10-lobed disk ; styles half as long as the ovary. 
Vern., Farash, Pharwan. 

Very common. Flowers in the rainy season. Insect galls are found on this 
tree also, but not in such large numbers as in the above. 

T. gallica Linn., a shrub or a small tree, with non-sheathing leaves and long 
slender spikes of bisexual white or pink flowers arranged in large terminal panicles 
may be met with within the area. The flowers have 5 stamens. 

Fig. 31, Taniarix dioica, (a) branch with flowering 
spikes, X , (b) portion of a twig, X 2. 


Marshy or terrestrial herbs or undershrubs. Leaves opposite or 
whorled, entire or serrate, stipulate. Flowers small, axillary, solitary 
or cymose, bisexual, regular ; sepals and petals each 2-5, free, imbricate 
in bud ; stamens as many or twice as many as the sepals, hypogynous, 
free ; anthers versatile ; ovary superior, 2-5-celled ; placentation axile ; 
ovules many ; styles 2-5 ; stigmas capitate. Fruit a septicidal capsule. 
Seeds straight or curved, exalbuminous ; cotyledons small. Genera 
2, species about 30, in tropical and temperate parts of the world. 



Bergia Linn. 

Erect, decumbent or diffusely branched annual herbs or under- 
shrubs. Leaves opposite, serrate or quite entire. Flowers solitary 
or in more or less dense axillary clusters, minute, usually 5-merous ; 
sepals with a herbaceous midrib and more or less membranous margins, 
acute ; stamens 3-6 or 10 ; ovary ovoid. Capsule sub-crustaceous. 

Key to the species. 

A small shrub 

A small semi-aquatic herb 

1. B. aestivosa. 

2. B. ammanioides. 

1. B. aestivosa W . & A. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 251. A small glabrous 
much branched shrub ; branches long slender, divaricate. Leaves 
narrowly obovate or oblong, linear on the flowering branches, faintly 
serrate ; lower 1/2 in. or more in length ; stipules long, 
setaceous. Flowers solitary or 2-4 together, pink ; 
sepals lanceolate, acute, denticulate, with membranous 

Rare within the area. 

2. B. ammanioides Roxb.\ Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 251. 
An annual herb, up to a foot high, the lower branches 
decumbent, thinly hispid. Leaves 1/2-3/4 in. long, 
sessile, oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, sharply serrate, 
acute. Flowers small, in dense, sub-verticillate, more or 
less globose clusters of a reddish colour, sessile or nearly 
so ; sepals 4-5, lanceolate, denticulate ; petals and 
stamens 4-5; ovary oblong, deeply grooved. Capsule 
4-5-celled ; valves with incurved edges, separating from 
a central axis. Seeds minute, yellowish, smooth, oblong, 
slightly curved. (Fig. 32.) 

Fig. 32, Bergia 



Common in moist places. Flowers in summer. 


Herbs, shrubs or rarely soft-wooded trees, usually mucilaginous 
in all parts ; young parts generally more or less densely covered with 
stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, stipulate, simple, lobed or rarely 
compound, mostly palmately veined. Flowers axillary or terminal, 
solitary, fascicled or cymoso-panicled, regular, hermaphrodite or rarely 
unisexual ; bracteoles 3 or more, often forming an epicalyx ; sepals 5, 
^valvate, free or connate ; petals 5, twisted ; stamens many, rarely definite, 
adnate to the base of the petals, monadelphous ; anthers oblong or 


reniform, ultimately 1 -celled, opening lengthwise ; pollen globose, muri- 
cate ; ovary superior, 2-many-celled, entire or lobed ; styles connate 
below or throughout their length ; ovules 1, 2 or many in each cell, 
attached to the inner angle. Fruit dry, breaking into 1- or more-seeded 
cocci, or a loculicidal capsule. Seeds reniform or ovoid, glabrous, 
hairy, silky or woolly, albuminous or not ; embryo curved ; cotyledons 
leafy, usually folded or crumpled. Genera about 60, species about 100, 
mostly in hot countries. 

Key to the genera. 

Ripe carpels separating from the axis. 
Styles as many as the carpels. 
Carpels 1- seeded. 

Bracteoles 6-9 . . . . 1. Althaea. 

Bracteoles 3. 

Stigmas linear . . . . 2. Malva. 

Stigmas capitate . . . . 3. Malvastrum. 

Bracteoles . . . . 4. Sida. 

Carpels 2- or more-seeded . . 5. Abutilon. 

Styles twice as many as carpels . . 6. Urena. 

Fruit capsular. 

Stigmas spreading ; bracteoles 7-10 . . 7. Hibiscus. 

Stigmas connate ; bracteoles 3 . . . . 8. Qossypium. 

1. Althaea Linn. 

Erect or prostrate, pubescent or villous herbs, with generally more 
or less deeply divided leaves. Flowers peduncled, axillary, solitary 
or clustered, or sometimes in long terminal racemes ; bracteoles 6-9, 
connate at the base ; ovary many- celled ; styles as many as the cells, 
filiform, stigmatose on the inner surface ; ovule solitary in each cell. 
Fruiting carpels many, ultimately separating from a short torus, 1 -seeded. 
Seed ascending. 

A* Ludwigii DC. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., I, p. 319. Prostrate or ascending, 
hispid annual ; branches 6-12 in. long. Leaves long-petioled, orbicular, 
deeply 5-7 -lobed; lobes cuneate, 3-fid. Flowers shortly peduncled, 
in small axillary clusters, whitish, 1/2-3/4 in. in diameter. Carpels 
wrinkled at the sides, glabrous. 

Ravi-side, in open ground. Flowers during winter. 

A. rosea Linn., the Holly-hock, is commonly cultivated in gardens as a 
winter annual. 



Fig. 33, Malva parviflora, (a) a twig, X , (b) fruit, X 1 ; Fig. 34, Malvastrum 
tricuspidatum, (a) a twig, X , (6) fruit, x 1 ; Fig. 35, Sida spinosa, X i ; Fig. 36, Sida 
cordifolia, (a) a twig with flower, x f , (6) fruit, x 1 ; Fig. 37, Abutilon indicum, X ; 
Fig. 38, Urena lobata, (a) portion of a twig showing a leaf and cluster of flowers, X J, 
(6) fruit., x 2. 


2. Malva 

Downy herbs. Leaves lobed. Flowers in axillary tufts ; brac- 
teoles 3, free ; sepals 5, connate at the base ; petals emarginate, connate 
just at the base ; staminal-tube without sterile teeth, bearing anthers 
to the top ; ovary many- celled ; styles as many as the cells ; stigmas 
linear ; ovule solitary in each cell. Ripe carpels 1-seeded, indehiscent, 
separating from a short conical torus. Seeds solitary, ascending. 

M, parviflora Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., I, p. 321. A small spreading 
herb, sparsely stellately hairy. Leaves reniform, 5-7 -lobed, lobes 
dentate ; petiole up to 4 in. long. Pedicels up to 1/2 in. long, spreading 
after flowering ; bracteoles linear ; sepals accrescent ; petals white, 
notched, nearly as long as the sepals ; claw glabrous. Carpels wrinkled, 
reticulate on the back. (Fig. 33.) 

Very common. Flowers in the cold season. 

3. Malvastrum A. Gray. 

Herbs or undershrubs. Leaves entire or divided. Flowers in 
axillary or terminal inflorescences ; bracteoles 3, narrow ; calyx 5-parted ; 
petals longer than the sepals ; staminal-tube without any sterile teeth 
at the summit and bearing anthers to the top ; ovary 5- or more -celled ; 
styles as many as the carpels ; stigmas capitate. Ripe carpels separating 
from a short torus, indehiscent, 1-seeded, beaked or not. Seeds 

M. tricuspidatum A. Gray. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 321. An erect 
branched herb or undershrub, 2-3 ft. tall. Most parts with coarse stel- 
late or simple hairs. Leaves up to 2-1/2 in. long, ovate to oblong-lanceo- 
late, coarsely toothed, 3-5 -nerved at the base ; nerves prominent only 
below; petiole up to 1-1/4 in., usually less. Peduncles 1/4-1/2 in. long ; 
calyx campanulate, segments triangular, acute ; corolla 1/2 in. across, 
yellow ; petals oblique, obcordate. Carpels 8-13, reniform, hispid on 
the top and with 3 projecting points. (Fig. 34.) 

An introduced American plant. Very common in cultivated places. Flowers 
nearly all the year round. 

4. Sida Linn. 

Perennial herbs or undershrubs. Leaves simple or lobed. Bract- 
eoles ; sepals 5, valvate, tubular below ; petals 5, free above, connate 
below and adnate to the tube of the stamens ; staminal-tube divided 
at the summit into numerous anther- bearing filaments ; carpels 5-10 ; 
styles as many as the carpels ; stigmas terminal. Ripe carpels separating, 


1 -seeded, generally 2-awned at the summit and dehiscing irregularly or 
by a small chink. Seeds pendulous or horizontal. 

Key to the species. 

Branches and petioles covered with stellate hairs ; 

under-surface of leaves whitish-grey . . 1. 8. spinosa. 

Branches and petioles covered with long spreading 

hairs ; under-surface of leaves green . . 2. 8. cordifolia. 

1. S. spinosa Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 323. A sub-erect branched 
shrub. Stem covered with minute grey stellate pubescence. Leaves 
1/2 to 1 in. long, very variable, ovate or obovate, cordate or cuneate at 
the base, crenate-serrate, green and finely and thinly stellate-pubescent 
above, densely stellate-pubescent and whitish-grey below, 3-nerved ; 
petiole 1/3 to 1/4 in. long. Peduncles solitary or clustered, jointed below 
the middle, 1/5 in. or less. Calyx stellately hairy, 10-angled, lobes trian- 
gular, acute or acuminate ; corolla pale-yellow. Ripe carpels 5 or 
fewer, membranous, equalling the calyx ; awns about half as long as the 
carpels. (Fig. 35.) 

Common in the mulberry plantation on the river-side. Flowers nearly all the 
year round. 

2. S. cordifolia Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 324. A small erect 
shrub. Branches covered with long spreading hairs. Leaves 1 to 2 in. 
long, broadly ovate, cordate, acute, thin, membranous, sparsely or densely 
covered with stellate hairs with or without long simple ones, crenate- 
serrate, green on both surfaces,. 5-7 -nerved at the base ; petiole shorter 
than the blade, covered with long spreading hairs. Peduncles 1/2 to 1-1/2 
in. long, solitary or a few together, jointed usually a little above the middle. 
Calyx 10-angled, hairy, lobes triangular, acute ; corolla yellow, slightly 
exceeding the calyx. Ripe carpels hairy on the back ; awns variable, 
usually long and two to each carpel (sometimes 1), covered with stiff 
hairs. (Fig. 36.) 

Common in the mulberry plantation on the river-side and other places. Flowers 
nearly all the year round. 

5. Abutilon Gaertn. 

Tomentose herbs or shrubs. Leaves ovate, cordate, toothed,]angled or 
palmately-lobed, long-petioled. Peduncles axillary, solitary, usually 
1 -flowered ; bracteoles 0; calyx of 5 valvate sepals, tubular below; 
corolla of 5 petals, free above, connate below and adnate to the tube 
of the stamens ; staminal-tube divided at the summit into numerous 
anther-bearing filaments ; carpels 5-25 ; styles as many as the carpels. 


Ripe carpels separating from the axis, dehiscent, awned or not, 2-5- 
seeded. Seeds reniform. 

Key to the species. 

Ripe carpels 1/3 to 1/2 in. long . . 1. A. indicum. 

Ripe carpels 1/4 to 1/3 in. long . . 2. A. bidentatum. 

1. A* indicum G. Don. ; FL Brit. Ind., I, p. 326. An erect branched 
shrub ; branches with spreading hairs. Leaves up to 31/2 by 3 in., broadly 
ovate, cordate, acuminate, irregularly and coarsely toothed, rarely 
sub-3-lobed, pale and densely stellate-pubescent on both sides, 7-9- 
nerved at the base ; petiole 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in. long ; stipules linear, deflexed. 
Peduncles about as long as the petiole or longer, jointed near the top ; 
sepals 1/3 to 1/2 in. long, ovate, apiculate ; corolla 1 in. in diameter, 
yellow; staminal-tube stellately hairy at the base ; carpels 15-20, sometimes 
more, longer than the calyx, with short spreading awns, densely stellately 
tomentose. Seeds reniform, minutely stellately hairy. (Fig. 37.) 

Common in the mulberry plantation on the river-side arid elsewhere. 

2. A, bidentatum Hochst. ; FL Brit. Ind., /, p. 326. Erect, bran- 
ched. Stem green. Leaves ovate, cordate, 1-1/2 to 3 in. by 2 in., downy 
on both surfaces, crenate ; petiole 2-1/2 in. or more ; stipules short, linear. 
Peduncle shorter than the petiole, jointed near the top. Carpels 1/4 to 
1 /3 in . long , awns spreading. Seeds reniform , minutely stellate-pubescent . 

Very similar to the above, but has shorter carpels and stems green up to the 
base. According to Parker, the carpels dehisce before breaking away from the 
central axis, while in A. indicum the carpels dehisce after breaking away from the 
central axis. 

6. Urena Linn. 

Herbs or undershrubs, more or less covered with rigid stellate hairs. 
Leaves angled or lobed. Flowers clustered ; bracteoles 5, adnate to the 
5-cleft calyx, sometimes coherent at the base into a cup ; petals 5, often 
tomentose at the back, free above, connate below and united to the 
base of the tube of stamens ; staminal-tube truncate or minutely toothed ; 
anthers nearly sessile ; ovary 5-celled ; cells 1-ovuled, opposite to the 
petals ; styles twice as many as the cells ; stigmas capitate. Ripe carpels 
covered with hooked bristles or smooth, indehiscent, separating from 
the axis when ripe. Seeds ascending ; cotyledons bent and folded. 

U, lobata Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., I, p. 329. A tall erect herb or under - 
shrub. Stem and branches densely covered with stellate hairs. Leaves 
stalked, rounded or ovate, usually broader than long, up to 3 in. by 4 in., 
3-10-lobed ; lobes small, sometimes obsolete, distantly serrate, softly 
stellately hairy on both sides ; upper surface green ; lower whitish - 
grey ; base 5-7 -nerved, nerves prominent beneath, the central one or 


the middle three with elliptic glandular pores ; petiole 1/2 to 6 in. long ; 
stipules minute, linear. Flowers clustered, sub-sessile ; bracteoles united 
at the base into a cup, oblong or lanceolate, adnate to the calyx, clothed 
with rigid hairs ; corolla 1/2 to 1 in. across, bright pink with a dark 
centre. Carpels rounded at the back, densely stellately hairy and with 
numerous hooked spines ; hooks usually 4-5 to each spine. (Fig. 38.) 
Flowers in the rainy and early part of the cold seasons. Fairly common. 

7. Hibiscus Linn. 

Herbs or shrubs. Leaves stipulate, more or less palmate iy lobed. 
Inflorescence axillary ; bracteoles 5 or more, rarely fewer or 0, free or 
connate at the base ; calyx 5-toothed or 5-fid, sometimes spathaceous 
and circumciss ; petals 5, connate at the base with the staminal-tube ; 
staminal-tube truncate or 5-toothed at the summit ; filaments many ; 
anthers reniform ; ovary generally 5 -celled ; cells opposite the sepals, 
each with 3 -many ovules ; styles 5, connate below ; stigmas capitate 
or sub-spathulate. Capsule loculicidally 5-valved, sometimes with false 
septa forming a spuriously 10- celled fruit. Seeds glabrous, hairy or 

Key to the species. 

Calyx 5-cleft . . . . 1. H. cannabinus. 

Calyx elongate, spathaceous, circumciss . . 2. H. esculentus. 

1. H, cannabinus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., /, p. 339. A tall annual 
or perennial prickly herb. Stem glabrous. Lower leaves cordate, 
entire ; upper deeply pahnately lobed ; lobes narrow, linear-oblong, 
serrate ; middle nerve glandular beneath ; petiole prickly, in the lower 
leaves longer than the blade ; stipules linear or subulate. Peduncles 
axillary, very short ; bracteoles 7-10, linear, shorter than and not adnate 
to the calyx ; sepals bristly, lanceolate, connate below the middle, with 
a gland at the back of each ; corolla large, spreading, yellow, with a 
crimson centre. Capsule globose, pointed, bristly. Seeds nearly 
glabrous. Vern., Sankukra or Sanukra. 

The stem furnishes fibre which is used for making ropes, etc. Flowers in the 
rainy season. 

2. H. esculentus Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., /, p. 343. An annual 
herb, rough with hairs but not prickly. Leaves cordate, 3-5-lobed, lobes 
coarsely toothed, scabrous ; petiole about as long as the blade, more or 
less bristly ; stipules subulate, often 2 or more on one or both sides of 
the leaf. Peduncle shorter than the petiole ; bracteoles 8-10, linear- 
subulate, equalling the calyx, deciduous ; calyx elongate, spathaceous, 
splitting along one side ; corolla large, yellow with a crimson centre. 


Capsule 6-10 in. long, pyramidal-oblong, acute, smooth or hairy. Seeds 
numerous, round, striate, smooth or hairy. Vern., Bhindi. 

Cultivated for the sake of the unripe capsules which are used as a vegetable. 

8. Gossypium Linn. 

Herbs, shrubs or small trees. Leaves palmately lobed. Peduncles 
axillary, 1 -flowered, jointed. Flowers large, yellow, with or rarely 
without a crimson centre, or wholly purplish ; bracteoles 3, large, leafy, 
cordate, sprinkled like the calyx with black glandular dots ; calyx cup- 
shaped, truncate or slightly 5-toothed ; petals convolute or spreading ; 
staminal-tube truncate or 5-toothed at the summit ; filaments many ; 
anthers reniform ; ovary 3-5-celled ; style clavate, 3-5-grooved ; stigmaa 
3-5 ; ovules many in each cell. Capsule loculicidally 3-5-valved. Seeds 
densely clothed with woolly hairs ; cotyledons leafy, plicate, sprinkled 
with black dots. 

The classification of the cottons is very difficult owing to their having been 
cultivated from very ancient times, their great variability due to hybridization 
and other causes like soil, climate, etc. Different writers have adopted different 
systems and a great deal has been written on the subject. It is impossible to enter 
into details in this book. The student who wants more information should refer 
to larger books on the subject. It is believed that nearly all the commercial cottons 
of India are hybrids. The following three species are described as occurring within 
this part of the country to give some idea of their characters and the characters 
of the hybrids. The descriptions are taken from Duthie's * Flora of the Upper 
Gangetic Plain.' 

1. G. arboreum Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind.> /, p. 347. Arborescent. 
Leaves 5-7-lobed, with an extra tooth in the left-side sinus (or on both 
sides) of the central lobe, sub-glabrous ; lobes bristle-tipped. Inflore- 
scence axillary, usually 1 -flowered. Flowers small, reddish-purple ; 
bracteoles with rounded ears at the base, toothed or sub-entire at the apex. 
Ovary rounded. Seeds with greyish- black velvet under the floss. 

2. G. neglectum Todaro ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 346, under 0. 
herbaceum (in part). Sub-herbaceous. Leaves 3-5-7-lobed, extra tooth in 
sinus less distinct than in 0. arboreum ; lobes narrowly lanceolate, rarely 
bristle-tipped, densely clothed with long spreading hairs ; and if hybri- 
dized with O. Wightianum, with stellate hairs as well. Inflorescence 
on short lateral branches, 2-4-flowered. Flowers yellow with a purple 
centre or yellow tinged with purple ; bracteoles large, with greatly 
elongated lateral ears, toothed at the apex ; ovary pointed. Seeds with 
green velvet below the floss. 

3. G, Wightianum Todaro ; Fl. Brit. Ind., I, p. 346, under O. 
herbaceum (in part). Stems erect, somewhat hairy. Leaves when 


young densely matted with short stellate hairs, which fall off in patches, 
leaving a few scattered all over both surfaces, ovate-rotund, almost 
obsoletely cordate, 3-5-, rarely 7-, lobed ; lobes ovate-oblong, acute, 
constricted at the base into the rounded sinus which in the young leaves 
rises up as a fold ; stipules on the peduncles almost ovate, the others 
linear- lanceolate, acuminate. Flowers yellow with a deep purple patch 
at the base, becoming reddish on the outside on passing maturity ; 
bracteoles small, ovate, cordate, acute, shortly toothed. Seeds with 
very short firmly-adhering velvet ; wool white or tinged with red. 

The cottons cultivated in the neighbourhood of Lahore may be divided into 
two groups, Desi kapcw and Narma. 

Desi kapas. Long simple and stellate hairs variously mixed ; lobes of the 
leaf going half-way down or more, broadly ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 
usually with an extra tooth on one or each side of the middle lobe ; the middle 
one, or the 2 or 3 central veins with a gland on the under surface, though the gland 
is absent in rare cases. Bracteoles cordate, with rounded basal auricles, and 
slightly toothed or sub-entire towards the apex. Seeds greyish-black under the 
cotton. The characters are intermediate between those of O. arboreum and G. 
Wighiianum. Flowers reddish-purple (usually with glands on the veins), yellow 
with a purple centre, light yellow with a purple centre, yellowish -white with a purple 

Narmas. Long simple and stellate hairs ; leaf-lobes going less than half-way 
down, broad, more or less triangular, without any extra tooth in the sinus, usually 
acuminate ; central vein usually with a gland on the under surface ; bracteoles 
cordate, with rounded basal auricles, deeply laciniate almost along the whole margin 
with linear-lanceolate teeth ; seeds greenish beneath the cotton. The narmas 
thus possess the characters of O. arboreum or G. neglectum and G. Wightianum. 
Flowers reddish -purple. Cotton brownish (khaki narma) or white (safed narma). 

For more information consult * The Wild and Cultivated Cotton Plants of the 
World ' by Watt. 

Kydia calycina Roxb., a small deciduous tree with simple leaves, panicles of 
white flowers and the staminal-tube divided into 5 branches is cultivated in gardens. 

Bombaz malabaricum DC., the silk -cotton tree. A tall deciduous tree ; stem 
covered with prickles which disappear with age ; leaves digitately 5-7-foliolate ; 
flowers large, crimson ; stamens arranged in 5 bundles. Vern., Simal, Simbal. 

Common in gardens. Flowers during spring. Flower-buds are eaten and the 
cotton outside the seeds is used for stuffing pillows, etc. 


Trees, shrubs or herbs. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple 
or lobed ; stipules free, often caducous. Flowers regular, bi- or uni- 
sexual, usually arranged in cymes ; sepals 3-5, free or connate, valvate ; 
petals as many as the sepals, rarely absent, imbricate or valvate ; stamens 
numerous, rarely definite, usually springing from a prolonged or dilated 
torus, free or sometimes 5-adelphous ; anthers 2-celled ; ovary superior, 
2-10-celled ; style columnar or divided into as many parts as there are 


cells of the ovary ; stigmas usually distinct, rarely confluent or sessile ; 
ovules attached to the inner angle of the cells, pendulous or ascending 
if few, or in two or more ranks if numerous. Fruit dry or fleshy, dehi- 
scent or indehiscent, 2-10- or by abortion 1 -celled, cells sometimes divided 
by false septa. Seeds 1 to many ; albumen fleshy or wanting. Genera 
about 35, species about 375, most abundant in warmer parts of the world. 

Corchorus Linn. 

Herbs or undershrubs, more or less covered with stellate hairs. 
Leaves simple. Peduncles axillary or leaf-opposed, 1-5-flowered. 
Flowers small, yellow ; sepals 4-5, without any glands ; stamens many 
or definite, springing from a short torus ; ovary 2-5-celled ; style short ; 
stigma cup-shaped ; ovules many. Capsule elongated or sub-globose, 
smooth or prickly, loculicidally 2-5-valved, sometimes with transverse 
partitions. Seeds many, albuminous, pendulous or horizontal. 

Key to the species. 

Capsule sub-globose . . . . 1. C. capsularis. 

Capsule cylindrical. 

Beak of capsule entire and erect. 
Erect herbs. 

Stamens many, capsule long. 

Capsule glabrous, beak long . . 2. C. olitorius. 
Capsule scabrous or hispid, beak short 3. C. trilocularis. 

Stamens 5-10 ; capsule short . . . . 4. C '. fascicularis . 

A prostrate undershrub . . . . 5. C. antichorus. 

Beak of capsule 3-fid, tips spreading. 

Capsule long, slender, without wings . . 6. C. tridens. 

Capsule short, stout, winged . . . . 7. C. acutangulus. 

1. C* capsularis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 397. An erect 
glabrous annual. Leaves 2-4 in. long, ovate -lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, 
rounded at the base, the two lowest serratures produced into filiform 
deflexed tails ; petiole 1-1/2 in. long ; stipules filiform, as a long as the 
petiole. Flowers less than 1/2 in. across, shortly stalked. Capsule sub- 
globose, depressed at the apex, 1/2 in. in diameter, ridged and muricate, 
5-celled ; valves woody, without transverse partitions. Seeds few in 
each cell, wedge-shaped, smooth, brown, Jute. 

Recorded from Lahore but not seen recently within this area. Yields the 
well-known fibre. 



2. C. olitorlus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., I, p. 397. Annual or perennial. 
In other respects similar to the preceding, but capsule elongated, 3-6- 
valved and valves with transverse partitions between the seeds. 

Also yields jute. Specimens have been collected from Panjab by Thomson, 
Edgeworth, Stewart, and Aitchison. 

3. C. trilocularis Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., I, p. 397. An erect annual 
herb up to 4 ft. high. Stem thinly downy. Leaves 1-4 in. long, ovate, 

ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceo- 
late, crenate- serrate, the two 
lowest serrations produced into 
long hair-like processes or not, 
thinly hairy ; petiole 3/10 to 2/5 
in., pilose ; stipules long, setac- 
eous, up to 2/5 in., shorter than 
the petiole. Peduncles leaf- 
opposed, very short, 13- 
flowered ; petals yellow ; sta- 
mens about 20. Capsule 2-3 in. 
long, straight or curved, usually 
3 -angled, 3-valved, scabrous ; 
valves with transverse parti- 
tions between the seeds ; beak 
short. Seeds black, ovate or 
ovate -oblong, with both ends 


Fig. 39, Corchorus trilocularis, (a) a 
branch, xj, (6) fruit, xj; Fig. 40, 
Corchorus antichorusy xl. 

In waste places. Pretty common. 

truncate, or one end oblique- 
pointed. (Fig. 39.) 

Flowers in the rainy season. 

4. C. fascicularis Lamk. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 398. Annual or 
perennial. Leaves 1-2 in. long, oblong-lanceolate, serrate ; petiole very 
short, pilose. Peduncles 2-5-flowered ; stamens 5-10. Capsules 3 or 4 
together, short, sub-cylindric, hairy, shortly beaked ; valves nearly 
destitute of internal partitions. Seeds trigonous, black. 

Not seen recently within the area, but may be met with. The plant is 
mucilaginous and is used medicinally. 

5. C. antichorus Rceusch. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., I, p. 398. A prostrate 
glabrous much branched perennial undershrub ; branches many, tortuous, 
woody when old. Leaves 1/2-3/4 by 1/4-2/5 in., roundish, elliptic or 
elliptic-oblong, plicate, crenate-serrate ; petiole long, slender, up to 1 in., 
pilose ; stipule minute. Peduncles very short, leaf-opposed, usually 
2-flowered ; petals yellow ; stamens 8-10. Capsule glabrous, cylindric 


straight or slightly curved, about 1/2 in. long, slightly beaked, 4-valved ; 
valves without any partitions between the seeds. Seeds obliquely trun- 
cate at both ends, oblong, trigonous. Vern., Boh-phali. (Fig. 40.) 

Not very common. Used medicinally. Flowers in the rainy season. 

6. C. tridens Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 398. Annual herb. 
Leaves 1-3 in. long, 1/2 to 1 in. broad, linear-oblong or lanceolate, serrate, 
with or without bristle -like prolongations of the basal serrations ; petiole 
1/3 to 2/5 in. long, pilose ; stipules linear, subulate, 1/8 in. long. 
Peduncles 1-4-flowered ; flowers yellow ; petals oblong-oblanceolate ; 
stamens about 10. Capsule cylindric, 1-2 in. long, terminated by 3 spread- 
ing points, slightly scabrid ; valves without partitions between the seeds. 
Seeds oblong, truncate at both ends, black. 

Occasionally met within the area. Flowers in the rainy season, 

7. C, acutangulus Lamk. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 398. Annual. 
Leaves 1-3 in. long, more or less hairy, ovate and acute or oblong and 
acuminate, serrate, with or without basal lobes ; stipules linear-subulate, 
shorter than the petiole. Peduncle 2-3-flowered. Capsule short, 6- 
angled, 3 of the angles winged ; beak 3-fid, divisions spreading horizon- 
tally ; valves with or without partitions. Seeds uniseriate in each cell, 
truncate at both ends. 

Grcwia asiatica Linn., Vern., Falsa ; a small tree, is cultivated. 


Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees. Leaves opposite or alternate, 
stipulate, 2-3-foliolate, pinnate or multifid, not gland-dotted ; stipules 
usually paired, persistent, sometimes spiny. Flowers hermaphrodite, 
usually regular ; sepals 4-5, free or rarely connate at the base ; petals 
4-5, free, usually imbricate, rarely ; disk generally present, rarely 0, 
without glands ; stamens as many as or double or 3 times as many as 
the petals, inserted at the base of the disk, often alternately longer and 
shorter, those opposite to the petals often connate at the base with 
them ; filaments often with a scale on the inside at the base or middle ; 
anthers versatile, opening lengthwise ; ovary superior, sessile or shortly - 
stipitate, usually 4-5-, sometimes more-celled ; style short or absent ; 
ovules 2 or more in each cell, axile. Fruit various, schizocarpic or 
septicidally dehiscent capsule, not fleshy. Seeds usually pendulous and 
solitary, rarely more ; albument scanty, rarely 0. Genera about 20, 
species nearly 100, chiefly tropical and subtropical. 


Key to the genera. 
Stamens 10. 

Plant without spines ; leaves pinnate ; fruit 

spinous .. .. . . 1. Tribulus. 

Plant with 4 spines at each node ; leaves 1-3- 

foliolate ; fruit not spinous . . 2. Fagonia. 

Stamens 12-15, leaves multifid . . 3. Peganum. 

1. Tribulus Linn. 

Prostrate herbs, usually silky. Leaves stipulate, opposite, pari- 
pinnate. Flowers solitary, on pseudo- axillary peduncles ; sepals 5, imbri- 
cate ; petals 5, fugacious, spreading, imbricate ; disk annular, 10-lobed ; 
stamens 10, inserted at the base of the disk, 5 longer opposite to the petals, 
5 shorter with a little gland on the outside ; filaments filiform, naked ; 
ovary sessile, hirsute, 5-12-lobed and -celled ; style short ; stigmas 5-12 ; 
ovules superposed. Fruit 5-angled, of 5-12-winged or spinous or tuber- 
culate indehiscent cocci. Seeds 2 or more in each cell, exalbuminous. 

T, tcrrestris Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 423. A prostrate branched 
annual or biennial herb ; branches 1-3 ft. long, hirsute or silky hairy. 
Leaflets 5-7 pairs, sub-equal, oblong, mucronate, very variable in size, 
1/4-3/4 in. by 1/12-3/10 in., both surfaces with silky hairs, upper 
sparsely so and green, lower densely so and whitish. Flowers 1/3-3/4 in. 
across, yellow, on peduncles shorter than the leaves. Cocci with 2 long 
and 2 short spines, coarsely hairy. Vern., Bhakhra. (Fig. 41.) 

2. Fagonia Linn. 

Woody herbs. Leaves opposite, 1-3-foliolate ; stipules usually 
spiny. Flowers on peduncles arising from between the stipules ; sepals 
5, deciduous, imbricate ; petals 5, caducous ; disk short ; stamens 10, 
inserted on the disk ; filaments filiform, naked ; anthers oblong ; ovary 
sessile, 5-cornered, 5-celled, tapering into a subulate style ; stigma 
simple ; ovules 2, collateral, at the base of each cell, pendulous from 
ascending funicles. Fruit 5-cornered, of five 1 -seeded cocci, which 
dehisce along the ventral suture and separate from a horny endocarp. 
Seeds erect, compressed, broadly oblong ; testa mucilaginous ; albumen 

F, cretica Linn. (F, arabica Linn.) ; Fl. Brit. Ind., I, p. 425. 
A small green spiny woody herb with stiff erect glandular branches. 
Leaflets elliptic or linear, acute ; petiole often leaflike, very variable 
in length; stipules modified into spines (spines 4 at a node), up to 1/2 in. 
long. Flowers small, pale rose-coloured ; sepals half as long as the 



petals. Capsule pubescent. Seeds flat, punctate. Vern., Jawan, 
Jawansa. (Fig. 42.) 


Fig. 41, Tribulus terrestris, x ; Fig. 42, Fagonia cretica, x ; Fig. 43, Peganum 
Harmala, x. 

3. Peganum Linn. 

Perennial-rooted erect herbs. Leaves alternate, entire or multifid ; 
stipules setaceous. Flower solitary, on sub-terminal leaf-opposed pedun- 
cles, white ; sepals 4-5, often foliaceous and pinnatifid, persistent ; petals 
4-5, sub-equal, imbricate ; stamens 12-15, inserted at the base of the 
disk, some anther-less ; filaments dilated below ; anthers linear ; ovary 
globose, deeply 2-3-lobed ; styles basal, twisted, 2-3-keeled above, the 
keels stigmatose ; ovules many in each cell, axile. Fruit globose, 3-4- 
celled, dry, 3-4-valved ; cells many-seeded. Seeds angled ; testa spongy, 
rough ; albumen fleshy. 

P. Harmala Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 486. A glabrous densely 
leafy herb, 1-3-ft. high, with a thick perennial rootstock. Stem dicho- 
tomously and corymbosely branched. Leaves 2-3 in. long, several 
times divided ; segments linear, acute. Flowers 1/2 to 3/4 in. across, 
solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white ; sepals very narrow, much exceeding 
the corolla, persistent. Capsule globose, depressed at the apex, about 
1/3 in. in diameter Vern., Harmal. (Fig. 43.) 

Very common. Flowers mostly in April-May. 



Herbs or undershrubs, rarely trees. Leaves opposite or alternate, 
digitately or pinnately compound ; leaflets spirally coiled when young, 
usually closing at night ; stipules present or 0. Peduncles usually 
solitary, axillary, 1- or more-flowered. Flowers usually showy, her- 
maphrodite, regular or irregular ; sepals generally 5, free or united to the 
middle, usually imbricate ; petals usually 5, free or shortly connate at 
the base, contorted or imbricate, disk with 5 glands alternating with 
the petals or without glands ; stamens 5-15, hypogynous ; filaments 
filiform, dilated below or connate into a ring ; anthers 2 -celled, opening 
lengthwise ; ovary superior, usually 3-5-lobed and 3-5-celled ; styles 
free or united ; ovules 1-2, rarely more in each cell, axile. Fruit mostly 
capsular. Seeds with or without an aril ; albumen present or 0. Genera 
about 15, species about 1,000, in tropical and temperate countries. 

Oxalis Linn. 

Herbs with acid taste. Leaves radical or alternate, stipulate or 
exstipulate, 3-foliolate. Flowers on axillary 1- or more-flowered pedun- 
cles, regular ; sepals 5, imbricate ; petals 5, hypogynous, contorted ; 
disk without glands ; stamens 10, free or united at the base, all anther- 
bearing ; ovary 5-lobed ; styles 5, distinct ; stigmas terminal, capitate, 
bifid or laciniate ; ovules 1 or more in each cell. Capsule with loculicidal 
dehiscence ; valves persistent to the axis. Seeds with an outer fleshy 
coat which bursts elastically ; testa crustaceous ; albumen fleshy ; embryo 

Key to the species. 
Flowers yellow. 

Corolla up to 1/4 in. long . . 1. O. corniculata. 

Corolla 3/4 in. long . . . . . . 2. 0. Pes-caprce. 

Flowers rose-pink . . . . . . 3. O. corymbosa. 

1. O* corniculata Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 436. A diffuse 
creeping annual herb with appressed hairs and long slender branches 
rooting at the nodes. Leaflets obcordate, up to 1/2 in. broad ; stipules 
adnate to the petiole ; petiole up to 3 in. long. Flowers yellow, about 
1/2 in. across, up to 1/4 in. long, on 2-many -flowered peduncles, sub-umbel- 
late ; bracts setaceous ; petals obcordate. Capsule sub-cylindric, 3/4 in. 
long ; cells many-seeded. Seeds dark brown, rugose. Vern., Khatti- 
buti. (Fig. 44.) 

Very common everywhere. Flowers : Feb.-June. 



Fig. 44, Oxalis corniculata, (a) portion of a branch, X J, (6) capsule, 
X ; Fig. 45, O. Pes-caprae, x J ; Fig. 46, O. corymbosa, x J. 

2. CX Pes-capr Linn. ; wo included in Fl. Brit. Ind. An annual 
herb with an underground rhizome bearing bulbils and a tuft of radical 
leaves. Leaves long-stalked, spotted with purple on upper surface ; 
leaflets obcordate, slightly hairy, ciliate, 1/2-1 in. broad ; petiole 4-7 in. 
long. Peduncles many-flowered, up to 1 ft. long ; flowers sub-umbellate, 
yellow, 3/4 in. long ; sepals lanceolate, acute, each with 2 oblong yellow 


spots at its tip ; petals entire. Does not produce fruits and seeda at 
Lahore. (Fig. 45.) 

Met with very commonly as an escape. Flowers : Feb. -May. 

3. (X corymbosa DC. ; not included in Fl. Brit. Ind. An annual 
herb with compound bulbs (formed by clustering of simple bulbils) and 
very large leaves. Leaves all radical, in a tuft ; petiole up to 15 in. long ; 
leaflets broadly obcordate, up to 2-1/2 in. broad, pubescent on the under 
side. Flowers rose-pink, in sub-umbellate clusters on peduncles slightly 
longer than the petioles, a little less than 3/4 in. long ; sepals lanceolate, 
with usually 2 oblong yellow spots at the tips ; petals entire. Fruits 
and seeds not produced at Lahore. (Fig. 46.) 

Very commonly met with as an escape. Flowers : March-May. 


Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs. Leaves opposite or alternate, simple 
or compound, exstipulate, dotted with pellucid glands filled with essential 
oil. Flowers in axillary or terminal cymes or panicles, usually bisexual 
and regular ; sepals 4-5, free or connate, imbricate ; petals 4-5, free, 
hygynous, valvate or imbricate ; stamens as many as or twice as many 
as the petals, rarely many, free or united, hypogynous ; anthers 2-celled, 
introrse, opening lengthwise ; connective often glandular at the apex ; 
disk within stamens, crenate or lobed, sometimes large or long ; ovary 
superior, of 4-5 or more, sometimes free, but more generally connate 
carpels ; styles as many, free or connate ; stigma terminal, entire or lobed ; 
ovules usually 2, sometimes more, in each cell, axile. Fruit generally 
a berry or drupe, rarely dry and dehiscent. Seeds with or without 
endosperm ; embryo straight or curved. Genera nearly 100, species 
about 800, in tropical and warm temperate countries. 

Citrus Linn. 

Usually spinous evergreen shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, 
unifoliolate ; petiole often winged. Flowers axillary, solitary, fascicled 
or in small cymes, white or pinkish, sweet-scented ; calyx cupular or 
urceolate, 3-5-fid ; petals 4-8, linear-oblong, thick, imbricate ; stamens 
15-60, inserted round a large cupular or annular disk, polyadelphous ; 
ovary many- celled ; style stout, deciduous ; stigma capitate ; ovules 
4-8, biseriate in each cell. Berry large, oblong or globose, fleshy, many- 
celled ; septa membranous ; cells few-seeded and filled with fusiform 
horizontal cells developed from the endocarp and distended with juice. 
Seeds horizontal or pendulous, commonly polyembryonous. 


Key to the species. 

Young shoots and leaves glabrous. 
Young shoots purple ; fruit usually mammillate 

at the apex . . . . 1. C. medica. 

Young shoots greenish- white ; fruit not mam- 
millate . . . . . . 2. C. Aurantium. 

Young shoots and leaves beneath pubescent . . 3. C. decumana. 

1. C. medica Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., p. 514. A shrub or small 
tree. Young shoots glabrous, purple. Leaflets 3-6 in. long, elliptic- 
ovate or ovate-lanceolate, glabrous ; petiole naked or winged. Flowers 
white, often tinged with pink, frequently unisexual ; stamens 20-40. 
Fruit globose, ovoid or oblong, mammillate at the apex. 

This species includes the following varieties: The citron, Vern., Qalgal; the 
sour lime, Vern., Kagzi nimbu ; the sweet lime, Vern., mitha nimbu, etc. 

2. C, Aurantium Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., I, p. 515. Usually a small 
tree, with the young shoots glabrous and greenish-white. Leaflets 
elliptic or ovate, obtuse, acute or acuminate ; petiole often broadly 
winged. Flowers pure white, bisexual. Fruit globose, generally flat- 
tened at both ends, not nammillate. 

This species includes the various kinds of oranges ; the santra, with loose skin ; 
the ordinary narangi, with dark coloured clinging rind ; the malta, etc. 

3. C decumana Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., /, p. 516. A tree with the 
young shoots more or less pubescent. Leaflet large, ovate-oblong, 
frequently emarginate, usually downy beneath ; petiole broadly winged. 
Flowers large, white ; stamens 16-44. Fruit often very large, pale, 
globose or pear-shaped ; rind thick ; pulp yellow, pink or crimson, sweet 
or acid ; vesicles distinct. The pumelo, the shaddock ; Vern., Ghakotra. 

The following plants of this family are also sometimes cultivated : 

Aegle Marmelos Correct. A small deciduous tree with long axillary spines. 
Leaves 3-foliolate. Flowers in axillary panicles, white ; stamens many. Berry 
2-6 in. in diam., globose, grey or yellow on the outside ; pulp orange-coloured, 
sweet. Vern., Bel. 

The pulp is commonly used in medicine, especially for intestinal troubles. 

Feronia elephantum Correa. A small deciduous tree with axillary spines. 
Leaves imparipinnate. Flowers polygamous, pale green stained with red. Berry 
3-4 in. in diam., globose. Vern., Kaith. 

Murray a exotica Linn. A small evergreen tree with pinnate leaves. Flowers 
pure white, very fragrant. Berry ovoid, 1/2-3/4 in. long, red or deep orange when 
ripe. Vern., Martha. 



Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, mostly pinnate; 
leaflets usually quite entire and more or less oblique at the base, with- 
out transparent dots. Flowers usually hermaphrodite, regular, in 
cymose axillary panicles ; calyx usually 4-6-lobed ; petals 4-6, free or 
rarely connate at the base ; stamens 4-12, inserted outside the base of 
the hypogynous disk ; filaments united in a tube or rarely free ; anthers 
erect, usually sessile on the tube, included or exserted, opening length- 
wise ; disk annular, tubular or 0, free or connate with the ovary ; 
ovary usually superior, 2-6-celled ; rarely 1- celled; style single; stigma 
disciform or capitate ; ovules 2 in each cell, rarely more. Fruit 
capsular, drupaceous or a berry. Seeds with or without endosperm, 
often enclosed in an aril. Genera about 40, species nearly 600, in warmer 
parts of the world. 

Key to the genera. 

Filaments united into a cylindrical tube ; fruit 
drupaceous . . . . . . 1. Melia. 

Filaments free ; fruit a capsule . . 2. Cedrekt. 

1. Melia Linn. 

Trees. Leaves pinnate or 2-3-pinnate ; leaflets toothed or entire. 
Flowers in axillary panicles ; calyx short, 5-6-lobed ; lobes imbricate ; 
petals 5-6, free, spathulate-oblong, imbricate ; staminal-tube cylindrical, 
dilated at base and apex, 10- or 12-striate and -toothed ; anthers 10 or 
12, included or partly exserted, short, inserted near apex ; disk annular ; 
ovary 3-6-celled ; style slender, nearly as long as the tube ; stigma 
capitate ; ovules 2 in each cell, superposed. Fruit drupaceous. 

The following two species of the genus are commonly cultivated : 

M. Azadirachta Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., I t p. 544. A large tree. Leaves 
once pinnate. Flowers white, honey -seen ted. Drupe 1 -celled, 1 -seeded. Vern., 

All parts of the plant are used medicinally. Flowers : April-May. 

M. Azedarach Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., I, p. 544. Leaves 2-, occasionally 
3-pinnate. Flowers lilac. Fruit mostly 5-celled. Vern., Dek, Dhrek, Bukain. 
(Fig. 47.) 

Flowers i March. April. 




Fig. 47, Melia Azedarach, (a) portion of a twig bearing leaf and an 
inflorescence, x, (6) flower, xl; Fig. 48, Cedrela Toona, (a) leaf, x J, 
(6) capsule, X J. 

2. Cedrela Linn. 

C, Toona Roxb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., I, p. 568. A deciduous tree. Leaves once 
pinnate. Flowers in terminal and sub-terminal panicles, cream-coloured, 5-merous ; 
stamens free. Fruit 5-valved, septifragal capsule. Vern., Tun. (Fig. 48.) 
Sometimes cultivated on road-sides. 


Shrubs and trees, sometimes seandent, often prickly. Leaves 
simple, alternate or opposite, usually coriaceous and 3-nerved ; stipules 
small, deciduous or modified into prickles. Flowers hermaphrodite or 
polygamous, small, greenish, in lax or dense axillary cymes ; calyx 4-6-fid, 
lobes triangular, usually carinate within, valvate ; petals 4-6, small, 
rarely 0, inserted on the throat of the calyx-tube ; stamens 4-6, opposite 
to the petals and often enclosed within their folds; anthers versatile, 
2 -celled, dehiscing lengthwise ; disk fleshy and filling the calyx- tube 
or thin and lining it, entire or lobed ; ovary sessile, free or sunk in the 
disk, wholly free from the calyx-tube or more or less adherent to it, 
2-4- celled ; style short, simple or shortly lobed ; ovules mostly solitary, 
erect, anatropous. Fruit various, commonly drupaceous. Seeds usually 



with fleshy endosperm ; embryo large, straight. Genera about 40, species 
nearly 500, in most parts of the world. 

Zizyphus Juss. 

Trees or shrubs, usually armed with pairs of stipular spines, one 
usually recurved and the other straight. Leaves alternate, with 3-5 
basal nerves. Flowers clustered in axillary cymes, small, 5-merous, 
mostly bisexual ; calyx 5-fid, lobes spreading, keeled within, tube broadly 
obconical ; petals 5, rarely 0, hooded, usually deflexed ; disk 5-10-lobed, 
margin free ; stamens 5 ; ovary sunk in the disk and confluent with 
it at the base, 2-4- celled ; styles 2-4, free or partly connate. Fruit 
fleshy or dry, with a woody or bony 1-4-celled, 1-4-seeded stone. Seed 
without or with very scanty endosperm. 

Key to the species. 
Tree ; leaves glabrous above 
Shrub ; leaves pubescent above 

1. Z. Jujuba Lamk. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., /, p. 

Fig. 49, Zizyphua Jujuba, xj; Fig. 50, Z. 
nummularia, (a) a branch, x f , (6) flower, x 4. 

peduncled axillary cymes ; calyx pubescent or 

1. Z. Jujuba. 

2. Z. nummularia. 
632. A moderate -sized 

tree or a large shrub, 
almost evergreen, 

usually armed ; young 
branches softly tornen- 
tose. Leaves 1-2J in. 
long, sub-orbicular, 
ovate, or ovate-oblong, 
rounded at the apex, 
slightly unequal at the 
base, entire or serru- 
late, glabrous above, 
usually densely clothed 
beneath with white or 
buiftomentum, strong- 
ly 3 -nerved ; petiole up 
to 1/2 in. long ; stipular 
spines usually in pairs, 
one straight, the 
other shorter and re- 
curved, rarely want- 
ing. Flowers very 
small, greenish-yellow, 
in sessile or shortly 
woolly without, glabrous 


within ; petals clawed ; limb oblong, hooded ; disk with 10 grooved lobes ; 
ovary 2-celled ; styles 2, connate to the middle. Drupe 1/2 to 1 in. long, 
orange or red when ripe, globose or ovoid ; stone tubercled and irregularly 
furrowed, usually 2-celled. Vern., Ber. (Fig. 49.) 

Cultivated or self-sown. Fruit (Ber) is edible. 

Flowers : Sept.-November. Fruit ripens during winter. 

2. Z* nummularia W. <& A. ; FL Brit. 2nd., I, p. 633. A thorny 
tomentose bush ; branches flexuous, divaricate ; young branches grey- 
pubescent or tomentose ; spines in pairs ; one long, straight, sharp ; the 
other small, much narrowed. Leaves 1/3-1 in. long, elliptic or orbicular, 
very shortly stalked, more or less densely pubescent above, grey velvety- 
tomentose beneath, entire or serrate, 3-nerved. Flowers in axillary 
short compact sessile cymes ; pedicel up to 1/4 in. long ; petals clawed, 
with a roundish limb ; disk 10-lobed, with a pit opposite each lobe ; 
ovary 2-celled ; styles 2, united to above the middle. Drupe globose, 
1/3 in. in diameter, red or black when ripe. Vern., Malha. (Fig. 50.) 

Common in dry places. Fruit is known as kokan her and is'edible. Flowers : 


Mangtfera indie a Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., II, p. 13. A large ever-green tree. 
Leaves alternate, simple, exstipulate, 6-12 by 1-4 in., oblong or oblong -lanceolate, 
coriaceous, glabrous, shining, entire, acute, acuminate or obtuse, crowded at the ends 
of the branches, purplish when young; petiole swollen at the base, 1-2J in. long. 
Flowers very small, yellowish-green, male and bisexual, in terminal panicles ; 
pedicel jointed; calyx 4-5-partite ; lobes ovate, concave, pubescent on the outside, 
imbricate, deciduous ; petals 4-5, oblong, with 3 strong orange-coloured ridges on 
the inner face, imbricate; disk fleshy, 5-Iobed; stamens 4-5, inserted on the disk, 
one only perfect and longer than the rest, others with imperfect anthers or reduced 
to teeth; ovary superior, sessile, 1 -celled, glabrous; style lateral; ovule solitary, 
pendulous from nearly a basal funicle, rarely horizontal. Fruit a large fleshy 
drupe, 2-6 in. long ; stone compressed, fibrous. Seed large, compressed ; testa 
papery ; endosperm absent ; cotyledons plano-convex. The mango ; Vern., Am. 

Cultivated for the sake of the delicious fruit. Flowers : March-April, Fruit 
ripens during the rainy season. 


Herbs, shrubs or trees, commonly climbing. Leaves usually alter- 
nate, pinnate, bipinnate, digitate or simple, stipulate, often stipellate, 
sometimes the tip of the rachis and some leaflets modified into tendrils. 
Flowers mostly bisexual, zygomorphic, in racemes, spikes, heads or 
panicles, rarely cymose ; sepals 5, sometimes free, generally more or less 
connate ; petals 5, imbricate, dissimilar and unequal, free except the two 
anterior ones, the upper (posterior) outermost and forming the standard. 


the two lateral more or less parallel with each other and forming the 
wlngSy the two anterior (lower) innermost and connate, forming the 
keel ; stamens inserted with the petals, normally 10, monadelphous or 
diadelphous, rarely free, mostly all perfect ; anthers dehiscing usually 
lengthwise ; carpel 1, superior ; style simple, cylindrical ; stigma capi- 
tate, terminal or oblique ; ovules one to many on the ventral suture. 
Fruit a legume (a pod dehiscing along both the sutures), sometimes 
indehiscent or lomentaceous (separating into 1 -seeded joints). Seeds 
without or with scanty endosperm ; cotyledons foliaceous or thick and 
fleshy. A very large group, species about 6,000, cosmopolitan. 

Key to the genera. 

I. Stamens monadelphous. 

A tall tree ; stamens 9 . . . . 28. Dalbergia. 

A large climber . . . . 22. Canavalia. 

Erect, low or tall, herbs or undershrubs. 

Leaves simple . . . . 1. Crotalaria. 

Leaves trifoliolate. 

Pod 8-12-seeded . . . . 7. O/'/ //"///-''<. 

Pod mostly 2-seeded, dehiscent ; leaves 

without glands . . 1. Crotalaria. 

Pod 1 -seeded, indehiscent ; leaves 
gland-dotted beneath . . . . 9. Psoralea. 

II. Stamens diadelphous. 

A. Leaves simple. 

Spinous undershrub . . . . 13. Alhagi. 


Pod not jointed . . 8. Indigofera. 

Pod breaking up into 1 -seeded joints. 

Pod twisted . . , . 14. Uraria. 

Pod not- twisted. 

Joints turgid . . . . 15. Alysicarpus. 

Joints flattened . . . . 16. Desmodium. 

B, Leaves 3-foliolate. 
Leaflets exstipellate. 

Not gland-dotted beneath, usually toothed. 
Leaves digitately 3-foliolate ; flowers 

in axillary heads . . . . 2. Trifolium. 

Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate ; flowers 

Racemes long . . 4. Melilotus. 



23. Phaseolus. 


Racemes short. 

Pod straight or curved . . 3. Trigonella. 

Pod spiral . . . . 5. Medicago. 

Leaflets gland-dotted beneath, usually 

Twining or trailing herbs. 

Pods 2-seeded . . . . 27. Rhynchosia. 

Pods 3- or more-seeded . . 26. Atylosia. 

An erect undershrub ; pod 1 -seeded, 

indehiscent . . 9. Psoralea. 

Leaflets stipellate. 

Pod breaking up into 1 -seeded joints. 

Pod twisted . . . . 14. Uraria. 

Pod straight . . . . 16. Desmodium. 

Pod not jointed. 
Keel spiral 
Keel not spiral. 
Stigma oblique 
Stigma terminal 

C. Leaves neither simple nor 3-foliolate. 

Leaf rachis not ending in a bristle or 
Leaflets 5. 

Pod dehiscent, not jointed . . 6. Lotus. 
Pod breaking into 3-6 1 -seeded 

indehiscent joints . . . . 14. Uraria. 

Leaflets more than 5. 

Pod breaking into 3-6 1 -seeded 

indehiscent joints . . . . 14. Uraria. 

Pod not breaking into 1 -seeded 

Pod 6-9 in. long, narrow, 

septate between the seeds 11. Sesbania. 
Pod about 2 in. long, linear, 

flattened . . . . 10. Tephrosia. 

Pod 1 in. or less long. 

Pod more than 4-seeded . . 12. Astragalus. 
Pod mostly 1-3-seeded . . 17. Gicer. 

Leaf-rachis ending in a bristle or tendril. 

Leaflets or 2 . . . . 19. Lathyrus. 

Leaflets more than 2, toothed . . 17. Cicer. 



Leaflets more than 2, entire br nearly 

Pod 1-2-seeded . . . . 20. Lens. 

Pod more than 2-seeded. 
Leaves without twisted tendrils. 

Pod 1 in. or less long . . 12. Astragalus. 
Pod 6-9 in. long . . 11. Sesbania. 

Leaves with twisted tendrils. 
Staminal-tube with oblique 

mouth . . . . 18. Vicia. 

Staminal-tube truncate at 
the mouth . . . . 21. 


1. Crotalaria Linn. 

Herbs or shrubs with simple or digitately 3-foliolate leaves. Flowers 
in terminal or leaf-opposed racemes, generally yellow ; calyx-tube short ; 
teeth linear or lanceolate, free or shortly connate in 2 lips ; corolla as long 
or longer than the calyx ; standard rounded or ovate, shortly clawed ; 
wings obovate-oblong, shorter ; keel broad, as long as the wings, its 
petals united, much incurved, distinctly beaked ; stamens monadel- 
phous ; anthers dimorphous ; ovary sessile or stipitate, linear, usually 
many-ovuled ; style long, abruptly incurved at the base, bearded upwards ; 
stigma minute, oblique. Pod sessile or stipitate, straight, linear or oblong, 
turgid or inflated, continuous within, usually many-seeded. 

Key to the species. 
Leaves simple. 

A rigid much branched deciduous undershrub ; 

pod 3-4-seeded 
A much branched diffuse herb ; pod 1/2 in. long, 

An erect cultivated shrub ; pod 1 to 1-1/2 in. 

long, 10-15-seeded 
Leaves 3-foliolate 

1. C. Burhia. 

2. C. prostrata. 

3. C. juncea. 
. . 4. C. medicaginea. 

1. C. Burhia Buch-Ham. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 66. An erect 
or procumbent shrub with many slender tangled branches, which are 
stiff when old and sometimes spinescent ; ultimate branches striate 
and of a greyish colour owing to a dense tomentum. Leaves simple, 
distant, sub-sessile, 1/2 to 1J in. long, oblong, entire, pale-green, covered 
on both sides with silky hairs ; stipules 0. Flowers in elongated terminal 
racemes of 6-12 flowers ; pedicels very short, 2-bracteolate ; calyx 


densely silky, teeth lanceolate ; corolla yellow, scarcely exserted. Pod 
scarcely exceeding the calyx, oblong, hairy, 3-4-seeded. (Fig. 51.) 
Not common. Flowers in the cold season. 

2. C, prostrata Roxb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 67. A much branched 
diffuse perennial herb. Stems many from the base, slender, clothed with 
brown silky hairs. Leaves simple, 1/2 to 1 in. by 1/4 to 1/2 in., nearly 
sessile, obovate-oblong or oblong, apex rounded, covered on both sides with 
brown adpressed hairs ; stipules 0. Racemes 2-4-flowered ; pedicels 
1/12 to 1/8 in.; calyx densely silky, teeth linear; corolla small, yellow, 
scarcely exserted. Pod shortly-stalked, glabrous, oblong, 1/2 in. long, 

Common in waste places. Flowers in summer. 

3. C. juncea Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 79. A tall stiff shrub ; 
branches slender, ridged, sulcate, thinly silky. Leaves simple, rather 
distant, shortly-stalked, 2-5 in. long, linear or oblong, entire, mucronate 
or acute, with silky hairs on both sides ; petiole 1/6-1/5 in. ; stipules minute 
and subulate or 0. Racemes lateral and terminal, about 1 ft. long, 
loosely 12-20-flowered ; bracts minute, linear ; calyx 1/2 to 3/4 in. 
long, reddish-velvety, deeply toothed ; corolla bright yellow, glabrous, 
exserted. Pod 1 to 1-1/2 in. long, clothed with short thick spreading 
persistent hairs, 10-15-seeded. Vern., San. 

Cultivated for the sake of fibre. Flowers in the rainy season. 

4. C. mcdicaginea Lamk. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 81. A diffuse 
perennial herb, with sometimes ascending or erect stems, thinly silky. 
Leaves trifoliolate ; petiole 1/6 to 2/5 in. ; stipules minute, deciduous ; 
leaflets sub-sessile, 1/4 to 3/4 in. long, obovate-oblong or oblanceolate, 
entire, retuse, glabrous above, minutely silky beneath. Racemes terminal 
or leaf-opposed, 4-15-flowered ; bracts minute, linear. Flowers very 
small ; calyx clothed with adpressed silky hairs ; teeth linear ; corolla 
twice the calyx. Pod oblique, sub-globose, 1/8 to 1/5 in., pointed, 
clothed with adpressed hairs, 2-seeded. Seeds deep brown, shining, 
flat. Vern., Oulabi. 

Not common. Used medicinally. 

2. Trifolium Linn. 

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves with stipules adnate to the 
petiole and digitately 3-foliolate. Flowers small, copious, in dense 
axillary heads ; calyx-tube turbinate ; teeth mostly 5, sub-equal ; corolla 
adnate to the staminal-tube and fading without falling ; standard and 
wings narrow ; keel straight, obtuse ; stamens diadeiphous ; filaments 





Fig. 51, Crotalaria Burhia, x J ; Fig. 52, Trigonella Foenum-graecum, X } ; Fig. 53, 
T. potycerata, X | ; Fig. 54, Melilotus parviflora, x f ; Fig. 55, M. alba, x 1 j Fig. 56, 
Medicago lupulina, (a) a twig, X f , (b) fruit, X 4 ; Fig. 57, M . laciniata, (a) branch, 
X|, (b) fruit, X 2 ; Fig. 58, M. denticulata, (a) a twig, x f, (b) fruit, X .}. 

more or less dilated ; anthers uniform ; ovary sessile or stalked, few- 
ovuled ; style filiform, incurved above the base ; stigma oblique. Pod 
minute, included, membranous, indehiscent, 1- or few-seeded. 

T, repens Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 86. A prostrate herb. Stems 
slender, glabrous, wide- creeping. Stipules narrow ; petiole up to 2J in. 
long, ascending ; leaflets obovate, emarginate, distinctly toothed, about 


3/4 in. by about 2/5 in. Heads globose, on long naked peduncles up to 
3 in. long ; flowers finally deflexed, 2/5 in. long; pedicel 1/10 in. ; calyx 
glabrous ; teeth sub-equal, shorter than the tube ; corolla white or with 
a pink tinge. Pod minute, linear, 3-4-seeded. 

Rare. Occasionally mot with on the canal side. 
Flowers in spring. 

3. Trigonella Linn. 

Annual herbs. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate ; leaflets toothed. 
Flowers racemed, whitish- or lemon-yellow ; calyx-tube campanulate ; 
teeth distinct, sub-equal ; petals free from the staminal-tube ; standard 
and wings narrow ; keel shorter, obtuse ; stamens diadelphous ; filaments 
not dilated ; anthers uniform ; ovary sessile, many-ovuled ; style 
glabrous ; stigma terminal. Pod linear or linear-oblong, compressed or 
subterete, not spiral, usually exserted, many-seeded, continuous within. 

Key to the species. 

Pod long-beaked ; reticulations distant, not trans- 
verse .. .. 1. T. F&num- 

Pod not beaked, with close transverse reticulations 2. T. polycerata. 

T, Fcenum-gracum Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p.%1. A slightly hairy 
erect annual. Leaves long-stalked, stalk variable in length, up to 2 in. ; 
stipules triangular-lanceolate, not toothed ; leaflets about 1 in. long, 
obovate to oblanceolate-oblong, toothed. Flowers 1-2, axillary, sessile ; 
calyx-teeth linear ; corolla much exserted, whitish. Pod 2-3 in. long, 
with a long persistent beak, often falcate, hairy, 10-20-seeded, without 
transverse reticulations. Vern., Methi. (Fig. 52.) 

Cultivated as a cold weather crop. Used as a pot-herb and also as fodder for 
the cattle. Also used medicinally. 

2. T* polycerata Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 87. A slender 
branched diifuse annual, slightly covered with adpressed hairs. Leaf- 
stalk 1/2 to 3/4 in. ; stipules linear, semi-sagittate with long points ; leaflets 
obovate, sharply and deeply toothed towards the apex, about 
1/2 in. long ; base deltoid, entire. Flowers 1-6, sessile or on very short 
axillary peduncles ; calyx 1/6 in. ; teeth setaceous, shorter than the sub- 
cylindrical tube ; corolla yellow, slightly exserted. Pod 1-2 in. long, 
falcate, with close transverse reticulations, 10-20-seeded, thinly covered 
with adpressed hairs. Vern., Maini. (Fig. 53.) 

Common in cultivated places. Flowers in the cold season. Sometimes used 
as fodder. 


4. Mclilotus Juas. 

Annual or biennial herbs. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate ; leaflets 
toothed. Flowers in long racemes ; calyx campanulate ; teeth 5, sub- 
equal, deltoid or lanceolate ; corolla caducous, free from the staminal- 
tube ; standard and wings narrow ; keel straight, obtuse ; stamens 
diadelphous ; filaments not dilated ; anthers uniform ; ovary sessile or 
stipitate, few-ovuled ; style filiform, glabrous, much incurved ; stigma 
terminal. Pod oblong, exserted, indehiscent. 

Key to the species. 

Flowers yellow . . . . . . 1. M . parviflora. 

Flowers white . . . . . . 2. M . alba. 

1. M. parviflora Desf. (M indica AIL) ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 89. 
A slender erect annual, up to 3 ft. high. Leaf-stalks variable, 1/2 to 1-1/2 
in. ; stipules linear, acuminate ; leaflets obovate or oblanceolate, retuse 
or emarginate. Racemes dense-flowered, 1-3 in. long including the 
peduncle in fruit. Flowers ascending or spreading ; calyx-teeth deltoid ; 
corolla yellow ; standard exceeding the wings and keel. Pod 1/12 to 1/8 
in., usually 1-seeded, glabrous. Vern., Senji. (Fig. 54.) 

A very common weed in the fields during the cold weather. Also cultivated. 
Used as fodder. 

2. M. alba Lamk. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 89. A tall herb very 
similar to the last. Stipules and leaflets similar. Racemes in fruit 
3-5 in. long. Flowers recurved ; corolla white. Pod as in the last but 
larger, often 2-seeded. (Fig. 55.) 

A common weed of cultivation, flowering during the cold season. Sometimes 
used as fodder for cattle. 

5. Medlcago Linn. 

Herbs. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate ; leaflets toothed. Calyx -tube 
campanulate ; teeth 5, sub-equal ; corolla more or less exserted, free from 
the staminal-tube ; standard and wings oblong ; keel straight, obtuse ; 
stamens diadelphous ; filaments filiform ; anthers uniform ; ovary sessile, 
usually many-ovuled ; style short, little incurved ; stigma oblique. Pod 
usually spirally twisted, many-seeded (in M. lupulina 1-seeded), in- 
dehiscent, rarely sickle-shaped. 

Key to the species. 

Pod unarmed ; stipules entire or faintly toothed 1. M. lupulina. 
Pod spinous ; stipules laciniate. 

Peduncle ending in an awn . . . . 2. M. laciniata. 

Peduncle not ending in an awn . . . . 3. M . denticulata. 


1. M. lupulina Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 90. A finely downy 
procumbent herb with many stems from the base about 1 ft. long. 
Petiole 1/4 to 3/5 in. ; stipules entire or faintly toothed, with long acuminate 
tips ; leaflets about 3/10 in. long, obovate, faintly toothed above, apiculate ; 
base deltoid, entire. Flowers very small, yellow, in ovoid heads, on 
peduncles longer than the leaves, up to 1-1/4 in. in fruit ; calyx teeth seta- 
ceous, as long as the tube ; corolla yellow, slightly exserted. Pod minute, 
falcate, with coiled tip, glabrous or downy, unarmed, 1-seeded. (Fig. 56.) 

A common weed in the fields in the cold weather. 

2. M, laciniata All. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 90. A glabrous or 
slightly hairy slender annual up to 1 ft. long. Petiole equal to or 
exceeding the leaflets ; stipules laciniate ; leaflets 1/4 to 1/2 in. long, 
obovate- cuneate, usually sharply toothed. Peduncle filiform, 1-2-flowered, 
ending in an awn. Calyx narrowly turbinate, 1/8 in., teeth setaceous ; 
corolla yellow, scarcely exserted. Pod 1/8 in. broad, globose, with 
4-5 sharply spinous coils. (Fig. 57.) 

A common weed in the fields in the cold weather. It is not so common however 
as the last or the next. 

3. M. denticulata Willd. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 90. A nearly 
glabrous prostrate or procumbent annual. Stems 6-24 in. long, 
furrowed. Stipules laciniate ; leaflets 1/2 to 3/4 in. long, obovate-cuneate, 
faintly toothed. Peduncles short, about 1/4 in. long, closely 2-6-flowered, 
not produced into an awn. Calyx 1/12 in. ; teeth lanceolate, as long as 
the tube ; corolla yellow, twice the calyx. Pod flattened, of 2-4 spirals ; 
margin with a double row of spines ; face 1/6 to 1/4 in. without spines, 
strongly reticulate ; spines 1/12 to 1/8 in., but sometimes reduced to 
mere tubercles. Vern., Maina. (Fig. 58.) 

A very common weed in the cold season. Used as fodder for the cattle. 

M. sativa Linn., called lucerne or alfalfa, is a valuable fodder plant and is some- 
times cultivated. Stems 1-2 ft., erect. Leaflets narrowly obovate-oblong, tip 
notched and apiculate. Flowers 1/3 to 1/2 in., in short dense racornos. Pod spirally 
twisted with 2-3 open coils, downy. 

6. Lotus Linn. 

Herbs. Leaves usually 5-foliolate, the lowest pair of leaflets arising 
from the base of the petiole like stipules. Calyx-tube campanulate, 
teeth sub-equal ; corolla caducous, free from the staminal-tube ; standard 
obovate, clawed, exceeding the wings ; keel incurved, shortly beaked ; 
stamens diadelphous ; filaments dilated at the apex ; anthers uniform ; 
ovary sessile, many-ovuled ; style long, abruptly inflexed ; stigma ter- 
minal. Pod linear, turgid, septate between the seeds. 


L, corniculatus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 91. A small prostrate 
perennial herb. Stems many from the base, glabrous or obscurely 
silky, slender, 3-7 in. long. Leaflets 5, the upper 3 remote from the 
lower 2 and close to each other, the lower 2 stipule-like, at the base 
of the petiole, linear, entire, 1/5 to 1/2 in. long. Flowers 1 or 2, very 
shortly pedicelled, subtended by a reduced 3-foliolate leaf at the end of an 
axillary or terminal peduncle 1 to 1-3/4 in. long in fruit ; calyx 1/4 in. ; 
teeth lanceolate ; corolla yellow, often streaked with crimson, twice as 
long as the calyx. Pod cylindrical, straight, 3/4 to 1 in. long. (Fig. 59.) 

Found on the river-side. Not common. Flowers in summer. 

7. Cyamopsis DC. 

Erect annuals with 3-foliolate leaves and small purplish flowers in 
axillary racemes. Calyx-tube oblique ; teeth unequal, the lowest 
elongated, setaceous ; petals caducous ; standard and wings narrow ; 
keel obtuse, slightly incurved ; stamens monadelphous ; anthers uniform, 
apiculate ; ovary sessile, linear, 6-8-ovuled ; style short, filiform, much 
incurved ; stigma capitate. Pod linear, straight, subtetragonous, 2- 
valved, septate between the seeds. 

C, psoralioides DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 92. A robust erect 
annual, 2-6 ft. high, clothed with adpressed grey hairs attached by the 
middle. Leaves up to 10 in. long ; petiole 1-2 in. ; stipules linear-seta- 
ceous, 1/3 to 1/2 in. long ; stipels minute ; stalk of terminal leaflet about 
1 in., that of lateral leaflets up to 1/5 in. ; leaflets 2-3 in. long, ovate, 
acute, densely covered with adpressed hairs on both sides, coarsely 
toothed. Flowers 6-30, about 1/3 in. long, in copious close very short- 
peduncled axillary racemes up to 5 in. long ; pedicels very short ; calyx 
1/6 to 1/5 in. ; corolla pale purple. Pod thick, fleshy, straight, flat, 
densely covered with adpressed hairs, 1-1/2 to 3 in. by 1/3 in., erect, 
3-keeled on the back, 8-12-seeded. Vern., Guam. 

Cultivated in the rainy season. 

8. Indigofera Linn. 

Herbs or shrubs, more or less densely clothed with adpressed hairs 
attached by their middle. Leaves simple or odd-pinnate. Flowers 
in copious axillary racemes ; calyx minute, campamilate ; teeth 5, 
sub-equal or the lowest longest ; corolla caducous ; standard obovate ; 
keel straight, not beaked, spurred on each side near the base ; stamens 
diadelphous ; anthers uniform, apiculate ; ovary sessile, usually many- 
ovuled ; style short, incurved ; stigma capitate, usually penicillate. Pod 
usually linear- cylindrical or oblong or globose, turgid, rarely flattish, 
sometimes crescent- shaped. 


Key to the species. 

Pod globose, 1 -seeded . . . . 1. /. linifolia. 

Pod elongated, 8-12-seeded . . 2. /. tinctoria. 

1. L linifolia Retz. ; Fl. Brit.- 2nd., II, p. 92. A procumbent 
silvery-pubescent perennial herb, with thick woody rootstock. Stems 
many from the base, up to 8 in. long. Leaves simple, sessile, 1/2 to 4/5 in. 
long, linear or linear-oblong, acute at both ends, silvery on both sides ; 
stipules minute, setaceous. Flowers in very short dense subsessile axillary 
racemes 1/4 to 1/2 in. long ; calyx-teeth setaceous, much longer than the 
tube ; corolla 2-3 times the calyx, bright red or white. Pod minute, 
globose, 1-seeded, silvery-white, under 1/12 in. in thickness, apiculate. 
(Fig. 60.) 

Fairly common in dry places. 

2. I. tinctoria Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., 77, p. 99. A much branched 
shrub, 4-6 ft. high ; branches slightly silvery with adpressed hairs. 
Leaves odd-pinnate, 2-3 in. long, turning greyish-black when dried ; 
leaflets 7-13, 3/4-1 in. long, ovate, oblong or oblanccolatc, glabrous above, 
very thinly adpressed-hairy beneath, very shortly stalked ; stipels 
minute, subulate. Flowers in stalked, erect, spike-like, axillary racemes 
shorter than the leaves ; calyx silvery outside ; teeth triangular, acute, 
as long as the tube ; corolla exserted ; standard greenish-yellow ; wings 
pink. Pod straight or slightly curved, glabrous when mature, 1 to 
1-1/2 in. long, 8-12-seeded. Vern., Nil. 

Met with sometimes as an escape. Flowers in the rainy season. Yields the 
well-known dye, indigo. According to Prairi and Baker /. tinctoria Linn, may bo 
considered as representing throe distinct forms, one of which is found in a semi- 
wild state near Agra and Muttra as well as in Rajputaria. Another form, /. 
sumatrana Gaertn., is the cultivated plant of the Punjab. 

9. Psoralea Linn. 

Herbs or undershrubs. Leaves simple, 3-foliolate or odd-pinnate, 
conspicuously gland-dotted. Calyx-tube campanulate ; tooth 5, distinct ; 
corolla little exserted ; petals clawed ; keel obtuse, the tip slightly in- 
curved ; upper stamen free or connate, the tube in an early stage often 
closed ; anthers small, uniform or .slightly dimorphous ; ovary sessile 
or shortly stalked, 1-ovuled ; style long, filiform, incurved ; stigma 
minute, terminal. Pod ovoid or oblong, 1-seeded, indehiscent, the 
pericarp adhering to the seed. 

P. plicata Delile ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., //, p. 103. A much branched low 
undershrub, 1-2 ft. high ; stems canescent and striate when young, 
dotted with scattered glandular tubercles. Leaves 3-foliolate ; petiole 


1/5 to 1/2 in. ; stipules minute, oblong, acute ; leaflets irregularly sinuate, 
adpressed hairy on both sides, gland-dotted beneath ; terminal oblong, 
shortly stalked, 1/2 to 1 in. long ; lateral oblong-obovate, subsessile, 1/5 to 
1/2 in. long. Flowers solitary or in fascicles of 2 or 3, on axillary peduncles 
2-4 in. long, very shortly pedicelled ; bracts minute, ovate ; calyx 1/8 in., 
clothed with adpressed white hairs, accrescent in fruit, clasping tightly 
the included pod ; teeth triangular, shorter than the tube ; corolla slightly 
exserted ; standard yellow ; wings and keel yellow with purplish tips. 
Pod 1/5 in., ellipsoid, densely hairy. (Fig. 61.) 

Found in dry places. Not very common. Flowers about April. 

10. Tephrosia Pers. 

Herbs or undershrubs. Leaves usually odd-pinnate ; leaflets 
opposite, sub- coriaceous. Flowers in leaf-opposed racemes or solitary 
or in pairs in the axils of the leaves ; calyx -tube campanulate ; teeth 
distinct, sub-equal ; petals clawed ; standard suborbicular ; keel incurved, 
not beaked ; stamens diadelphous ; anthers obtuse, uniform ; ovary 
sessile, linear, many-ovuled ; style much incurved, filiform or flattened, 
glabrous or bearded ; stigma capitate, often penicillate. Pod linear, 
flattened, many-seeded, 2-valved, continuous or obscurely septate between 
the seeds. 

T, pumila Pers. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., II, p. 113 (under T* purpurea 
Pers. Var. pumila). A small herbaceous perennial, about 18 in. high, 
much branched, persistently downy ; branches greyish. Leaves 3-4 in. 
long, stalked ; stalk 1/2 to 3/4 in. ; stipules linear-lanceolate, 1/10 in. ; 
leaflets 9-11, the lateral opposite, oblong-oblanceolate, entire, retuse or 
mucronate, 1/2 in. to 1-1/4 in. long, glabrous and dull green mottled with 
white above, greyish and densely finely silky beneath ; petiole 1/20 in. long. 
Flowers in fascicles of 2-4, on terminal, apparently leaf-opposed peduncles 
4-7 in. long ; the lowest, rarely the lowest two fascicles in the axils of 
well-developed or small leaves ; pedicel 1/10 in. ; bracts minute ; calyx 
1/6 in., densely silky ; corolla 1/4 to 1/3 in., red ; standard thinly silky on the 
back ; style flattened, glabrous ; stigma penicillate. Pod 1-3/4 to 2 in. 
by 1/6 to 1/5 in., slightly recurved, densely covered with fine silky hairs, 
6-7-seeded. Seeds oblong, mottled. Vern., Jhana. 

Collected at Kamoki. May be met with in the neighbourhood of Lahore also. 
Flowers in the rainy season. 

11. Sesbania Pers. 

Soft- wooded shrubs, trees or herbs. Leaves long, narrow, abruptly- 
pinnate, with very numerous deciduous linear-oblong obtuse mucronate 


leaflets. Flowers in axillary racemes ; calyx campanulate, shallowly 
2-lipped or 5-toothed ; corolla much exserted ; petals all with long claws ; 
standard broad ; keel obtuse and straight or recurved and sub-rostrate ; 
stamens diadelphous ; anthers uniform ; ovary stalked, linear, many- 
ovuled ; style filiform, incurved, glabrous ; stigma capitate. Pod very 
long and narrow, dehiscent, with distinct septa between the very 
numerous seeds. 

Key to the species. 

Perennial, unarmed . . . . 1. S. aegyptiaca. 

Annual, prickly . . . . 2. S. aculeata. 

1. S* aegyptiaca Pers. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 114. An unarmed 
soft -wooded shrub or small tree of rapid growth and short duration, 
reaching 15 ft. in height. Young shoots striate, canescent. Leaves 
3-6 in. long, rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets, not 
spinescent ; stipules linear, 1/5 in. long, caducous ; leaflets 9-15 pairs, 
opposite, 1/2 to 1 in. by 1/6 to 1/4 in., linear-oblong, entire, pale green, very 
shortly stalked. Flowers 1/2 to 3/5 in. long, in 3-6-flowered slender axillary 
racemes 2-3 in. long ; bracts and bracteoles minute, fugacious ; calyx 
1/5 in., with short broad deltoid sub-equal teeth ; corolla pale yellow, often 
dotted or tinged with purple ; standard furnished at the base on the 
upper surface with 2 keel-like appendages ; wings falcate-oblong, with 
a minute auricle at the top of the claw ; keel-petals with small recurved 
auricles above the claw. Pod 6-9 in. long, torulose, flexible, twisted, 
sharply beaked ; sutures not much thickened. (Fig. 62.) 
Seeds 20-30. Vern., Jaint or Jaintar. 

Very often grown in hedges on account of its remarkably rapid growth. Its 
fibre is made into ropes and the foliage is used as fodder. Flowers mostly during 
the cold season. 

Three distinct forms may be recognized by the flower-colour : 

1. typica Prain, in which the corolla is uniformly yellow. 

2. pi eta Prain, with the standard dotted with purple on the back. 

3. bicolor W. <5o A., with the standard dark-maroon or purple on the back. 

2. S* aculeata Pres. ; FL Brit. Ind., //, p. 114. A large erect 
shrub-like glabrous annual, reaching 12 ft. in height ; branches and 
underside of leaf-rachis beset with small hooked prickles. Leaves 
6-15 in. long ; leaf-rachis ending in a minute bristle or not ; leaflets 30 to 
96, lower often alternate, upper opposite, 1/3 to 3/4 in. by 1/10 to 1/6 in., 
very shortly stalked ; stipules linear, 1/5 in. long. Flowers 2/5 in. long, 
yellow, in 3-6-flowered lax racemes. Pod 6-9 in. long by 1/8 in., narrowly 


linear and slightly falcate, beaked, not twisted, slightly torulose, 

Dr. Prain recognizes the following two varieties : 

1. elatior Prain. Stems green, sparingly prickly, tall, lax and slender. A 
common weed, flowering in summer and the rainy season. Killed in winter. Vern., 

2. typica Prain. Stems reddish, rather densely armed with minute prickles. 
Not met with within the area of this book. 

12. Astragalus Linn. 

Herbs or undorshrubs. Leaves pinnate ; rachis often ending in 
a spine. Calyx tubular or campanulate, equal or gibbous at the back ; 
teeth sub-equal ; corolla usually distinctly exserted ; petals sub-equal 
or wings and keel shorter than the standard ; keel incurved, obtuse ; 
stamens diadelphous ; anthers uniform ; ovary sessile or stalked, many- 
ovuled ; style incurved ; stigma capitate. Pod linear or oblong, usually 
turgid, 1 -celled or more or less completely longitudinally 2-celled from 
the introversion of the inferior suture. 

Key to the, species. 

Stigma penicillate ; pod much recurved . . 1. A. subumbella- 

Stigma glabrous. 

Heads peduncled ; pod straight densely pubes- 
cent, 6-8-seeded .. .. ..2. A. prolixus. 

Heads sessile ; pod slightly recurved, densely 
pubescent, 10-12-seeded . . . . 3. A. tribuloides. 

Heads peduncled ; pod much recurved, glabrous, 

16-18-seeded .. .. ..4. A. hamosus. 

Heads short-peduncled ; pod much recurved, 
downy, 20-30-seeded . . 5. A. contortupli- 


1. A, subumbellatus Klotzsch ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 119. A 
slender annual. Stems diffuse, branched, 1/4 to 1 ft., clothed with short 
ascending deciduous white hairs. Leaves 1-2 in. ; leaflets 13-21, distant, 
oblong, irl<i noon-. 1/8-3/8 in., thinly or densely pilose or nearly glabrescent ; 
stipules minute, lanceolate, cuspidate. Racemes distinctly peduncled, 
6-10-flowered, lax or close ; pedicels very short ; bracts very minute, 
setaceous ; calyx 1/8 in., thinly pubescent ; teeth setaceous, as long as 
the tube ; corolla 3/8 in., yellow tinged with purple ; blade of wings lanceo- 
late, shorter than the standard and keel ; stigma penicillate. Pod 


1/2 to 3/4 in., cylindrical, much recurved, shortly pubescent, almost com- 
pletely bilocular, 20-24-seeded. 

Very rare. Only one small specimen has been seen so far from the neigh- 
bourhood of Lahore. 

2. A, prolixus Sieber. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 121. An annual 
procumbent much branched herb ; branches many from the base, very 
slender, 3-18 in. long, densely clothed with adpressed white hairs. 
Leaves distinctly petioled, 1/2 to 1-1/2 in. long ; leaflets distant, glaucous, 
11-17, oblong, obtuse, 1/8 to 1/4 in., clothed with fine adpressed white 
hairs ; stipules minute, lanceolate, free. Heads densely 6-12-flowered ; 
peduncles 1/2 to 1 in. ; calyx under 1/12 in., densely matted ; teeth linear- 
setaceous, nearly as long as the tube ; corolla little exserted, yellow ; 
stigma glabrous. Pod sessile, turgid, 1/4 to 3/8 in., straight, oblong, 
acute, densely pubescent, nearly bilocular, 6-8-seeded. 

Not very common. 

3. A. tribuloides Delile ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 122. A small pro- 
cumbent annual herb ; branches many from the base, caespitose, slender, 
3-12 in., densely clothed upwards with ascending white hairs. Leaves 
distinctly petioled, 1 to 2-1/2 in. ; leaflets 13-15, oblong-lanceolate, acute, 
1/5 to 2/5 in. long, densely clothed with long white hairs on both sides ; 
stipules minute. Heads dense, sessile, 6-10-flowered ; calyx tubular, 
1/8-1/6 in., densely hairy ; teeth setaceous, shorter than the tube ; corolla 
pale yellow, little exserted ; stigma glabrous. Pods 1/4 to 3/8 in. long, 
turgid, linear- oblong, densely pubescent, a little recurved, often spreading, 
sub-bilocular, 10-12-seeded. (Fig. 63.) 

A common weed, in flower and fruit about April. 

4. A* hamosus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 122. A robust annual, 
not so hairy as the other species ; the stems 1-2 ft. long. Leaves distinctly 
petioled, 3-6 in. long ; leaflets distinctly stalked, pale green, 13-25, 
oblong, emarginate, 1/2 to 3/4 in. long, glabrescent above or thinly matted 
with silvery hairs on both sides. Heads peduncled, densely 8-20- 
flowered ; peduncles much shorter than the leaves ; calyx 1/6 in., matted 
with mixed black and white hairs ; teeth subulate, as long as the tube ; 
corolla pale yellow, half as long again as the calyx ; stigma glabrous. 
Pod 1/2 to 1 in. long, cylindrical, glabrous, firm, much recurved, nearly 
bilocular, 16-18-seeded. 

Has been recorded by earlier collectors from Lahore, but has not been seen 

5. A* contortuplicatus Linn.; FL Brit. Ind., II, p. 122. An 
annual herb. Stems suberect, 6-18 in. long, densely clothed with short 
soft spreading white hairs. Leaves distinctly petioled, 3-4 in. long ; leaflets 


1/4 to 1/2 in., distant, greenish, 13-17, oblanceolate-oblong, emarginate, 
densely pilose on both sides. Heads very dense, many-flowered, on pilose 
peduncles much shorter than the leaves ; calyx 1/6 in., densely pilose ; 
teeth setaceous, plumose, exceeding the tube ; corolla little exserted, 
the lanceolate acute wings shorter than the standard and keel. Pod 
1/2 in. long, cylindrical, downy, membranous, rugose, very much recurved 
so as to be completely conduplicate, nearly bilocular, 20-30-seeded. 
Not so far collected from within the area, but may be met with. 

13. Alhagi Desv. 

Low shrub. Leaves simple. Flowers on axillary spines ; calyx 
campanulate ; teeth distinct, minute ; corolla exserted ; standard broad ; 
keel obtuse ; stamens diadelphous ; anthers uniform ; ovary linear, 
sessile, 6-8-ovulate ; style filiform, incurved ; stigma minute, capitate. 
Pod linear, subcontinuous or moniliform ; joints oblong, small, smooth, 

A. maurorum Desv. ; Fil. Brit. Ind. y II, p. 145. Syn. A. 
camelorum Fisch. A low shrub 2-3 ft. high, armed with copious axillary 
spines 1/2 to 1-1/2 in. long. Root very deep. Stem very woody ; twigs 
woody, glabrous or puberulous. Leaves simple, coriaceous, glabrous 
or puberulous, entire, obtuse, obovate or oblong, up to 1 in. long, shortly 
stalked ; petiole 1/15 to 1/10 in. ; stipules minute. Flowers 1-6, on the 
spines, red ; pedicels about 1/10 in. ; calyx glabrous, 1/10 in. long ; corolla 
2 to 3 times as long as the calyx. Pod glabrous, up to 1 in. long, curved 
or straight, more or less indented along the ventral suture or actually 
contracted between the seeds. Seeds 1-several. Vern., Jawan, 
Jawansa. (Fig. 64.) 

Very common on the Ravi-side beyond the railway bridge and in other places. 
Flowers in May. Used as fodder for camels. 

14. Uraria Desv. 

Suffruticose perennials. Leaflets 1-9, stipellate. Flowers very 
numerous, minute, racemose ; calyx-tube very short ; teeth unequal, 
two upper short, three lower usually elongated, setaceous; standard 
broad ; wings adhering to the obtuse keel; stamens diadelphous ; anthers 
uniform ; ovary sessile or short-stalked, few-ovuled ; style inflexed, 
filiform ; stigma terminal. Pod of 2-6 small turgid 1 -seeded indehis- 
cent joints. 

U, picta Desv. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 155. An erect undershrub, 
about 3 ft. high. Stems robust, pubescent, scabrous ; branches few. 
Leaves 4-12 in. long, the lower 1-3-, the upper 5-9-foliolate ; stipules 




Fig. 59, Lotus corniculatus, X J ; Fig. 60, Indigofera linifolia, x J; Fig. 61, Psoralea 
plicata, (a) a flowering and fruiting branch, X J, (b) leaf, x 1 ; Fig. 62, Seabania 
aegyptiaca, (a) a flowering twig, X J, (b) pod, X J ; Fig. 63, Astragalus tributoides, X J. 

1/2 in. long, triangular-lanceolate, acuminate ; leaflets 3-8 in. long, 1/2 to 
1 in. broad, linear-lanceolate, firm, sub- coriaceous, blotched with white 
along the middle and glabrous above, minutely pubescent beneath, 
very shortly stalked ; stipels longer than the stalk of the leaflets, 
subulate. Flowers 1/3 in. long, in fascicles, on a spicate, cylindrical, 


erect, terminal raceme 6-12 in. long ; bracts scarious, caducous ; pedicels 
downy and bristly with hooked hairs abruptly upcurved at the tip after 
flowering ; calyx 1/5 in. long ; corolla exserted, purplish, 1/4 in. long. Pod 
glabrous, pale lead-coloured or whitish, 3-6-jointed. 

Rare. Found on the Shalamar side. Flowers in tho rainy season. The 
hairs on the various parts of the plant are hooked which make it scabrid and by 
which it can cling to clothes, etc. 

15. Alysicarpus Neck. 

Diffuse annuals, biennials or perennials. Leaves simple, stipellate, 
subcoriaceous. Flowers in copious leaf-opposed or terminal racemes 
or spikes ; calyx glumaceous ; teeth deep, often imbricate, the two upper 
often connate ; corolla not exserted ; standard broad ; keel obtuse, adher- 
ing to the wings ; stamens diadelphous ; anthers uniform ; ovary sub- 
sessile or sessile ; ovules many ; style incurved ; stigma capitate. Pod 
terete or turgid, composed of several indehiscent 1 -seeded joints. 

Key to the species. 

Calyx not longer than the first j oint of the pod . . 1 . A . monilifer. 
Calyx much longer than the first joint of the pod, 
its teeth imbricate in the fruiting stage. 
Calyx ciliate only ; joints of pod neither veined 

nor rugose .. .. 2. A. bupleurifo- 

Calyx slightly pubescent and ciliate ; joints 

of pod finely reticulately veined .. 3. A. longifolius. 

1. A, monilifer DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 157. A prostrate 
perennial. Rootstock woody ; stems niciny from the base, spreading, 
clothed with spreading deciduous hairs. Leaves all simple, 1/3 to 2/5 in. 
long, sub-rotund to oblong, usually mucronate, entire, veins distinct, 
glabrous above, finely hairy on the veins beneath ; petiole 1/10 to 1/5 in. ; 
stipules scarious, lanceolate -acuminate, 1/6 to 1/4 in. long. Flowers 
shortly stalked, about 4-8, in close erect pedunculate racemes ; calyx 
obscurely hairy, nearly as long as the first joint of the pod ; teeth very 
narrow, rigid. Pod 1/2 to 3/4 in. long, distinctly moniliform, 2-6-jointed, 
densely clothed with short hooked hairs, not reticulate- veined. (Fig. 65.) 

Pretty common in dry places. Flowers in summer and rainy season. 

2. A. bupleurifolius DC. ; Fl Brit. Ind., //, p. 158. A diffuse 
herb. Stems many from the base, ascending, stiff, glabrous except 
for a line of hairs on a ridge formed by the continuation of the leaf- base 
downwards, 3-8 in. long. Leaves all simple, shortly stalked, 1/2 to 1 in. 




Fig. 64, Alhagi maurorum, x J ; Fig. 65, Alysicarpus monilifer. Two twigs, 
one with fruits, x 1 ; Fig. 66, A. bupleurtfolius, X f ; Fig. 67, Desmodium triflorum, 

by 1/10 to 1/6 in., linear-oblong, acute at both ends, glabrous, veins 
distinct ; stalk 1/20 in. ; stipules lanceolate, acuminate, 1/5 in. long. 
Flowers in 2-0 pairs on rigid spike-like lax racemes 1/2 to 3 in. long ; 
pedicel 1/20 in. ; calyx 1/4 in., much longer than the lowest joint of the 
pod ; tube funnel-shaped ; teeth imbricate, ciliate, not hairy on the back, 
twice as long as the tube ; corolla pink. Pod 1/4 to 1/2 in. long, stalked, 
cylindric, apiculate, glabrous ; joints 2-6, as broad as long, neither veined 
nor rugose. (Fig. 66.) 

Not common. 

3. A t longifolius W. & A. ; Fl Brit. Ind. t II, p. 159. Stems 
stout, ascending, sub-glabrous, reaching 4-5 ft. Leaves all simple, 
shortly petioled, 2-6 in. long, oblong or lanceolate, subcordate, mucronate, 


hairy on the veins beneath ; stipules large, lanceolate, acuminate, scarious. 
Flowers in long densely spicate racemes, closely pressed against the finely 
hairy axis ; bracts large, broadly ovate, cuspidate, concealing the buds, 
soon falling ; calyx 3/8 to 1/2 in., much longer than the lowest joint of 
the pod, pubescent ; tube funnel-shaped, plicate ; teeth ciliate, much 
longer than the tube. Pod 3/8 to 1/2 in., shortly stalked, apiculate, 
moniliform ; joints 4-6, glabrous, faintly reticulate. 
Not seen within the area so far, but may be met with. 

16. DC sm odium Desv. 

Shrubs or herbs. Leaves 3-foliolate or simple, stipellate. Flowers 
small, in copious usually dense racemes ; calyx campanulate or turbi- 
nate ; teeth longer or shorter than the tube, the 2 upper often subconnate ; 
corolla exserted ; standard broad ; wings more or less adhering to the 
usually obtuse keel ; upper stamen entirely or partially free, the other 9 
united ; ovary sessile or stalked, few or many-ovuled ; style incurved ; 
stigma minute, capitate. Pod usually composed of several 1- seeded 
indehiscent joints. 

Key to the species. 
Leaves 3-foliolate. 

Flowers 1-3 in the leaf-axils . . 1. D. triflorum. 

Flowers in racemes . . . . 2. D. parvifolium. 

Leaves 1-foliolate . . . . 3. D. gangeticum. 

1. D, triflorum DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 173. A trailing peren- 
nial herb, often rooting at the joints. Root slender, woody. Stems 
2-12 in. long ; branches many, clothed with fine white spreading hairs. 
Leaves 3-foliolate, rarely 1-foliolate ; 2/5 to 1/2 in. long ; petiole 1/5 in. ; 
stipules ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, persistent ; leaflets 1/5 to 1/4 in., 
subrotund or obovate-cuneate, retuse or truncate, membranous, glabrous 
above, sparsely hairy beneath ; petiole and petiolules densely covered 
with spreading white hairs. Flowers axillary, 1-3 together ; pedicels 
about 1/4 in. ; calyx 1/10 in., clothed with long white hairs ; teeth 
long, setaceous ; corolla 1/5 in., pink or white. Pod 1/3 to 1/2 in., 
indented on the lower suture ; joints 3-5, reticulate- veined, pubescent. 
(Fig. 67.) 

Found in dry places. It is a good soil-binder on account of its peculiar habit 
of growth. It is said to be much liked by cattle. 

2. D. parvifolium DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 174. A much-branched 
procumbent wide-trailing herb ; young parts pubescent. Leaves 3- 
foliolate ; stipules about as long as the petiole, linear-setaceous, persis- 
tent ; leaflets 1/8 to 1/2 in., oval or obovate, obtuse or sub-acute, 
mucronate, glabrous above, pubescent beneath. Racemes lax, usually 


terminal, more than 1/2 in. long ; flowers 6-8, 1/2-1 in., hairy ; 
pedicels filiform ; bracts lanceolate-cuspidate, loosely imbricate in bud, 
soon deciduous ; calyx 1/6 in., hairy, teeth acuminate ; corolla purple. 
Pod about 1/2 in. ; both sutures indented ; joints 3-4, suborbicular, 
minutely pubescent. 

Not seen in the neighbourhood of Lahore so far, but may perhaps be met 
with. Flowers in the rainy season. Said to be much eaten by cattle. 

3. D, gangeticum DC. ; FL Brit. Ind., //, p. 168. A nearly erect 
undershrub, 2-4 ft. high. Stems somewhat angular, glabrescent ; 
branches clothed with adpressed white hairs. Leaves 1-foliolate ; petiole 
1/2 to 1 in. ; stipules 1/4 in., linear, sub-persistent ; leaflet 2-1/2-6 in. 
long, ovate-oblong, acute, rounded, subcordate or truncate at the base, 
membranous or subcoriaceous, scabrid above, grey-puberulous beneath. 
Flowers in close-set fascicles on numerous axillary and terminal axes 
6-12 in. long ; axes and pedicels puberulous ; bracts minute, setaceous ; 
calyx very small, finely downy ; teeth longer than the tube ; corolla 
about 1/6 in., white or tinged with lilac. Pod 1/2 to 3/4 in., sickle- 
shaped, deeply indented on lower suture ; joints 6-8, indehiscent, a little 
longer than broad, covered with minute hooked hairs. 

Met with very occasionally. Flowers during the rainy season. 

17. Cicer Linn. 

Annual herbs with pinnate leaves. Leaflets deeply toothed. 
Flowers axillary, solitary ; calyx-tube oblique ; teeth lanceolate, sub-equal ; 
corolla exserted ; standard broad, exceeding the wings and keel ; stamens 
diadelphous ; anthers uniform ; ovary sessile, 2- or more -ovu led ; style 
incurved, beardless ; stigma capitate. Pod sessile, oblong, turgid, 
narrowed into the persistent style. 

C. ariettnum Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., //, p. 176. An erect annual, 
mostly about 2 ft. tall. Leaves 1-2 in. long, with usually a terminal 
leaflet ; stipules small, obliquely ovate, toothed ; leaflets about 1/4 in. 
long, ovate-oblong or obovate, sharply toothed. Peduncle 1/2 to 3/4 in. 
long, jointed about the middle, deflexed after flowering ; calyx 1/4 to 
1/3 in., teeth narrow ; corolla 1/3-1/2 in. long, pink, blue or white. Pod 
3/4 to 1 in., turgid, pubescent, topped by the persistent base of the 
style. Seeds mostly 1-3, subglobose, beaked, reddish brown, black or 
white. The gram ; Vern., Ghana. 

Cultivated during the cold season. Four different varieties are met with, 
as distinguished by the seed colour and size ; (1) with small reddish seeds; (2) with 
small nearly black seeds ; (3) with small light yellowish brown seeds ; (4) with large 
white seeds, known as kabuli chana. 

Fig. 68, Vicia tetmsperwi, X f ; Fig. 69, Vicia hirsuta, X J ; Fig. 70, Ficia satfva, 
Xi; Fig. 71, 7,a%m* ^^aca, x|; Fig. 72, L. a^u 5 , Xj; Fig. 73, Rhynctosw. 
miniim, X | ; Fig. 74, Dalbergia Sissoo, X J. 


18. Vicia Linn. 

Herbs with equally pinnate leaves ending in a twisted tendril. 
Flowers sub-sessile or on peduncled axillary racemes ; calyx-tube cam- 
panulate, often oblique ; teeth long, often unequal ; corolla more or less 
exserted ; standard broad ; keel shorter than the wings ; stamens diadel- 
phous, the mouth of the staminal-tube very oblique ; anthers uniform ; 
ovary nearly sessile, 2-many-ovuled ; style short, filiform or slightly 
flattened ; stigma capitate. Pod flattish, continuous within. 

The name rari is applied indifferently to the species described below. 

Key to the species. 

Style finely downy all round near the tip ; flowers 
on long peduncles. 

Peduncles 1-2-fld ; pod glabrous, 3-4-seeded 1. V. tetrasperma. 
Peduncles 2-6-fld ; pod hairy, 2-seeded . . 2. V. hirsuta. 
Style conspicuously bearded on the lower side at 
the tip ; flowers 1-2 in each axil, on short pedi- 

Pod 8-10-seeded ; flowers 1-2 in each axil . . 3. V. saliva. 
Pod 5-6-seeded ; flowers solitary . . 4. V. peregrina. 

1. V* tetrasperma Moench.', FL Brit. Ind., II, p. 177. A small 
annual glabrous herb. Stems slender, a ft. or so long, much branched. 
Leaves 3/4 to 1-1/4 in. long up to the last pair of leaflets, sub-sessile, the 
stalk being less than 1/10 in. ; leaflets 3 to 6 pairs, linear, 2/5 to 7/10 in. 
long, mucronate, sub-sessile ; stipules semi-sagittate, linear-lanceolate, 
acuminate. Peduncles axillary, numerous, about as long as the leaves, 
1- or 2-flowered ; pedicels about 1/16 in. ; flowers about 1/6 in. ; 
calyx 1/12 in. ; corolla lilac, distinctly exserted; style downy all round 
near the tip. Pod 1/2 to 1 in. long, thin, flat, linear-oblong, 3-4-seeded. 
(Fig. 68.) 

A common weed in fields. Flowers in the cold season and spring. 

2. V. hirsuta S. F. Gray. ; FL Brit. Ind., II, p. 177. A hairy 
climbing annual. Stems much branched, up to 18 in. or so. Leaves 
1-2 in. up to the last pair of leaflets, subsessile ; stipules semi- sagittate, 
often toothed at the base ; leaflets 5-8 pairs, 1/2 to 1 in. long, linear, 
more or less truncate. Peduncles 1-1/2 in, long, 2-6-flowered at the top ; 
flowers close to each other, small, 1/10 in. long ; corolla very slightly 
exserted, bluish ; style downy all round near the tip. Pod 1/4 to 3/8 in. 
long, oblong-rhomboid, turgid, hairy, 2-seeded. (Fig. 69.) 

A very common weed in fields in winter. 


3. V* sativa Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., II, p. 178. A glabrous or 
obscurely downy annual herb, with suberect slender stems 18 in. or more. 
Leaves 1-1/2 to 2-1/4 in. long up to the last leaflet ; petiole up to 1/5 in. ; 
stipules small, 1/5 in. long, obliquely lanceolate, deeply toothed ; leaflets 
alternate or opposite, 4-6 pairs ; of upper leaves 3/4 to 1-1/4 in. by 1/6 
to 1/5 in., linear, shortly 3-toothed at the apex ; of lower shorter and 
broader. Flowers solitary or two together in the axils of leaves, very 
shortly pedicelled ; calyx 3/8 in., hairy ; teeth lanceolate-subulate ; 
corolla reddish-blue, twice as long as the calyx ; style bearded below the 
stigma on the lower side. Pod 1-1/2 to 2 in., glabrescent, 8-10-seeded. 
(Fig. 70.) 

A very common weed of cultivation in the cold season. 

Var. angustifolia Linn. Smaller and more diffuse ; leaflets shorter, 
those of the lower leaves deeply emarginate. Flowers and pod smaller. 

4. V* percgrina Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., //, p. 178. An annual 
herb. Stems slender, glabrous, diffuse. Leaflets 10-12, alternate or 
opposite, 1/2 to 1 in. long ; stipules minute, bifid, with linear divisions. 
Flowers solitary, on short pedicels in the axils of leaves ; calyx 1/4 in. ; 
teeth lanceolate, the upper shorter, curved upwards ; corolla purplish - 
red, twice the calyx ; style bearded on the lower side at the tip. Pod 
linear-oblong, deflexed, glabrescent, rather recurved, 1 to 1-1/4 in. long, 

V. Faba Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 179. An annual erect glabrous horb 
up to 3 ft. or more high. Stipules semi-sagittate, lacerate-toothed, 3/4 in. long ; 
rachis up to 3 in. long, ending in a green bristle nearly 1 in. long ; leaflets 2 pairs 
(lower leaves with only one pair) ; lower alternate, upper alternate or opposite, 
elliptic -oblong, 2 to 3 in. by 3/4 to 1-3/4 in. entire, acute. Peduncles axillary, 
2-3-flowered; flowers very shortly stalked, 1 in. long; calyx 1/2 in.; tube as long 
as the teeth ; anterior teeth lanceolate, acuminate ; posterior short, triangular; 
standard whitish with blackish veins and spots ; wings with blackish patches in the 
middle ; keel whitish ; stigma with a tuft of hairs on the under side. Pod minutely 
velvety hairy, especially when young, cylindrical, up to 5 in., beaked, 3- or 4- 
soeded. The garden or broad bean ; Vern., Bakla. 

Commonly cultivated during winter. 

19. Lathyrus Linn. 

Leaves equally pinnate, ending in a tendril or bristle. Flowers 
arranged in racemes or solitary ; calyx-tube campanulate, oblique ; 
teeth all or lower only long ; corolla more or less exserted ; standard 
broad ; keel shorter than the wings ; stamens diadelphous, the mouth 
of the tube not oblique ; anthers uniform ; ovary sub-sessile or stalked ; 
ovules many ; style flattened, bearded on the inner side ; stigma capitate. 
Pod terete or somewhat flattened, continuous within. 


Key to the species. 

Leaf wholly changed into a tendril ; leaflets ; 

stem not winged . . . . 1. L. Aphaca. 

Leaflets 2 ; stem winged . . . . 2. L. sativus. 

1. L* Aphaca Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 179. A small much- 
branched glabrous annual herb reaching up to 2 ft., with wingless stems. 
Leaf wholly transformed into a tendril, without any leaflets ; stipules 
in pairs, adpressed to the stem, large, leaf-like, broadly ovate, hastate, 
entire, up to 1 in. long. Peduncles 1-2 in. long, carrying 1-2 flowers ; 
pedicel 1/6 in. ; calyx 1/4 in. ; teeth equal, lanceolate, exceeding the 
tube ; corolla yellow, twice the calyx. Pod linear-oblong, 3/4 in. to 
1-1/4 in. long, 4-6-seeded. Vern., Gagla. (Fig. 71.) 

A very common weed everywhere in the cold season. Each of the first 2 or 
3 leaves after the cotyledons in the seedling bears a pair of very small leaflets which 
are however not developed in later leaves. 

2. L, sativus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 179. A glabrous much- 
branched annual with winged stems reaching up to 2 ft. or so. Leaf 
ending in a 3 -fid tendril ; petiole 3/4 to 1 in., winged ; stipules lanceolate, 
semi-sagittate, entire, 2/5 to 3/4 in. long ; leaflets 2, opposite, 1-2 in. 
long, linear, entire, acuminate. Peduncle 1 -flowered, 1-2 in. long ; calyx 
1/3 in. long ; teeth spreading in flower, lanceolate, twice as long as the 
tube ; corolla 3/4 in., reddish-purple or blue, rarely white ; standard rather 
broader than long, emarginate. Pod 1 to 1-1/2 in. long, oblong, with a 
conspicuous wing on either side of the dorsal suture, 4-5-seeded. Seeds 
compressed, brown or yellowish, marked with red. 

A common weed of cultivation in the cold season. The seeds, when used as 
food, have a reputation for causing paralysis and horses and cattle also suffer in 
a similar manner. 

L* odoratus Linn., the sweet pea, is commonly grown during winter in the gardens. 

20. Lens Oren. & Godr. 

Erect or sub-scandent herbs. Leaves pinnate, the rachis ending 
in a bristle or tendril or in a terminal leaflet ; stipules semi-sagittate ; 
leaflets 2-many pairs, entire ; stipels 0. Flowers solitary or racemed, on 
axillary peduncles ; calyx lobes elongate, sub-equal ; standard broad ; 
wings adherent to the keel ; keel shorter than the wings ; staminal-tube 
with an oblique mouth ; ovary sub-sessile, 2-ovuled ; style inflexed, bearded 
with minute hairs on its inner face. Pod compressed, continuous within, 

L* esculenta Moench. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 179. Syn. Ervum 
lens Linn. A small erect herb, softly pubescent, branching from the 


base. Leaf-rachis ending in a short bristle ; leaflets 4-6 pairs, sessile, 
lanceolate, often mucronate. Racemes 2-4-flowered ; peduncles about 
as long as the flowers ; calyx-teeth linear, twice as long as the tube, 
silky ; corolla a little longer than the calyx- teeth, pale purple. Pod 
rhomboid-oblong, about 1/2 in. long, smooth. Seeds usually 2, compressed, 
grey, with minute spots ; cotyledons red. The Lentil ; Vern., Masur. 
Cultivated as a cold-weather crop. 

21. Pisum Linn. 

Characters of Laihyrus, but style thick, laterally compressed, 
dilated and leaflets 4-6. 

Key to the species. 

Seeds compressed, marbled . . 1. P. arvense. 

Seeds globose, of uniform colour . . 2. P. sativum. 

1. P, arvense Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 181. A smooth glabrous 
annual. Stipules large, ovate, semi-cordate, irregularly toothed at the 
base ; leaflets 4-6 ; rachis ending in a branched tendril. Peduncles 
1 -few-flowered, as long or longer than the stipules ; standard pink ; 
wings deep purple. Pod reticulate. Seeds angled, smooth, greenish- 
yellow, mottled with red. Vern., Desi malar, Chota matar. 

2. P. sativum Linn., Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 181. A more robust 
plant than P. arvense. Flowers usually white, on larger peduncles. 
Pods broader. Seeds round, uniformly whitish. Vern., Matar. 

Regarded by some authors as a mere variety or sub-species of the preceding 
modified by culture. Cultivated during winter. 

22. Canavalia DC. 

Large twining perennials or biennials. Leaves 3-foliolate, stipel- 
late. Flowers showy ; calyx 2-lipped ; upper lip projecting, entire or 
emarginate ; the lower shortly 3-toothed ; corolla much exserted ; 
standard large, roundish ; wings shorter, equalling the incurved obtuse 
keel ; stamens monadelphous ; anthers uniform ; ovary sub-sessile, 
many-ovuled ; style incurved, beardless ; stigma terminal. Pod large, 
linear or oblong, flattish, with a distinct rib on each valve near the upper 

C ensiformis DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 195. Stems and branches 
sparsely and shortly pubescent. Leaves 10-15 in. long ; petiole 5-6 in. ; 
stipules minute, deciduous ; leaflets 5-8 in. long, ovate, acute, rounded 
at the base, membranous, very soon glabrous ; stipels subulate, caducous. 
Peduncles 4-6 in., axillary, carrying loose many-flowered racemes 3-8 


in. long ; flowers solitary or in pairs from swollen nodes ; bracteoles 
minute, ovate, caducous ; calyx 1/2-nearly 1 in. long, sparsely hairy ; 
upper lip 1/3 the length of the tube ; corolla 1-1/2 in. long, lilac or white. 
Pods few, linear- oblong, slightly curved, varying in length from 6-24 in. ; 
dorsal suture strongly 3 -keeled. Seeds 1-1/4 by 3/4 in., white, grey or 
more usually red. The sword-bean ; Vern., Bar a sem. 

Cultivated for the sake of the edible pods. 

23. Phaseolus Linn. 

Usually herbaceous twiners. Leaves 3-foliolate, stipellate. Flowers 
in copious axillary racemes ; bracteoles usually conspicuous and persis- 
tent ; calyx campanulate, the lowest tooth usually longer than the rest, 
the 2 uppermost sub- connate ; corolla much exserted, the keel prolonged 
into a very long beak which forms a complete, or in some cases nearly 
complete, spiral ; stamens diadelphous ; anthers uniform ; ovary sessile, 
many-ovuled ; style filiform, twisted round the keel, conspicuously 
bearded below the very oblique stigma. Pod linear, rarely oblong, 
sub-terete or sub-compressed, more or less distinctly septate between the 

Key to the species. 

Stipules small, basifixed ; pod compressed. 

Pod broad, scimitar-shaped, 2-4-seeded . . 1. P. lunatus. 
Pod linear, straight, 4-6-seeded . . 2. P. vulgaris. 

Stipules inserted above their bases; pod cylin- 

Pod glabrous . . . . 3. P. aconitifolius. 

Pod hairy. 

Leaves dark green ; pods spreading . . 4. P. radiatus. 
Leaves yellowish green ; pod ascending 

or sub-erect . . . . 5. P. Mungo. 

The above nomenclature and classification of the species met with within 
the area of this book is adapted from Duthie (Fl. Upper Gang. PL), who has followed 
the views of Dr. Prain as regards this difficult genus (Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng., Vol. 

1. P. lunatus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 200. A tall biennial 
twining plant. Stems at first minutely downy, soon glabreseent. 
Stipules basifixed. Flowers in laxly arranged fascicles on a short- 
peduncled axis up to 6 in. long ; the lower fascicles distant, with 2-4 
flowers to a node ; pedicels finally 1/4-1/3 in. long ; bracteoles minute ; 
calyx 1/12 in. ; teeth all very short ; corolla 3-4 times the calyx, greenish - 
yell.ow ; petals hairy outside ; the keel prolonged into a complete spiral. 


Pod 2-3 in. by 5/8-3/4 in., flat, oblong, the upper suture recurved, the 
lower broadly rounded. Seeds 2-4, large, white or mottled. Lima bean. 
Occasionally cultivated in gardens. Eaten as a vegetable. Believed to be a 
native of Brazil. 

2. P. vulgaris Linn. ; PL Brit. Ind., //, p. 200. A -ub-.:1abnii-. 
sub-erect or twining annual. Stipules small, basifixed. Racemes lax, 
sub-sessile, few-flowered ; much shorter than the leaves ; pedicels finally 
1/4-1/3 in. ; bracteoles ovate or roundish, persistent. Flowers white or 
lilac-purple ; petals glabrous outside ; keel prolonged into a complete 
spiral. Pod 4-6 in. by 1/2 in., linear, recurved, glabrous, rostrate, turgid, 
4-6-seeded. French bean or kidney bean. 

Occasionally cultivated in gardens. 

3. P, aconltifolius Jacq. ; PL Brit. Ind., II, p. 202. A slender 
diffuse much-branched hairy annual ; hairs spreading. Stipules oblong- 
ovate to lanceolate, 1/3 in. long, coarsely hairy on the outside, fixed above 
the base; petiole -1-3 in., hairy; stipels linear-subulate, 1/10-1/5 in.; 
leaflets 3-lobed nearly to the base, segments linear, some of them again 
lobed, hairy on both surfaces ; stalk of terminal leaflet 1/3-2/5 in., that of 
lateral leaflets 1/10 in. long. Flowers yellow, in a capitate raceme, minute ; 
peduncles up to 3 in. long in fruit, hairy ; bracts and bracteoles linear, the 
latter twice as long as the calyx, ciliate ; pedicels 1/15 in. ; calyx 1/10 in., 
glabrous ; teeth small, lower ciliate ; keel prolonged into a complete 
spiral. Pod cylindrical, 1-2 in. long, very shortly hairy, slightly cons- 
tricted between the seeds ; suture thickened. Seeds oblong. Vern., 

4. P. radiatus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 203 (under P. Mungo, 
var. radiatus). A much branched stout sub-erect annual clothed with 
deciduous rough -hiv.i'liii.. 1 hairs. Leaves 9-14 in. long ; stipules attached 
slightly above the base, oblong, acute, 1/4-1/2 in. long ; petiole up to 
9 in. long, with spreading hairs ; stipels small ; stalk of terminal leaflet 
1 to 1-1/2 in., of lateral leaflets 1/4 in. ; leaflets deep green, 2-4 in. long, 
broadly ovate or roundish, entire, acute, the lateral oblique, deltoid or 
rounded at the base, hairy on both sides. Racemes capitate ; peduncles 
up to 2 in. long, usually much shorter ; flowers about 1/2 in. long, yellow ; 
keel produced into a complete spiral. Pod 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in. by 1/5 in., 
cylindrical, more or less clothed with long coarse hairs. Seeds green. 
Vern., Mung. 

Cultivated as a rainy season crop. Three varieties can be distinguished by 
the seed-colour, green, yellow and black. 

5. P* Mungo Linn. Stems scandent or sub-scandent ; seeds black. 
This is the typical and wild form of urd as named by Linnaeus and in the opinion 

of Dr. Prain may not be varietally distinct from the next. 


Form Roxburgh!! Prain. ; P. Mungo, var. radiatus, Fl. Brit. 
Ind., //, p. 203, in part. Stems longer and more trailing than those 
of P. radiatus ; whole plant much more hairy, with reddish-brown pubes* 
cence, which gives the foliage a lighter tint ; leaves larger ; the pods are 
nearly erect, very hairy. Seeds larger and longer than those of mung, 
and usually dark brown, sometimes of a dull greenish grey colour. Vern., 
Urd, Mash, Marih. 

Cultivated as a rainy season crop. 

24. Vigna Savi. 

Twining herbs or shrubs. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, stipellate. 
Flowers in copious axillary racemes ; bracts small, deciduous ; brac- 
teoles conspicuous ; calyx campanulate ; teeth short or long, the upper 
often connate ; corolla much exserted ; keel truncate or prolonged into 
a beak, not spirally twisted ; stamens diadelphous ; anthers uniform ; 
ovary sessile, many-ovuled ; style long, filiform, bearded along the inner 
face below the oblique stigma. Pod linear, sub-terete, sub-septate. 

V. Catiang Walp. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 205. A sub-erect or 
twining annual with glabrous stems. Leaves up to about 6 in. long ; 
stipules 1/3 to 1/2 in., ovate, acuminate, attached above the base, per- 
sistent ; petiole 1-2 in., glabrous ; stipels minute ; stalk of terminal leaflet 
up to 1 in., that of lateral leaflets 1/5 in. ; leaflets 3-6 in. long, broadly or 
narrowly ovate, lateral oblique, glabrous, sub-coriaceous, entire or slightly 
lobed. Flowers in sub-capitate racemes ; fruiting peduncle up to 6 in. ; 
bracts attached above the base, deciduous ; calyx under 1/2 in. ; corolla 
yellow or reddish, twice as long as the calyx. Pod 3-12 in. long, slightly 
depressed between the seeds. Vern., Rawas, Rawan, Raung. 

Cultivated as a rainy season crop. 

25. Dolichos Linn. 

Twining herbs. Leaves 3-foliolate, stipellate ; stipules minute, 
sub-persistent. Flowers racemed ; bracts and bracteoles sub-persistent ; 
calyx-tube campanulate, long- or short-toothed ; corolla much exserted, 
petals usually equally long ; keel obtuse or rostrate, not spiral ; stamens 
diadelphous ; anthers uniform ; ovary nearly sessile ; ovules many ; 
style filiform or thickened upwards, bearded on the inner face or round 
the terminal stigma. Pod flat, linear or oblong, recurved. 

D, Lablab Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 209. A large twiner, slightly 
hairy, perennial or under cultivation annual. Leaves up to 8 in. or more 
long ; stipules lanceolate, basifixed ; petiole up to 4 in. or more, softly 
hairy ; stipels linear-lanceolate, about 1/6 in. ; stalk of terminal leaflet 


about 1 in., that of lateral leaflets about 1/7 in. ; leaflets 2-6 in. long, 
broadly ovate, entire, acuminate, thinly and shortly hairy on both sides ; 
lateral leaflets oblique. Racemes and peduncles each reaching 6-9 in. ; 
pedicels fascicled, on nodes 1/2 to 3/4 in. apart ; bracteoles oblong ; 
calyx 1/4 in. ; teeth short, deltoid ; corolla reddish or white, 1/2 to 3/4 in. ; 
keel narrow, rostrate ; style thickened upwards, narrowed towards the 
base, bearded down the inner edge. Pod 1-1/2 to 2 in. by 1/2 to 3/4 in^ 
tipped with the hooked persistent base of the style, downy, 3-5-seeded. 
Vern., 8 em. 

Cultivated for the sake of the poda, which are cooked as a vegetable. Flowers 
during winter. 

26. Atylosia W. & A. 

Erect or twining herbs or shrubs. Leaves 3-foliolate, often exstipel- 
late, gland-dotted beneath. Flowers axillary or racemed ; calyx-teeth 
longer or shorter than the tube, the lowest longest ; corolla more or 
less exserted, caducous or not ; keel not beaked ; stamens diadelphous ; 
anthers uniform ; ovary sessile, 3- or more-ovuled ; style filiform, inciirved, 
glabrous ; stigma capitate. Pod linear or oblong, turgid, marked with 
transverse lines between the seeds. Seeds conspicuously strophiolate. 

A. scarabaeoides Benth. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 215. A herbaceous 
twiner with slender densely grey-pubescent stem. Leaves 1-1/2-2 in. 
long, sub-digitately 3-foliolate ; stipules minute ; stipels absent ; leaflets 
obovate-oblong, obtuse or sub-acute, 3-nerved towards the base, sparsely 
pubescent above, pubescent below ; petiole 1/2 in. long. Peduncles 
short, axillary, densely pubescent, 2-6-flowered ; calyx densely grey- 
silky, teeth longer than the tube ; corolla yellow, 1/3-3/8 in. long ; keel 
incurved at the tip. Pod 3/4-1 in. long, straight, 4-6-seeded, with fine 
brown silky tomentum. 

27. Rhynchosia Lour. 

Twining or erect herbs or shrubs with pinnately 3-foliolate leaves, 
gland-dotted on the lower surface, stipellate or not ; stipules and bracts 
caducous. Flowers racemed ; calyx- tube short ; teeth equalling or much 
exceeding it, usually not accrescent, the upper often more or less connate ; 
corolla included or exserted ; keel not incurved, not distinctly beaked ; 
stamens diadelphous ; anthers uniform ; ovary nearly sessile ; ovules 
usually 2 ; style long, filiform, much incurved ; stigma capitate. Pod 
round or oblong, flattish or turgid, usually continuous between the 


Key to the species. 

A trailing herb ; seeds with a waxy aril . . 1. R. aurea. 

A twining herb ; seeds without aril . . 2. E. minima. 

R. aurea DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 221. An annual with slender 
wide-trailing stems clothed with long spreading hairs. Leaves up to 
3 in. ; stipules minute, lanceolate, caducous ; petiole 1-2 in., with spreading 
hairs ; leaflets exstipellate, the lateral sub-sessile, the terminal with a 
stalk 1/4 to 3/10 in. long, rhomboid or roundish-obovate, entire, 3/4 in. 
to 1| in. long, glabrous above, sparsely hairy below. Racemes short- 
peduncled, shorter than the leaves, 6-10-flowered ; calyx densely hairy ; 
segments setaceous, 3-4 times as long as the tube, forming short hooked 
points to the flower-buds ; corolla yellow, a little exserted. Pod round, 
flattened, 3/8-1/2 in., apiculate, marked with delicate transverse lines, 
thinly covered with long spreading hairs, 2 -seeded. Seeds with a waxy aril. 

R. minima DC. ; FL Brit. Ind., II, p. 223. A twining annual with 
slender stems, nearly or quite glabrescent. Leaves up to 3 in. long, 
exstipellate ; stipules minute, lanceolate, caducous ; petiole up to 2 in. ; 
leaflets 1/4 to 1 in., sub-coriaceous or membranous, ovate, entire, acute 
conspicuously gland-dotted beneath ; lateral sub-sessile ; terminal with 
a stalk 1/4 in. long. Racemes exceeding the leaves, 4-0 -flowered ; bracts 
minute, linear ; pedicels very short ; calyx 1/8 to 1/6 in., pubescent ; 
lowest teeth setaceous, twice the tube ; corolla yellow, twice the calyx. 
Pod 1/2 to 5/8 in. long, under 1/4 in. broad, oblong, glabrescent, turgid, 
slightly recurved, 2 -seeded. Seeds without an aril. (Fig. 73.) 

28. Dalbergia Linn. 

Trees or climbing shrubs. Leaves with alternate sub -coriaceous 
leaflets, imparipinnate. Flowers numerous, small, in terminal or lateral 
panicles ; calyx campanulate, shortly toothed ; corolla exserted ; standard 
broad ; keel obtuse, its petals free below, joined at the tip ; stamens 
monadelphous ; anthers minute, basifixed, opening mostly by short 
and apical slits ; ovary stalked, few-ovuled ; style short, incurved, glab- 
rous ; stigma capitate. Pod oblong or strap -shaped, usually thin and 
flat, 1-4-seeded, indehiscent, not thickened or winged at the sutures. 

D. Sissoo Roxb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 231. A tall deciduous tree 
with young parts downy. Leaves 4-5 in. ; stipules caducous, linear, 
1/6 in. ; petiole 3/4 to 1 in. ; leaf-rachis zig zag ; leaflets 3-5, with stalk 
1/6 to 1/5 in., roundish or ovate, acute or acuminate, 1-3 in. long, firm, 
soon glabrescent. Peduncles axillary, much shorter than the leaves, 
with densely pubescent branches ; calyx 1/6 in. long, downy ; corolla 
yellowish, twice the length of the calyx ; standard with a long claw and 


round limb ; stamens 9, in one bundle, the sheath being slit only along the 
top. Pod straight, thin, strap-shaped, pale brown, glabrous, 1-1/2 to 
2 in. by 1/4 to 1/2 in., obtuse, with a short stalk, 1-4-seeded. Vern., 
Shisham, Tali. (Pig. 74.) 

Cultivated. Flowers : March to May. 


Mostly trees or shrubs, rarely herbs. Leaves stipulate, generally 
alternate, pinnate, bipinnate or simple, usually exstipellate. Flowers 
commonly showy, in racemes, spikes or rarely cymose, generally bisexual, 
irregular, zygomorphic, rarely nearly regular and actinomorphic ; sepals 
5 or 4 by the union of the two posterior ones, generally free, imbricate, 
rarely valvate ; petals 5 or fewer by abortion, sometimes 0, imbricate, 
the posterior innermost in bud (just the reverse of what is found in the 
Papilionacece) ; stamens 10 or fewer by abortion, sometimes numerous, 
free or variously connate ; gynaecium and fruit and seeds, similar to that 
of Papilionacece. Mainly tropical and sub-tropical. 

Key to the genera. 

Leaves bipinnate. 

Pod not moniliform . . . . 1. Ccesalpinia. 

Pod moniliform . . . . 2. Parkinsonia. 

Leaves simply pinnate. 

Petals 5 ; stamens free . . 3. Cassia. 

Petals 3 ; stamens monadelphous . . 4. Tamarindus. 

Leaves simple, shortly or deeply 2-lobed . . 5. Bauhinia. 

1. Caesalpinia Linn. 

Trees, shrubs or woody prickly climbers. Leaves large, abruptly 
bipinnate. Flowers showy, yellow, in copious axillary racemes ; calyx 
deeply-cleft, lobes imbricate, the lowest the largest, hoodlike ; petals 
spreading, usually orbicular, with a distinct claw, the uppermost smaller 
than the others ; stamens 10, free, decimate ; anthers oblong, uniform, 
versatile; ovary shortly stalked or not; ovules few; style filiform, 
sometimes clubbed at the tip ; stigma terminal. Pod thin and flat, or 
thicker and sub-turgid, indehiscent or dehiscent, smooth or spiny. 

C. Bonducella Fleming ; FL Brit. Ind., II, p. 254. A scandent 
shrub, with small hard yellow prickles on stems, petioles and the axis 
of the inflorescence. Leaves 12-18 in. long, with a pair of reduced 
bifid pinnae at the base ; pinnae 6-8 pairs ; leaflets opposite, 6-10 pairs, 



about 1/2 in. long, oblong, mucronate, rather downy beneath, very shortly 
stalked. Racemes long-peduncled, simple or panicled, denser towards 
the top ; pedicels downy ; bracts linear, recurved at the apex ; calyx 
1/4 to 1/3 in. long, rusty-tomentose ; petals twice as long as the calyx, 
oblanceolate, yellow. Pod 2-3 in. long, oblong, densely armed on the 
faces with sharp wiry prickles, dehiscent. Seeds 1-2, lead-coloured, 
shining. Fever nut ; Vern., Katkaranja. 

Sometimes found in hedges, etc. Flowers in the rainy season. Used medi- 

2. Parkinsonia Linn. 

Spiny shrubs or small trees. Leaves bipinnate. Flowers yellow, 
in short racemes ; calyx deeply cleft ; segments sub -equal, lanceolate, 
sub-valvate ; petals exserted, broad, the upper with a long claw ; stamens 
10, included, villous ; anthers versatile ; ovary short-stalked ; ovules 
many ; style filiform ; stigma terminal. Pod turgid, dry, moniliform, 
finally dehiscing. 

Fig. 75, Parkinsonia aculeata, X J. 

P, aculeata Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 260. A glabrous bush or 
low tree, armed with sharp woody spines formed by the modification 
of the primary rachis of a bipinnate leaf ; pinnae 2-6, congested at the 
base of the primary rachis, 6-12 in. long ; rachis much flattened ; pin- 
nules 25-30 pairs, up to 1/5 in. long, oblong-obovate or obovate, sub- 
sessile. Racemes lax, shorter than the leaves ; pedicels long, slender ; 
corolla yellow, 3/8 to 1/2 in. across. Pod 1-4 in. long. Seeds 1-6, oblong, 
smooth, mottled. (Fig. 75.) 

Often cultivated. A native of tropical America. Flowers : April and May. 

3. Cassia Linn. 

Shrubs or trees, rarely herbs. Leaves paripinnate. Flowers 
usually large and showy, in axillary racemes and terminal panicles ; 



sepals connate for a very short distance, broad or narrow, imbricate ; 
petals 5, imbricate, sub -equal, usually broad ; stamens 10, but generally 
many abortive, 3-5 being often reduced to staminodes or altogether 
absent ; anthers usually basifixed, opening by terminal pores or short 
slits ; ovary sessile or stalked ; ovules many ; style incurved ; stigma 
terminal. Pod very variable, terete or flat, usually septate, dehiscent 
or not. Seeds flattened, albuminous. 

Key to the species. 

Tree ; pod 1-2 ft. long, cylindrical . . . . 1. C. fistula. 

Shrub or undershrub ; pod 4-5 in. long, flattened 2. C. occidentalis. 
Annual herb, pod 6-9 in. long, narrow, nearly 

cylindrical . . . . 3. C. obtusifolia. 

1. C. fistula Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 261. A small or medium- 
sized tree ; twigs finely pubescent when young. Leaves 12-18 in. long ; 
rachis sub-glabrous, terete ; stipules minute ; leaflets 4-8 pairs, opposite, 
2-7 in. long, ovate, ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, entire, usually 
acute and the apex bent downwards, glabrous above, very finely pubes- 
cent beneath, sub-coriaceous, with stalks 1/6 to 1/3 in. long. Racemes 
drooping, axillary, 1 to 3-1/2 ft. long. Flowers large, yellow ; bracts 
caducous, linear, 1/8 in., tomentose ; bracteoles caducous, ovate-lanceolate, 
1/12 in., tomentose ; pedicels 1-2 in. long, slender, spreading, jointed near 
the top ; sepals 2/5 to 1/3 in., almost free to the base, oblong, obtuse ; 
petals oblong-obovate, shortly stalked ; stamens 10, all anther bearing, 
the lowest three with long curved filaments and large anthers dehiscing by 
long slits, the 4-6 lateral shorter, with anthers dehiscing by pores, 
the uppermost 1-3 very small, with indehiscent anthers ; ovary shortly 
stalked, curved. Pod 1-2 ft. long, about 1 in. in diameter, cylindric, 
smooth, dark brownish-black when ripe, septate. Seeds flat, parallel 
with the septa, 40-100, immersed in a dark coloured sweetish pulp . Vern., 

Commonly cultivated in gardens. Flowers : April-June, sometimes as late 
as September. Pulp of the pod used medicinally. 

2. C. occidentalis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 262. A sub- 
glabrous undershrub, a few feet high, usually of annual duration. Leaves 
6-8 in. long, stalk about 2 in., with one gland near the base; stipules 
about 2/5 in., acuminate, caducous ; leaflets 3-5 pairs, opposite, ovate to 
oblong -lanceolate, 1 to 3-1/2 in. long, entire, acuminate, sub-sessile, mem- 
branous, foetid when bruised. Flowers about 1/2 in. across, yellow, in 
axillary corymbose racemes ; bracts 1/3 to 2/6 in., ovate, oblique, 
acuminate, glabrous, caducous, white tinged with pink ; sepals almost free, 


oblong, obtuse, glabrous, white tinged with pink ; petals oblong-obovate, 
sub-equal ; stamens, three upper reduced to staminodes, the three lower 
longer and with larger anthers than the four lateral. Pod 4-5 in. long, 
1/3 in. broad, flattened, slightly curved, transversely septate, distinctly 
torulose. Seeds 20-30, ovoid, compressed, smooth, hard, shining, pale 

Common in waste ground. Probably introduced from Tropical America. 
Flowers in the rainy season. 

3. C. obtusifolia Linn. ; Fl. Brit., Ind., //, p. 263 (under C. Tora). 
A glabrous annual weed growing up into an undershrub. Leaves 3-4 
in. long ; petiole about 3/4 in. ; stipules linear-subulate, caducous ; leaflets 
very shortly stalked, obovate-oblong, entire, glaucous, 1/2-2 in. long; 
rachis channelled above, with one conical gland between the lowest pair 
of leaflets. Flowers usually in axillary pairs on very short peduncles ; 
pedicels about 1/5 in., up to 2/5 in. in fruit ; sepals nearly free to the base, 
green, oblong ; petals bright yellow, oblong ; stamens upper 3 rudi- 
mentary, the remaining 7 sub-equal. Pod 6-9 in. long, slender, nearly 
cylindrical ; sutures broad. Seeds 25-35, brown, shining, flattened in 
the same direction as the pod. 

Very common in waste places and on road-sides during the rainy season. 

4. Tamarindus Linn. 

A spineless tree with abruptly pinnate leaves. Flowers racemed ; 
calyx- tube turbinate ; teeth lanceolate, imbricate, the 2 lowest connate ; 
petals, only the 3 upper developed, the 2 lateral ovate, the posterior 
hooded, the lower 2 abortive ; stamens monadelphous, only 3 developed, 
the others reduced to mere bristles at the top of the staminal-tube ; 
anthers oblong, versatile ; ovary many-ovuled, with a stalk adnate to 
the calyx-tube ; style filiform ; stigma capitate. Pod linear-oblong, 
many seeded, with a thin crustaceous epicarp and thick pulpy mesocarp. 

T. indica Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 273. A large ever-green tree. 
Leaflets 10-20 pairs, opposite, oblong, 1/2 to 3/4 in. by 1/6 to 1/5 in., 
close. Flowers in 10-15-flowered lax racemes at the ends of short 
branches ; pedicels articulated ; bracts boat-shaped, caducous ; petals 
yellow, striped with red. Pod 3-8 in. long and about 1 in. broad, 
slightly compressed, indehiscent. Seeds 3-10, hard, dark-brown or black, 
compressed. Vern., Imli ; Tamarind. 

Occasionally cultivated. 

5. Bauhinia Linn. 

Unarmed erect trees or climbers with watch-spring tendrils. Leaves 
simple, usually deeply 2-lobed, rarely entire or fully divided into 2 leaflets. 


Flowers showy, in copious, simple or panicled, often corymbose race- 
mes ; calyx-tube long and cylindrical or short and turbinate ; limb 
entire and spathaceous, or 2- or 5-cleft; petals 5, sub-equal, usually 
distinctly clawed ; stamens 10, or less by abortion, abortive ones repre- 
sented by sterile filaments or altogether absent ; filaments free ; anthers 
versatile ; ovary stalked, many-ovuled ; style short or long ; stigma 
small or large and peltate, sub-terminal or oblique. Pod generally 
linear, flat, dehiscent or indehiscent. 

Key to the species. 

Leaves cleft half-way down ; calyx -tube shorter 

than the limb .. .. . . 1. B. pur pur ea. 

Leaves cleft one-third of the way down ; calyx-tube 

as long or longer than the limb . . . . 2. B. variegata. 

1. B. purpurea Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., II, p. 284. A middle-sized 
tree ; young parts brown-pubescent. Leaves 3-6 in. long, rather longer 
than broad, cleft about half-way down into two acute or rounded lobes, 
base usually cordate, 9-11-nerved ; petiole 1 to 1-1/2 in. long. Flowers 
large, rose-purple, in few-flowered terminal brown-tomentose panicles ; 
pedicels 1/5 to 1/2 in., stout, tomentose ; bracts and bracteoles small, 
tomentose, deltoid ; calyx tomentose ; tube 1/3 to 2/5 in. long ; limb twice 
as long as the tube, usually splitting into two reflexed segments, one 
emarginate, the other 3-toothed ; petals white to deep rose-coloured, 
1-2 in. long, oblanceolate, long-clawed, spreading ; stamens only 3-4 fertile, 
the others reduced to anther-less filaments ; ovary downy, long-stalked. 
Pod 6-10 in. by 1/2 to 3/4 in., stalked, linear, flat, pointed, greenish tinged 
with purple till ripe, late in dehiscing. Seeds 12-15, sub -orbicular, 
flattened, dark-brown, smooth. 

Occasionally cultivated. Flowers : September-November. 

2. B. variegata Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., //, p. 284. A medium-sized 
deciduous tree ; young shoots brown -pubescent. Leaves 4-6 in. long, 
as broad as or rather broader than long, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 of the way down 
into 2, obtuse, subcoriaceous lobes ; base usually deeply cordate, 11-15- 
nerved ; petiole 1 to 1-1/2 in. long. Flowers large, fragrant, white or 
purple, appearing when the tree is leafless, in short axillary or terminal, 
few-flowered, grey -pubescent racemes ; pedicels short or ; bracts and 
bracteoles minute, tomentose, deltoid ; calyx grey-tomentose ; tube 
slender, 1/2 to 1 in. long ; limb spathaceous, nearly as long as the tube, 
5-toothed at the apex ; petals obovate, rather long-clawed, all white or 
4 pale-purple and the 5th darker with dark purple veins ; fertile stamens 


5 ; staminodes ; ovary pubescent along the sutures, long-stalked. 
Pod 6-12 in. by 3/4 to 1 in., hard, flat, dehiscent, on a glabrous stalk 
about 1 in. long. Seeds 10-15. Vern., Kachndr. 

Occasionally cultivated. Flower-buds used as a vegetable. Flowers : February- 


Trees or shrubs, very rarely herbs. Leaves generally bipinnate, 
rarely simply pinnate. Flowers small, bisexual, rarely polygamous, 
regular, actinomorphic, in racemes, spikes or heads, 3-6-, usually 5-merous ; 
sepals generally connate into a tubular calyx, lobes valvate ; petals also 
usually valvate and connate below ; stamens as many as petals or twice 
as many or numerous, free or monadelphous, usually exserted, forming 
the most conspicuous part of the flower ; anthers often with a deci- 
duous gland at the apex ; gynsecium, fruit and seeds as in Papilionacece 
and Ccesalpiniacece. In tropical and subtropical countries, many in dry 

Key to the genera. 
Stamens 10. 

Prickly ; flowers in spikes ; anthers gland-tipped 1. Prosopis. 
Unarmed ; flowers in globose heads ; anthers 
not gland-tipped. 

Stigma clavate ; pod 2-3 in. long . . 2. Desmanthus. 

Stigma capitate ; pod 5-6 in. long . . 3. Leuccena. 

Stamens indefinite. 

Filaments free . . . . 4. Acacia. 

Filaments connate .. .. ..5. Albizzia. 

1. Prosopis Linn. 

Trees or shrubs, armed with scattered prickles. Leaves bipinnate, 
pinnae few, with small narrow leaflets. Flowers small, in narrow spikes, 
5-merous, polygamous ; calyx campanulate, faintly 5 -toothed ; petals 
5, sub-coherent at the base ; stamens 10, free, slightly exserted ; filaments 
filiform ; anthers gland-tipped ; ovary stalked, many-ovuled ; style 
filiform ; stigma minute, terminal. Pod turgid, cylindrical or oblong, 
with a thick spongy mesocarp, septate between the seeds. 

1 . P, spicigera Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 288. A small or medium- 
sized ever-green tree ; branches armed with short nearly straight some- 
what compressed prickles, rarely unarmed. Rachis rather slender, 
1/2 to 2 in. long ; pinnae 1-2 pairs, 1-3 in. long ; leaflets 7-15 pairs, 



opposite, oblong, coriaceous, oblique, mucronate, base rounded, 3-nerved, 

sub-sessile, 1/3 to 1/2 in. by 1/10 to 1/6 
in. Flowers creamy- white, in slender 
pedunculate spikes 2-5 in. long, axil- 
lary or arranged in terminal panicles ; 
petals oblong, tips recurved. Pod 5-10 
in. by 1/5 to 1/3 in., slender, pendu- 
lous, cylindrical, turgid, torulose, nar- 
rowed into a short stalk ; epicarp thinly 
coriaceous ; mesocarp pulpy ; endocarp 
papery. Seeds 10-15, oblong-com- 
pressed. Vern., Jand. (Fig. 76.) 

Flowers : April-May. Foliage and pods 
are used for fodder. The sweetish pulp 
around the seeds is sometimes eaten, raw or 

P. glandulosa Torr., the Mesquite, a native 
of America, is commonly cultivated. It has 
longer leaflets and compressed pods. 

Fig. 76, Prosopis spicigera, x f . 

2. Desmanthus Willd. 

Shrubs. Leaves bipinnate, with persistent stipules and numerous 
small strap-shaped sensitive membranous leaflets. Flowers polygamous, 
in globose heads ; calyx minute, campanulate, 5-toothed ; petals 5, 
valvate, finally nearly free ; stamens 10 ; filaments free, filiform ; anthers 
not gland-crested ; ovary sessile, linear, many-ovuled ; style filiform ; 
Btigma clavate. Pod linear, straight, coriaceous, dehiscent. 

D 4 virgatus Willd. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., //, p. 290. A nearly glabrous 
erect shrubby perennial with long slender branches. Rachis 1/2 to 1-3/4 
in., with a gland at the base, produced beyond the last pinnae as a short 
bristle ; pinnse 2-5 pairs, 1/2 to 2 in. long ; leaflets 12-20 pairs, linear- 
oblong, oblique, mucronate, 1/4 in. long, sessile. Flowers pale yellowish- 
white, in globose axillary pedunculate heads ; peduncles solitary, up 
to 2 in. in fruit; calyx 1/10 in. long; corolla less than twice as long as 
the calyx. Pod 2-3 in. by 1/8 in., compressed, 20-30-seeded. 
Introduced from Tropical America. Flowers : May-September. 

3. Leucaena Benth. 

Unarmed erect trees. Leaves bipinnate. Flowers sessile, in 
dense globose heads, 5-merous; calyx cylindrical- campanulate, shortly 
toothed ; petals free ; stamens 10, free, much exserted ; anthers not 


gland-crested ; ovary stalked, many-ovuled ; style filiform ; stigma 
minute, terminal. Pod flat, coriaceous, strap-shaped, dehiscent. 

L, glauca Benth. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 290. A large shrub or a 
small erect tree ; young shoots densely grey-pubescent. Rachis 3-6 
in. long, pubescent, ending in a soft bristle ; pinnae 4-8 pairs, 2 to 
3-1/2 in. long, their rachis pubescent, ending in a soft bristle ; leaflets 
10-15 pairs, rather distant, about 1/2 in. long, oblique, linear-oblong, 
acute, nearly or quite glabrous, sessile. Flowers whitish, in dense 
globose pedunculate heads ; peduncles 1 to 1-1/2 in. long; calyx 1/10 in. 
long ; petals oblong-spathulate. Pod 5-6 in. by 1/2 in., thin, flat, shortly 
beaked. Seeds 15-20. 

Introduced from Tropical America. Flowers : June- August. 

4. Acacia Willd. 

Erect or climbing shrubs or trees, usually armed with spines or 
prickles. Leaves bipinnate, with minute leaflets. Flowers in globose 
heads or cylindrical spikes, bisexual or polygamous, usually 5-merous; 
calyx campanulate, shortly toothed ; petals exserted, united in the 
lower half ; stamens indefinite, free, much exserted ; anthers minute, 
not gland- crested ; ovary many-ovuled ; style filiform ; stigma minute, 
capitate. Pod usually flattened and dry, dehiscent or indehiscent. 

Key to the, species. 

Spines subulate, straight ; flowers in globose heads. 
Heads axillary, pedunculate. 

Pod moniliform, tomentose . . 1. A. arabica. 

Pod cylindric, turgid . . 2. A. Farnesiana. 

Heads in terminal panicles . . 3. A. leucophlaa. 
Spines compressed, recurved ; flowers in spikes. 

Pinnae 10 or more pairs . . . . 4. A ."Catechu. 

Pinnae 2-3 pairs . . . . 5. A. modesta. 

1. A. arabica Willd. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 293. A moderate- 
sized ever-green tree with blackish bark ; young twigs pubescent ; spines 
in pairs below the petiole, straight, white, large in young and small 
or wanting in old plants. Leaf-rachis 1-3 in. long, downy, often glan- 
dular, produced as a minute bristle beyond the last pinnae ; pinnae 3-10 
pairs, 1/2 to 1-1/2 in. long ; leaflets 10-20 pairs, 1/8 to 1/4 in. long, 
oblique, linear, sessile, glabrous. Flowers in yellow globose heads forming 
small axillary fascicles ; peduncles 1/2 to 1 hi. long; heads 1/2 in. in diam. ; 



bracts 2-4, above the middle of the peduncle, minute ; calyx 1/20 in. 

long; corolla twice as long 
as the calyx. Pod 3-6 in. 
by 1/2 in., stalked, com- 
pressed, moniliform, densely 
grey-tomentose, sub-indehis- 
cent, 8-12-seeded. Vern., 
Kikar, Babul. (Fig. 77.) 

Common. Flowers : July- 

2. A. Farnesiana Willd.; 
Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 292. 
An evergreen shrub or low 
tree ; branches marked with 
grey or brown raised dots ; 
young twigs glabrescent ; 
spines in pairs below the 
petiole, straight, whitish, 1/3 
to 3/4 in. long. Leaf-rachis 
1/2 to 2 in. long, pubescent, 
with a gland above the 
middle of the petiole and 
produced beyond the last 
pinnae as a bristle 1/15 to 
1/10 in. long ; pinnae mostly 
4-8 pairs, 1/2 to 1 in. long ; 
leaflets 10-20 pairs, up to 
1/5 in. long, linear-oblong, 
oblique, acute, nearly or 
quite glabrous, sessile. 
Flowers in yellow globose 
pedunculate heads about 1/2 
in. in diam., arranged in 
axillary fascicles of 2-7 ; 
peduncles 1/2 to 1 in. long ; 
bracts whorled, forming a 
reflexed about 5-toothed 
tube at or near the apex of 
Pod 2-3 in. by 1/2 in., sub- 


Fig. 77, Acacia arabica, (a) portion of a 
twig showing one leaf and spines, xj, 
(6) pod, x J ; Fig. 78, Acacia Farneaiana, 
(a) portion of a twig, x, (6) pod, xj; 
Fig. 79, Acacia modesta, (a) flowering 
twig, xf, (6) pod, Xj. 

the peduncle ; corolla about 1/10 in. long. 

cylindric, turgid, dark brown. Seeds numerous, biseriate. Vern., 
Walaiti kikar. (Fig. 78.) 

Common. Flowers : February-May. 


3. A. leucophl*a Willd. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 294. A moderate- 
sized deciduous tree, with grey bark; young shoots and inflorescence 
densely grey-pubescent ; spines in pairs below the petiole, straight, dark 
brown, up to 1 in. long or wanting. Leaf-rachis 1-4 in. long, channelled 
above, produced beyond the last pair of pinnae into a stiff pointed densely 
pubescent bristle 1/12 in. long, usually with glands between the lowest 
and the 2-3 uppermost pairs of pinnae ; petiole 1/5 to 1/4 in. ; pinnae 
6-15 pairs, opposite, 3/4 to 1-1/2 in. long ; leaflets 12-30 pairs, 1/8 to 
1/6 in. long, 1/20 to 1/15 in. broad, close, overlapping, opposite, sessile, 
linear- oblong, oblique at the base, very sparsely hairy on the margins and 
the under- surf ace. Flowers in light yellow globose pedunculate heads 
1/4 in. in diam. arranged in terminal panicles ; panicles reaching a foot 
in length ; peduncles 1/3 to 3/4 in. ; bracts forming a 5-lobed involucre 
about the middle of the peduncle ; corolla 1/10 in. long. Pod 4-6 in. by 
1/3 to 2/5 in., linear, flat, sessile, sub-indehiscent, brown-velvety when 
young. Seeds 10-20. Vern., Reru. 

4. A. Catechu Willd. ; FL Brit. Ind., II, p. 295. A small or middle- 
sized deciduous tree ; prickles in pairs below the petiole, strongly com- 
pressed, recurved, dark-brown or blackish, about 1/5 in. long, often 
wanting in old plants. Leaf-rachis 2-6 in. long, pubescent, often prickly, 
channelled above, with a gland on the petiole and often several smaller 
glands between the pinnae ; pinnae 10-20 pairs, 1/2 to 1 in. long, very 
shortly stalked ; rachis pubescent ; leaflets 16-30 (-50) pairs, about 1/8 in. 
long, base oblique, sessile. Flowers pale creamy white, in cylindric 
axillary pedunculate usually solitary spikes 2-4 in. long ; peduncles 1/2 
to 3/4 in. long ; calyx campanulate, pubescent outside ; corolla 2-3 times 
as long as the calyx, slightly pubescent. Pod 1-2 (-3) in. long, nearly 
1/2 in. broad, stalked, thin, flat, straight, beaked, dehiscent along both 
sutures. Seeds 1-2 (-6). Vern., Khair. 

Occasionally met with. Flowers : May-July. 

5. A. modesta Wall. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 296. A small or medium- 
sized deciduous tree ; branches dark-coloured, with slightly raised dots ; 
young shoots glabrous ; prickles in pairs below the petiole, compressed, 
recurved, dark-brown, about 1/5 in. long. Leaf-rachis 1/2 to 2 in. long, 
thin and slender, glabrous, with a gland on the petiole, and sometimes 
one between the uppermost pair of pinnae ; pinnae 2-3 pairs, 1/2 to 1 in. ; 
rachis glabrous; leaflets 3-5 pairs, 1/4 to 1/5 in. long, broadly oblong or 
obovate, oblique, glaucous, shortly stalked. Flowers pale creamy 
white, in axillary solitary or geminate pedunculate spikes 1/2 to 3 in. 
long; peduncles up to 1/2 in. long; calyx glabrous; corolla about twice 
as long as the calyx. Pod mostly 2 to 3-1/2 in. by about 1/2 in., thin, 



flat, straight, apex triangular, gradually narrowed at the base into a stalk, 
dehiscent along both sutures. Seeds 1-5. Vern., Phulai. (Fig. 79.) 

Common. Flowers : March-May. 

5. Albizzia Durazz. 

Trees or shrubs without spines. Leaves bipinnate. Flowers in 
globose heads, bisexual, usually 5-merous ; calyx tubular or campa- 
nulate, toothed or shortly lobed ; corolla funnel-shaped, petals connate 
below the middle ; stamens indefinite, monadelphous at the base ; fila- 
ments several times the length of the corolla ; anthers minute, not gland - 
crested ; ovary sessile or shortly stalked ; style filiform ; stigma capitate, 
minute. Pod large, thin, flat, strap-shaped, straight, dehiscent or not, 
continuous within, the suture not thickened. 



Fig. 80, Albizzia Lebbek, (a) portion of a flowering twig, x J, (6) one flower, 
X 1, (c) pod, X J. 

A. Lebbcfc Benth. ; Fl. Brit. Ind. 9 //, p. 298. A large deciduous 
tree ; young shoots and inflorescence pubescent ; bark fissured. Rachia 
3-9 in. long, usually with a large gland on the lower part of the petiole 
and often one or more between the upper pairs of the pinnae ; stipules 
minute, linear, caducous ; petiole up to 5 in. ; pinnae 2-3 or 1 or 4 pairs, 
up to 6 in. long, often with glands between pairs of leaflets ; leaflets 
3-9 pairs, oblique, oblong, 1-2 in. by 2/5-1 in, sub-coriaceous, sub-sessile ; 
upper surface green or mottled with white, glabrous ; under surface 
lighter, downy. Flowers very fragrant, in pedunculate heads which are 
solitary or in fascicles of 2-4 in the axils of the upper leaves ; peduncles 
1 J-4 in., downy ; bracts linear, tomentose, caducous ; pedicels very short; 


central flower of the head largest and with thicker perianth ; calyx 1/6 in., 
campanulate, pubescent ; teeth short, deltoid ; corolla greenish-yellow, 
1/3 in. ; lobes lanceolate, pubescent on the back ; stamens 1 to 1-1/2 in. 
long. Pod 3-12 in. by 1-2 in., straight, tip rounded, acute or with a beak 
up to an in. long (all forms often met with on the same tree), pale straw- 
coloured or brown, reticulately veined, dehiscent along one suture, 
2-12-seeded. Seeds suborbicular-obJong, brown, very often found 
(himiiirt'ri by some insect even in the closed pod. Vern., Siris, Sarinh. 
(Fig. 80.) 

Very commonly cultivated. The pods remain hanging on the tree for a long 
time even after ripening. Flowers : April-May. Ripe pods can be seen on the 
tree even when it is quite bare of leaves and during the ensuing summer. 

A. procera Benth. is another pretty-commonly cultivated tree in gardens. It 
is known as the white siris. 

Mimosa pudica Linn. ; Fl. Brit. IncL, II, p. 291. A diffuse prickly under - 
shrub with bipiimate, very sensitive leaves and pink globose heads of tetramerous 
flowers is commonly cultivated in gardens. The sensitive plant ; Vern., Lajwanti, 



Trees, shrubs or herbs. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple 
or compound, stipulate. Flowers generally bisexual and regular ; calyx 
free or adnate to the ovary ; lobes 5, imbricate, often bracteolate ; disk 
lining the tube of the calyx ; petals 5, rarely 0, deciduous, imbricate ; 
stamens numerous, rarely 1, 2, 5 or 10, perigynous ; filaments free, rarely 
connate ; anthers small, 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally ; carpels 1 
or more, free or connate, often adnate to the calyx-tube ; styles free, 
rarely connate ; ovules in each carpel 1 or more, superposed when more 
than 1. Fruit superior or inferior, drupaceous, pomaceous, follicular 
or achenial, sometimes on an enlarged fleshy torus, rarely capsular. 
Seeds exalbuminous, cotyledons large, plano-convex ; radicle short. 
A large cosmopolitan family, but mainly north temperate, containing about 
90 genera and 2,000 species. 

Potcntilla Linn. 

Herbs. Leaves compound ; stipules adnate to the petiole. Flowers 
white or yellow, rarely red, solitary or in corymbose cymes ; calyx persis- 
tent, 5-, rarely 4-, bracteolate ; lobes as many, valvate in bud ; petals 
as many, sometimes narrow ; stamens many, rarely few and definite ; 
disk annular or coating the calyx-tube ; carpels many, rarely 1 or few, 
on a small dry receptacle ; style persistent or deciduous, ventral or 
terminal ; ovule 1, pendulous. Achenes many, on a dry receptacle. 


P. supina Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., //, p. 359. An annual prostrate 

herb with numerous slender spreading 
hairy stems. Leaves pinnate, 1/2 in. 
long ; leaflets 3-9, opposite or alternate, 
obovate, oblong or cuneate, obtuse, 
lobulate or serrate. Flowers on slender 
axillary pedicels, 1/4-3/8 in. across ; 
petals oblong, smaller than the calyx, 
yellow. Achenes minute, smooth or 
ridged, not concealed by the hairs of 
the villous globose receptacle ; styles 
sub-terminal. (Fig. 81.) 

Canal banks. Flowers during March-June. 


A large number of Rosaceae are cultivated 
for thoir fruits and flowers. 

Fig. 81, Potentilla supina, (a) 
branch, x f , (6) fruit, x J. 

Prunus persica Stokes ; peach ; Vern., A'ru. 
Several varieties are cultivated for the sake 
of fruits. These are propagated by budding. 
A double-flowered variety is an ornamental 
garden plant. Flowers : January March. Fruits : May onwards. 

P. communis Huds., var. instititia Bullace ; Vern., Alucha. Flowers and fruits 
about the same time as P. persica, 

Fragaria vesca Linn., the straw-berry, is occasionally grown in some gardens. 

Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. ; Vein., Lokat. A small ever-green tree, a native 
of Japan, is cultivated for the sake of fruit. The best varieties are propagated 
by inarching. Fruits : April June. 

Pyrus sincnsis Lindl. ; Vern., Nashpati. This is the common Indian pear of 
the plains with hard fruits. The good varieties of European pear ( P. communis 
Linn.) are also here and there grown at Lahore, but more abundantly near 
Amritsar. These are propagated by grafting on young plants of Pyrus sinensis, which 
forms a quite good stock for the purpose. P. Mai us Linn., the apple, is not 
much grown near Lahore. 

Rosa Linn. The cultivated double -flowered roses are mostly hybrids derived 
from R. gallica Linn, with R. damasccna MtW., R. centifolia Linn., R. turbinata 
Ait., and R. alba Linn. In India the double -flowered roses (excluding modern 
introductions) are traced to R. indica Linn. Apart from these hybrids R. damas- 
cena Mill., Vern., gulab, is commonly cultivated in the gardens for its fragrant 
flowers which are usually pink and imperfectly double. It is also largely grown 
for rose-water and attar. 


Mostly succulent, leafless, perennial shrubs or herbs, often very 
spiny, Flowers showy, solitary, bisexual, regular ; sepals and petals 
not generally sharply distinguished, superior, in several series, the 

OACTAOB^: 109 

innermost largest, sometimes coherent at the base ; stamens numerous, 
inserted at and free or adnate to the base of the petals ; ovary inferior, 
1 -celled ; placentas 3 or more, parietal ; ovules numerous, long-stalked ; 
style simple ; stigma 3- or more-lobed. Fruit a succulent berry, often 
spiny or bristly, many-seeded. Seeds numerous, immersed in the pulp, 
exalbuminous ; testa often black ; embryo straight to semi- circular. 
Genera nearly 25, species approximately 1,000, chiefly American, but 
naturalized in other warm countries. 

Opuntia Mill. 

Erect prickly shrubs with jointed flattened stems. Leaves very 
small, subulate, caducous. Prickles in small tufts. Flowers regular, 
yellow or red, solitary, sessile ; perianth-segments very numerous, free, 
erect or spreading. Fruit a red or purple berry bearing tufts of prickles 
on the outside. Seeds pale ; testa bony. 

Key to the species. 

Joints bright grass-green, prickles in tufts of 1-few 
on young joints, increasing up to 10 on older 
stems . . . . ..1.0. monocantha. 

Joints dull bluish- or greyish-green. 

Joints about 2 in. wide, usually without 
prickles ; sometimes prickles present in tufts 
of 1-3 . . . . . . 2. 0. stricta. 

Joints 6-8 in. wide ; prickles in tufts of about 
4-6 . . . . . . 3. 0. Dillenii. 

1. O. monocantha Haw.] Forest Flora Punjab, p. 263. Shrub, 
6-8 ft. high ; joints variable in size and shape, usually 12 by 3-4 in., 
narrow-oblong to broad-obovate, rather thin, bright grass green. Leaves 
1/4 in. long, dark brown. Prickles in tufts of 1-few on young joints, but 
increasing up to 10 on older ones, straight, up to 2 in. long. Flowers 
2-2J in. long, 3 in. across, yellow ; outer segments of the perianth short, 
ovate, acute, green ; the inner spathulate, acute, denticulate ; stigmas 
5. Berry pyriform, truncate, depressed at the apex, reddish when ripe. 
(Fig. 82.) 

Flowers : April-May. 

2. O. stricta Haw. ; Forest Flora Punjab, p. 264. Shrub, 4 ft. 
high ; joints about 6 by 2J in., elliptic-oblong, narrowed at both ends, 
thick, dull greyish-green. Leaves 1/10 1/8 in. long, green or reddish. 



Prickles 0, solitary or rarely in tufts of 2 or 3, reddish -brown, straight, 

1 in. long. Flowers 3 in. across, 
yellow ; outer perianth segments short, 
acute, green ; the inner spathulate, 
acute ; stigmas 6. Berry turbinate, 
depressed at the apex, slightly warty, 
dull carmine when ripe. 

Bnck-kiln mounds at Lahore. Flowers 
during April and May. 

3. O. Dillcnii Haw. ; Forest Flora 
Punjab, p. 264. Shrubs about 5 ft. 
high ; joints 12-16 by 6-8 in., broadly 
obovate, undulate, not very thick, dull 
bluish-green. Leaves 1/7 in. long, pale- 
green. Prickles in tufts of 4-6, the 
largest very stout, subulate, firm and 
sharp, 1 to 1J in. long, usually some- 
what curved, yellowish. Flowers 3 in. 
across, yellow tinged with orange ; outer 
perianth -segments ovate, acute, round- 
ed, with membranous margins ; the 
inner obovate, rounded, mucronate ; 
stamens of unequal lengths ; stigmas 
5-8, erect. Berry pyriform, truncate, 
depressed at the apex, often angular 
or warty when not fully ripened, deep 
reddish-purple when ripe. (Fig. 83.) 

Common. Flowers from March-May. 

A few more species of Opuntia are grown in 

the gardens, but these are not very common at Lahore. For further information 
reference may be made to Parker's ' Forest Flora for the Punjab with Delhi and 
Hazara '. 


Trees or shrubs with simple, entire, exstipulate leaves. Flowers usually 
bisexual, regular, 4- or 5-merous ; calyx-tube adiiate to the ovary and produced 
beyond it ; petals episepalous, often wanting ; stamens 8 or 10, biseriate ; ovary 
inferior, 1 -celled ; ovules usually 2-5, on large f unicles, pendulous from the apex of 
the cell. Fruit generally angled or winged. Seed 1, exalbuminous. Genera 17, 
species about 500, mostly tropical ; only found in cultivation within the area. 

Terminalia arjuna Wight & Am. (Vern., Arjun) is often grown as a road- 
side tree at Lahore. Flowers : April-May (Parker). 

T. Chebula Eetz. (Vern., Harar), Myrobalan and T. bclerica Roxb. (Vern., 
Bahera) are very common in the sub-Himalayan tract. Stray trees are found at 
Lahore. The fruits are of medicinal value. 


Fig. 82, O. monacantha, X J 
Fig. 83, Opuntia Dillenii, X J. 


Quisqualis indica Linn. ; the Rangoon creeper. A large sub-scandent shrub, 
a native of Malaya, is commonly planted in gardens. Flowers appear in dense 
clusters during greater part of the year. These are sweet -scented and appearing 
first at night are white but turn pink at day-break. 


Trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite, rarely alternate, simple, usually entire, 
with translucent glands, exstipulate. Flowers regular, generally bisexual ; calyx- 
tube m:>re or less adnato to the ovary, lobes 3 or more, imbricate, valvate or irregu- 
larly split ; petals usually 4-5, imbricate or connivent in a mass ; stamens numerous, 
inserted with the petals on. the margin of the disk lining the calyx -tube ; ovary 
inferior, 2- or more-celled ; placentation usually axile ; ovules numerous, rarely 
few or 1. Fruit usually fleshy, in some genera a capsule. Genera 73, species about 
2,750, in tropical and nub-tropical countries. 

Several species are cultivated in the gardens. 

Eugenia jambolana Lamk.; Vern., Jdtnan. A large ever-green tree, very 
commonly grown for tho fruit and as a wind-break for fruit gardens. Often self- 
sown. Flowers : May-June. 

Myrtus communis Linn., the myrtle. An ever-green shrub, indigenous to 
southern Europe. 

Psidium Guyava Linn. ; Ouava. ; Vern., Amrud. A small tree, cultivated for 
its fruits. Flowers : May (Parker). 

Callistemon lanceolatus DC., the bottle-brush tree. A small ever-green tree, 
indigenous to Queensland and New South Wales, but often grown in the gardens. 
Flowers crimson, in terminal spikes about 6 in. long, the branches soon growing 
through the spikes. Flowers : March-August. 

Eucalyptus L'Heritier. Ever-green, trees or shrubs, often reaching a gigantic 
size, usually secreting aromatic resinous gum. Sepals and petals united into a cap 
which closes the orifice of the calyx-tube in bud and falls off on the opening of 
the flowers. Indigenous to Australia but numerous species have been introduced 
into India. A good description of those found in Punjab is found in Parker's 
4 Forest Flora for the Punjab with Delhi and Ha&ara '. 


Herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled or 
alternate ; stipules or very small. Flowers usually in cymes or panicles, 
rarely solitary, bisexual, usually regular ; sepals united into a tube ; 
lobes 3-6, valvate, often with accessory teeth ; petals 3-6 or 0, episepalous, 
crumpled in bud ; stamens 4, 8 or many, episepalous ; ovary usually 
superior or half -inferior, inferior in Punica, 2-6-celled ; style long ; 
stigma capitate ; placentation axile ; ovules numerous. Fruit usually 
capsular, opening by a transverse slit, by valves or irregularly. Seeds 
numerous, exalbuminous ; embryo straight. Genera 23, species about 
450, widely spread within the tropics, absent from cold countries. 


Ammannia Linn. 

Annual glabrous herbs ; branches often quadrangular. Leaves 
opposite or alternate, sometimes whorled, entire, exstipulate. Flowers 
small, often dimorphic, axillary, solitary and sub-sessile, or in terminal 
spikes, or in small trichotomous cymes ; bracteoles usually 2 ; calyx 
campanulate or tubular- campanulate, 3-5-toothed, often with inter- 
mediate teeth ; petals 3-5 or 0, small, inserted between the calyx-teeth ; 
stamens 2-8, inserted on the calyx-tube ; ovary enclosed in the calyx- 
tube, 1-5-celled; the septa very thin, often absent; style filiform or short ; 
stigma capitate ; ovules very many ; placentas axile or free central. 
Capsule membraneous, globose or long-ellipsoid, enclosed in the calyx, 
opening by 2 or 3 valves, or irregularly, or by a transverse slit. 
Seeds many, small, smooth, round on the back ; raphe on the somewhat 
flattened inner face. 

Key to the species. 

Flowers clustered in the leaf axils .. . . 1. A. baccifera. 

Flowers in compound peduncled cymes . . 2. A. senegalensis . 

1. A. baccifera Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 569. Erect profusely 
branched herb, 6-24 in. high. Leaves usually opposite, rarely alternate, 
1-3 in. long, lanceolate, tapering to the base, more or less distinctly 
petioled. Flowers in dense axillary clusters or in very short axillary 
cymes, shortly pedicellate ; bracts filiform, shorter than the pedicels, 
calyx-tube hemispherical ; teeth 4, broad, triangular ; accessory teeth 
small ; petals or inconspicuous ; stamens 4 (or 2). Capsule depressed, 
globose, breaking up irregularly above the middle. Seeds plano-convex. 

Ravi bank ; an early winter annual. 

2. A. senegalensis Lamk. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 570. Stems erect, 
6-24 in. ; branches sharply quadrangular ; leaves opposite, sessile, 1-2 
in. long, lanceolate, base sub-auriculate. Flowers in shortly peduncled 
compound cymes ; bracteoles minute, linear ; calyx bell- shaped, with 
4-8 green lines becoming indistinct in fruit, obscurely 4-toothed ; petals 
4, pink, falling off very soon ; stamens 8. Capsule globose, opening 
irregularly. Seeds half-ellipsoid. 

Among the cultivated plants belonging to this family are : 

Lawsonia inermis Linn.; the henna; Vern., Mendhi. The leaves are used for 
dyeing the hands, feet and beard by many people. Also makes a good hedge. 

Lagerstroemia. indica Linn. A small tree, 15-20 ft. high. It is frequently 
planted in the gardens for its showy flowers which are of white, rose or purple 

Flowers: May-August. 


L. Flos-Rcgtnac Eetz. Indigenous to Assam and S. India; it is sometimes 
grown in the gardens. 

Punica Granatum Linn.; Pomegranate; Vern., Andr. Ovary inferior 
Flowers mostly in April and May. 


Mostly annual or perennial herbs, often aquatic. Leaves opposite 
or alternate, simple, exstipulate. Flowers in racemes or solitary axillary, 
bisexual, regular ; calyx-tube adnate to the ovary ; lobes 4-5, rarely 2, 
valvate ; petals 4-5, rarely 2 or 0, contorted or imbricate ; stamens equal 
or double the number of petals, epigynous ; ovary inferior or rarely 
half-inferior, 2-6-celled, rarely incompletely partitioned ; style simple ; 
stigma capitate, 2-lobed or 4-fid ; ovules 1 or many in each cell on axile 
placentas. Fruit a capsule or an indehiscent nut. Seeds small, numerous 
or only 1 or 2, naked or tipped with a tuft of long hairs, exalbuminous ; 
embryo straight or nearly so. Genera about 40, species about 500, in 
temperate and sub-tropical regions, rare in the tropics. 

Trapa Linn. 

Aquatic, floating herbs. Leaves dimorphic ; submerged opposite, 
root-like, pinnati-partite, with filiform segments ; floating alternate, 
rosulate, rhomoidal ; the petiole with a spongy dilatation near its apex ; 
stipules small, caducous. Flowers axillary, solitary, peduncled ; sepals 
4, connate in a short tube, adnate to the lower part of the ovary, persis- 
tent, 2 or all becoming spinescent in the fruit ; petals 4, white, small, 
inserted at the margin of an epigynous disk ; stamens 4 ; ovary half- 
inferior, 2-celled ; style subulate ; stigma capitate ; ovule solitary in 
each cell, pendulous from the upper inner angle. Fruit a large obovoid 
bony quadrangular nut with 2 or 4 spines at the angles, 1 -celled, with 
a short cylindric beak at the top through which the radicle is protruded. 
Seed 1, inverted ; cotyledons very unequal. 

T, bfspinosa Roxb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 590. Floating leaves 
2 by 1J 3 in., densely villous beneath, posterior margin entire, faintly 
crenate in front ; petiole 4-6 in. long, woolly. Fruit 3/4 in. long and broad, 
glabrous or hairy, with two angles spinescent and the other two sometimes 
more or less obsolete. Water Chestnut ; Vern., Singarha. 

Grown in large ponds for the edible fruit. Flowers : September-October. 


Herbaceous climbers, often of large size, with watery juice, climbing 
by means of solitary, lateral, spiral, simple or divided tendrils. Leaves 


alternate, petioled, often cordate, simple, lobed or pedately divided. 
Flowers regular, unisexual, monoecious or dioecious, panicled, racemed, 
sub-umbellate or solitary, usually yellow or white. Male flower : Sepals 
5, united ; tube usually short, campanulate ; lobes small, usually imbricate ; 
corolla polypetalous or gamopetalous, petals or lobes 5, inserted on the 
calyx-tube, imbricate or valvate ; stamens free or variously united, 
mostly 3, rarely 1-5, inserted on the calyx-tube ; one anther always 
1- celled, the others 2 -celled ; cells straight or often curved, flexuous or 
conduplicate ; connective often produced ; dehiscence longitudinal or 
in curves, following folds of anther-cells, extrorse ; pistillode often present. 
Female flower : Calyx -tube adnate to the ovary and often produced 
beyond it, segments as in male ; petals as in male ; staminodes usually 
0, or 3 or 5 ; ovary inferior, 1 -celled, with 3 large fleshy parietal placentas, 
often meeting in the centre (hence ovary apparently 3-celled), bearing 
usually numerous horizontal, rarely few and pendulous ovules ; style 
simple or rarely 3 free styles ; stigmas 3, large. Fruit fleshy, generally 
indehiscent. Seeds usually numerous, surrounded with pulp, often 
flattened, exalbuminous. Genera about 100, species about 800, mainly 
in warmer parts of the world. 

Key to the genera. 

Anther-cells conduplicate or sigmoid ; flowers 

white, 1 in. or more in diameter . . 1. Cephalandra. 

Anther- cells straight or slightly curved ; flowers 

pale-yellow, less than J in. in diameter . . 2. Mukia. 

1. Cephalandra Schroder. 

Herbaceous climbers ; tendrils simple. Leaves petioled, o-antriilar 
or 5-lobed, toothed. Flowers dioecious, moderately large, all solitary 
axillary, white, ebracteate. Male flower : Calyx-tube campanulate, 
short ; limb 5-lobed, lobes linear ; corolla campanulate, 5-lobed up to 
about the middle ; stamens 3 ; anthers exserted, connate, one 1 -celled, 
two 2-celled ; cells conduplicate. Female flower : Calyx and corolla as 
in the male ; ovary oblong ; style long with 3 bifid stigmas ; ovules many, 
horizontal ; placentas 3, vertical. Fruit fleshy, cylindric, smooth. Seeds 
many, ovoid, compressed, margined. 

C. indica Naud. ; Fl. Brit. Ind. 9 II, p. 621. A rather 
extensive climber. Stem cylindrical. Leaves 2-4 in. in diameter, 
usually broadly cordate-ovate, obtuse, apiculate, 5-angular. Male 
flower : Peduncle 1 in. long, jointed below the flower ; calyx-lobes linear- 



oblong; corolla 1-1| in. in diameter; lobes long, triangular. 

flower : Peduncle 

about 1/4 in. ; ovary 

smooth. Fruit bright 

scarlet, 1-2 by 1/2-1 in., 

fusiform-ovoid, slightly 



Seeds oblong- 
much com- 
pressed, smooth, 
yellowish-grey. (Fig. 

In dry bushy places. 


2. Mukia Am. 

Scabrous climbing 
herbs ; tendrils simple. 
Leaves 3-7 -angular, 
not deeply lobed, cor- 
date, petioled and sub- 
sessile on the same 
plant. Flowers small, 
yellow, males and 
females clustered in 
the same axil, males 
very short- peduncled, 
females sub- sessile. 
Male flower : Calyx 
campanulate, teeth 5, 
subulate ; corolla 5- 
partite ; stamens 3 ; 

anthers free, cells straight, connective not produced. Female flower : 
Calyx and corolla as in the male ; disk annular ; ovary ovoid, hispid ; 
style thick, apex 3-2-lobed ; ovules not very many, horizontal ; placentas 
3-2. Berry globose, small. Seeds not many, ovoid, compressed, strongly 
margined, faces rough or smooth. 

M. scabrclla Am. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 623. A slender scabrid 
climber ; stem much branched, angular, very hispid with spreading 
bristly hairs, young parts covered densely with white hairs. Leaves 
1-3 in., deltoid-ovate, shallowly 5-lobed, very deeply cordate at the base, 
acute or obtuse at the apex, dentate-serrate, rough, hispid beneath ; petiole 
about half as long as the entire leaf, cylindrical, very hispid. Flowers 


Fig. 84, Cephalandra indica, (a) a branch bearing 
female flowers, x|, (6) a female flower with corolla 
cut open, xf, (c) male flower, xf, (d) staminal 
column from a male flower, X J. 


1/6-1/8 in. in diameter ; calyx hairy, segments linear ; petals pale-yellow, 
ovate, ciliate, a little longer than the calyx segments ; ovary very hispid. 
Fruit about in. in diameter, ovoid, bright red. Seeds rough on their 

Flowers during summer. 

Many Cucurbitaceae are cultivated for their fruits, which are eaten either raw 
or after being cooked. Below is given a list of the more important ones : 

Trichosanthes anguina Linn. ; Snake gourd ; Vern.* Chichinda. 

T. dioica Roxb. ; Vern., Palwal. 

Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. ; Bottle gourd ; Vern., Ghiya. 

Luf fa aegyptiaca M ill, ; Vern., Qhiya tori, 

L, acutangula Roxb. ; Vern., Kali tori. 

Benincasa hispida Gogn, ; Vern., Petha. 

Momordica Charantia Linn. ; Vern., Karela. 

Cucumis Mclo Linn. ; The melon ; Vern., Kharbuza. 

C. Melo Linn., var. utilissima Field and Oard. ; Vern., Kakri. 

C. Mclo Linn. t var. motnordica Field and Oard.; Vern., Phut. 

C. sativus Linn. ; Cucumber; Vern., Khira. 

Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad. ; Colocynth. ; Vern., Indrayan. 

C* vulgaris Schrad. ; Water melon ; Vern., Tarbuz, 

Cucurbita maxima Duchesne ; Great pumpkin or Spanish gourd. 

C. Pepo Linn. ; True pumpkin ; Vern., Kashiphal or Kaddu. 

C. moschata Duchesne ; The musk or melon pumpkin. 


Annual or perennial, erect or prostrate, often fleshy herbs rarely 
low shrubs. Leaves alternate, opposite or whorled, simple ; stipules 
or scarious. Flowers bisexual, regular ; sepals 5, free or more or less 
connate, often adnate to the ovary, but free in the local genera, imbricate 
or rarely valvate, herbaceous ; petals 0, rarely 5 or more ; stamens peri- 
gynous or hypogynous, definite or indefinite ; staminodes sometimes 
present ; ovary usually superior, 1-5-celled, of separate carpels in Gisekia, 
styles as many as the carpels ; ovules in each carpel many and axile 
or 1 and basal. Fruit a transversely or longitudinally dehiscent capsule ; 
in Giaekia of separate achenes. Seeds more or less reniform, albuminous ; 
embryo curved or annular. Genera about 18, species about 600, chiefly 

Key to the genera. 

Stamens inserted on the calyx-tube . . . . 1. Trianthema. 
Stamens hypogynous. 

Ovary 3-5-celled . . . . . . 2. Mollugo. 

Gynsecium of 5 separate carpels . . . . 3. Gisekia. 


1. Trianthema Linn. 

Prostrate, branching, glabrous or papillose herbs. Leaves opposite, 
unequal, entire, exstipulate, petioled ; petioles connected at the base 
by their dilated membraneous margins. Flowers small, axillary, sessile 
or peduncled, solitary or in cymes or clusters ; sepals 5, connate into a 
short or long tube ; lobes often cuspidate, coloured within ; petals ; 
stamens 5-10 or more, inserted near the top of the calyx-tube ; ovary 
free, 1-2-celled ; styles 1 or 2, subulate ; ovules 1 or many, basal. Fruit 
a membranous or coriaceous, clavate, transversely dehiscing capsule. 
Seeds few, reniform ; embryo annular. 

Key to species. 
Style 1. 

Stamens about 15 . . . . 1. T. monogyna. 

Stamens about 5 . . . . . . 2. T. crystallina. 

Styles 2, stamens 5 . . . . 3. T. pentandra. 

1. T. monogyna Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 660. Annual. Leaves 
1/2-2J in. long, obovate ; petiole up to 1 in. long. Flowers solitary ; 
calyx -tube scarious, thin, closely sheathed by the base of the petiole ; 
lobes obtuse, cuspidate ; stamens 10-20 ; ovary truncate ; style 1. Cap- 
sule 1/5 in., scarious below, 6-8 seeded, cap exserted, carrying away with 
it 3 seeds. Seeds reniform, black, dull, marked with raised lines. (Fig. 85.) 

Very common, a weed of road-sides and waste places ; abundant during the 
rainy season, especially in soils rich in organic matter. 
Flowers : May-October. 

2. T. crystallina Vahl ; FL Brit. Ind., II, p. 660. Annual. Leaves 
J-f in. long, narrowly oblanceolate or elliptic, sessile or almost so. Flowers 
1 or more in leaf axils ; calyx-tube herbaceous, with many ribs, not 
sheathed by the base of the petiole ; lobes triangular, cuspidate ; stamens 
5 ; style 1. Capsule 1/12 in., 2-seeded, cap depressed in the centre. Seeds 
discoid, dull black, marked with raised lines. (Fig. 86.) 

Found after the rains, September October. 

3. T* pentandra Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 660. Perennial. 
Leaves 1-2 in. long, oblong or elliptic ; petiole 1/4-3/4 in. long. Flowers in 
sessile clusters ; bracts scarious ; calyx-lobes ovate, often scarious on the 
margins ; stamens 5 ; styles 2. Capsule 1/6 in., cap separating into two 
one-seeded parts, lower portion of the fruit 2-seeded. Seeds dull black. 
(Fig. 87,) 

Abundant after rains, September-November. 



Fig. 85, Trianthema monogyna, x } ; Fig. 86, Trianthema crystallina^ 
X J ; Fig. 87, Trianthema pentandra, (a) a branch, X j, (6) a flower, 
X3, (c) fruit, x3; Fig. 88, Mollugo hirta, xj; Fig. 89, Qisekia 
pharmaceoides, x f . 


2. Mollugo Linn. 

Herbs, often dichotomously branched. Leaves apparently whorled, 
alternate or radical, entire ; stipules caducous. Flowers small, greenish, 
axillary, sessile or pedicelled, clustered or in cymes or racemes ; bracts 
inconspicuous ; sepals 5, persistent ; petals ; stamens 3-5, rarely 
many, often with staminodes intermixed ; ovary superior, 3-5- celled ; 
styles 3-5, linear or very small ; ovules many, axile. Capsule mem- 
branous, sheathed by the sepals, 3-5-celled ; dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds 
several in each cell, rarely 1, reniform ; embryo annular. 

M* hirta Thumb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 662. A more or less densely 
hairy prostrate annual. Leaves 1/2-1 J in. long, opposite or falsely whorled, 
unequal, orbicular or obovate, obtuse, usually downy on both surfaces ; 
petiole 0-1/2 in. long. Flowers axillary, 1-6 at a node ; pedicels unequal ; 
sepals 1/4 in., lanceolate, elliptic or oblong, acute, stellate-hairy on the 
outside ; staminodes or linear and bifid ; stamens 5-10, rarely more ; 
ovary ovoid, glabrous ; styles short. Capsule oblong, shorter than the 
sepals. Seeds numerous, ovoid, with a small white scale at the hilum 
extended into a long filiform process which curves over the top of the 
seed. (Fig. 88.) 

Near moist places, Chhota Ravi, etc. 

3. Gisekia Linn. 

Diffuse branched herbs. Leaves opposite, exstipulate. Flowers 
sessile and pedicelled, hermaphrodite, small, greenish or purplish, in 
axillary cymes ; sepals 5, nearly free, ovate, herbaceous with mem- 
branous margins ; petals ; stamens 5, hypogynous ; carpels 5, distinct, 
each ending in a short simple style and containing one basal ovule. 
Fruit of 5, free, membranous, papillose, indehiscent achenes. Seeds 
vertical, sub-reniform ; embryo curved. 

G, pharnaceoides Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., II, p. 664. A glabrous 
herb ; branches prostrate or ascending. Leaves 3/4-2 in. long, spathulate 
or oblong- spathulate, tapering into a short petiole. Flowers numerous, 
small, in sessile or peduncled, cymose umbels, on slender pedicels ; 
sepals 1/10 in., oblong-oval, with membranous borders ; filaments dilated 
below. Fruit as long as the sepals. Seeds rounded on the back, blackish, 
covered with short white glands. (Fig. 89.) 

In dry sandy places. Flowers : April-September. 


Herbs, annual or perennial, rarely woody. Stems furrowed, often 
hollow. Leaves alternate, rarely simple, usually much divided, sheathing 


at the base. Flowers regular or irregular, bisexual or polygamous, in 
compound, rarely simple umbels, the peripheral flowers sometimes 
with unequal petals, ray-like ; bracts and bracteoles involucrate ; calyx 
superior, tube adnate to the ovary ; lobes 5 or ; petals 5, epigynous, 
distinct, often bifid with an inflexed apex, imbricate, valvate in Hydro- 
cotyle ; stamens 5, alternate with the petals ; filaments inflexed in bud ; 
anthers 2-celled, opening length-wise ; ovary inferior, 2-celled, crowned 
by the disk ; styles 2 ; ovules solitary in each cell, pendulous. Fruit 
dry, dividing into two mericarps (ripe carpels), these often remaining 
suspended at the top by the divided thread-like central axis (carpophore) ; 
mericarps mostly prominently ribbed and often with parallel resinous 
canals (vittse). Seed solitary in each mericarp, pendulous ; albumen 
cartilaginous ; embryo minute, near the hilum. Genera 200, species 
about 2,500, mainly in the temperate regions ; in the, tropics mostly on the 

Key to the genera. 

Leaves simple ; umbels simple . . 1. Hydrocotyle. 
Leaves divided ; umbels compound. 

Carpophore absent . . . . 2. Oenanthe. 

Carpophore present, bipartite . . 3. Ammi. 

1. Hydrocotyle Linn. 

Prostrate herbs, rooting at the nodes. Leaves round or reniform, 
long-petioled ; stipules small, scarious. Umbels simple, small, opposite 
the leaves ; bracts small or 0. Flowers white, sometimes unisexual ; 
calyx-teeth or minute ; petals entire, valvate or imbricate. Fruit 
laterally compressed, commissure narrow ; lateral primary ridges 
concealed within the commissure or remote from it and prominent ; 
vittse or obscure ; carpophore 0. Seeds laterally compressed. 

Key to the species. 

Leaves orbicular, 1/2 in. or so in diameter ; stipules 

cauline . . . . . . 1. H. rotundifolia. 

Leaves reniform, 1 in. or more broad ; stipules 

adnate to the petiole . . . . . . 2. H. asiatica. 

1. H. rotundifolia Roxb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 668. Stems filiform, 
glabrous. Leaves about 1/2 in. in diameter, orbicular, cordate, 
palmately 5-7-lobed, crenate, glabrous, shining above, coarsely hairy 
beneath ; petiole l/2-l in. ; stipules cauline. Flowers minute, almost 
sessile, 4-8 in a head ; peduncle very short, solitary ; bracts oblong ; 


petals lanceolate, acute, valvate. Fruit 1/12 in., rather broader than long, 
compressed, glabrous ; mericarps with 5, not sharp ribs. (Fig. 90.) 

Very common during winter in grassy plots. 
Flowers : February April. 

2. H* aslatica Linn. ; PL Brit. Ind., II, p. 669. Steins long, 
prostrate, given off from leaf-axils of a short vertical root-stock, cord-like, 
glabrous, with long internodes. Leaves 1 in. or more broad, reniform, 
rather broader than long, crenate, glabrous and shining on both sides ; 
petiole up to 4 in. long ; stipules adnate to the petiole. Flowers nearly 
sessile, usually 36 together ; peduncles erect, pubescent, 13 from the 
nodes, shorter than the petioles, opposite the leaves ; bracts ovate ; 
petals minute, ovate, acute, slightly imbricate. Fruit 1/6 in. ovoid, 
longer than broad ; pericarp hard, thickened ; mericarps with 9 vein- 
like ribs. Vern., Brahmi booti. (Fig. 91.) 

On canal banks. Flowers : February June. 
Used as a tonic in. Ayurvedic medicine. 

2. Ocnanthe Linn. 

Marshy herbs. Leaves 1-3 -pinnate, ultimate segments large or 
small, rarely reduced almost to sheaths. Umbels compound ; bracts 
or solitary ; bracteoles several, linear. Flowers white, often polygamous, 
males sometimes radiate ; calyx- teeth small, acute ; petals emarginate. 
Fruit glabrous, ellipsoid, longer than broad or globose, nearly terete ; 
commissure broad ; mericarps semiterete, dorsally compressed ; inner 
face plane ; lateral primary ridges large, triangular, corky ; dorsal and 
intermediate primary ridges much smaller, sometimes obsolete, or all 
sub-equal ; furrows 1-vittate ; carpophore ; disk usually not prominent- 
Seeds terete or dorsally compressed, inner face plane. 

Oe. stolonifcra Watt. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., //, p. 696. A stoloniferous 
nearly glabrous herb ; stems 2-4 feet, decumbent, often floating, rooting 
freely from many of the lower nodes. Leaves 1-2 -pinnate ; leaflets 
1-2 by 1/2-1 in., lanceolate or rhomboid-lanceolate, serrate or sometimes 
lobed. Peduncles 2-3 in. long, leaf-opposed ; rays 6-30, nearly equal. 
Fruit glabrous, obovoid, 1/8 in. long ; ridges distinct but not elevated. 
(Fig. 92.) 

On canal banks. Flowers : April-June. 

3. Ammi Linn. 

Annual or biennial herbs. Flowers white, outer rayed ; calyx- 
teeth minute or obsolete ; petals obovate, entire or unequally bilobed ; 
ovary depressed at the apex. Fruit ovate or oblong, laterally com- 


Fig. 90, Hydrocotyle rotundifolia, (a) a plant, x f , (6) a cluster 
of fruits, x 3 ; Fig. 91, Hydrocotyle asiatica (a) portion of a plant, 
Xf, (6) a cluster of fruits, x; Fig. 92, Oenanthe atolonifera, x J. 


pressed ; mericarps not separating, with 5 filiform equal ribs ; ribs 1- 
vittate ; carpophore bipartite. 

A, Huntli Wats. ; Loud. Jour. Bot., VI, p. 384, 1847. An 
erect, glabrous herb. Stem 3-4 ft., swollen at the nodes. Leaves 2-3- 
pinnate, more than 1 ft. long ; leaflets lanceolate, serrate, 1-3 in. long. 
Peduncles stout, leaf-opposed, 8 in. or more in length ; rays 30-40, 
slender, 1-2 in. Fruit obovoid, mealy, ridges distinct. 

This plant is a native of Azores. Flowers : March. 
Following members of this family are commonly cultivated : 
Oaf urn copticum Benth. ; Vern., Ajwain. 
Focniculum vulgare Mill. ; Fennel ; Vern., Saunf. 
Peucedanum graveolens Benth. ; Indian dill ; Vern., Sowa. 
Coriandrum sativum Linn. ; Coriander ; Vern., Dhania. 
Cuminum Cyminum Linn. ; Cumin ; Vern., Safed Zira. 
Daucus Carota Linn. ; Carrot; Vern., Qajar. 


Mostly trees or shrubs, sometimes herbs. Leaves opposite or 
whorled, simple, mostly entire, with interpetiolar or intrapetiolar 
stipules, sometimes with stipules replaced by leaves. Flowers bisexual, 
mostly regular, arranged variously ; calyx adnate to the ovary, limb 
various ; corolla epigynous, more or less tubular ; lobes 4-5, valvate, 
imbricate or contorted ; stamens 4-5, alternate with the corolla-lobes, 
inserted in the tube or at its mouth ; anthers mostly free, 2 -celled, opening 
lengthwise ; disk epigynous, usually annular or cushion-like ; ovary 
inferior, 2- or more- celled, with axile, apical or basal placentation, rarely 
1 -celled with parietal placentas ; ovules 1 or more in each cell ; style 
simple, or variously lobed, stigmas various. Fruit a capsule, berry 
or drupe. Seeds mostly albuminous ; embryo curved or straight. Genera 
450, species about 5,000, mostly tropical, but a number are found in the 
temperate and a few species of Galium even in the arctic countries. 

Galium Linn. 

Glabrous, hispid, scabrid or prickly, erect or scandent, weak herbs. 
Leaves 3 or more in a whorl. Flowers minute, in axillary and terminal 
cymes, white, yellow or greenish ; pedicel jointed with the ovary ; calyx - 
limb ; corolla rotate or shortly funnel-shaped ; lobes 4, rarely 3 or 5, 
valvate ; stamens 4, rarely 3 or 5, inserted in the corolla-tube ; ovary 
2-celled ; styles 2, short, with capitate stigmas ; ovule 1 in each cell, 



attached to the middle of the septum, erect. Fruit small, 2-lobed, dry, 

smooth or bristly. Seeds 2, adhering to the pericarp. 

G. aparine Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., III, p. 205. Stems 1-5 ft. long, 

scrambling, very rough. 
Leaves mostly in whorls of 
6 or 8, 1/2-2 in. long, nar- 
rowly lanceolate, usually 
hispid all over. Flowers in 
3-9 -flowered axillary cymes, 
white, tinged with green. 
Fruit purplish, covered with 
hooked bristles. (Fig. 93.) 

Common as forest under- 
growth during winter. Flowers : 


Herbs or undershrubs, 
rarely tall shrubs or small 
trees or climbers. Leaves 
alternate or opposite, simple 
or variously dissected, exsti- 
pulate. Flowers crowded 

into heads (capitula), surrounded at the base by one or more whorls 
of free or united bracts (involucre) ; sometimes the heads compound 
and the partial heads few- or 1 -flowered ; floral bracts entirely 
absent or reduced to scales or bristles on the flat, conical or rarely 
elongated or concave receptacle. Flowers all tubular (heads discoid), 
or the inner tubular and the outer ligulate (heads radiate), or all ligulate 
(heads ligulate), all bisexual, bisexual or male, rarely heads dioecious ; 
calyx (pappus) superior ; limb or of hairs or chaffy ; corolla epigynous, 
gamopetalous, either tubular, 4-5-lobed and actinomorphic, or ligulate, 
rarely bilabiate, and zygomorphic ; stamens 5, rarely 4, epipetalous, 
mostly included in the corolla ; filaments free ; anthers generally connate 
into a tube sheathing the style, rarely free, 2-celled, opening lengthwise, 
base of cells often tailed or prolonged downwards ; ovary inferior, 1- 
celled ; ovule solitary, erect from the base, anatropous ; style usually 
divided at the top into two stigmatic arms. Fruit achenial (cypsela), 
usually crowned with pappus, sometimes beaked. Seed exalbuminous ; 
cotyledons straight, plano-convex. The largest family of flowering plants, 
genera more than 1,000, species about 10,000, distributed over all parts of 
the world. 

Fig. 93, Galium aparine, a twig with fruits, X 1. 



Key to the genera. 

A, Heads simple, discoid ; pappus of hairs. 

Flowers neither blue nor yellow, of some shade 

of red or whitish. 
Involucral bracts not spinescent. 
Receptacle naked. 

All flowers similar . . . . 1. Vernonia. 

Outer flowers different from the central. 
Involucral bracts not scarious. 
Involucral bracts narrow. Herbs. 

Anther-cells tailed . . 6. Blumea. 

Anther- cells not tailed . . 7. Laggera. 

Involucral bracts broad. Under- 

shrub . . . . 8. Pluchea. 

Involucral bracts scarious . . 10. Qnaphaliwn. 

Receptacle with an outer ring of scales, 
naked at the top. A small herb densely 
covered with leaves and reddish heads in 
their axils . . . . 9. Ifloga. 

Receptacle bristly . . 26. Saussurea. 

Involucral bracts spiny. 
Leaves spinous. 

Pappus hairs feathery . . . . 24. Cnicus. 

Pappus hairs somewhat scaly, unequal, 

united at the base in a deciduous ring 25. Silybum. 
Leaves not spinous . . . . 27. Volutarella. 

Flowers blue ; outer much larger than the 

central ones, neuter . . . , . . 28. Centaurea. 

Flowers yellow or yellowish. 
Plants not spiny. 
Involucral bracts not scarious. 

Anther-cells not tailed . . 5. Conyza.* 

Anther- cells tailed. 

Pappus 1 -seriate . . 6. Blumea. 

Pappus double, outer of short scales, 
inner of filiform or flattened hairs. 
Leaves densely cottony beneath . . 13. Pulicaria. 
Involucral bracts scarious. Hoary or 
woolly herbs . . . . . . 10. Gnaphalium. 

Sometimes the heads are minutely radiate in Conyza stricta. 



Plants spinescent. 
Flowers pale yellow 
Flowers bright yellow 

24. Cnicus. 
23. Cousinia. 

B. Heads simple, discoid ; pappus of scales or 

barbed bristles. 

Heads bluish or white . . . . 2. Ageratum. 

Heads yellow. 

Plants not spinescent. 
Leaves opposite. 
Heads 1/2 in. in diam., entirely yellow ; 

pappus or of 1-3 bristles . . 16. Spilanihes 

Heads 1/4-1/2 in. in diam., ray florets when 
present white ; pappus of 2-4 awns 
armed with retrorse bristles . . 17. Bidens. 

Leaves alternate. Small, often creeping 

herbs. Pappus ear-shaped . . . . 20. Cotula. 

Plants spiny . . . . 29. Carthamus 

Heads orange-red . . . . . . 29. OarthamuQ* 

C. Heads simple, discoid ; pappus 0. 

Flowers reddish, rose-purple or white. 
Leaves mostly pinnatisect 
Leaves simple, linear 

Flowers orange-red. Leaves spinulose-serrate 
Flowers yellow or greenish. 
Plants spiny 
Plants not spinescent. 

Heads 1 -sexual ; involucre of female 
heads covered with hooked bristles .. 
Heads bisexual. 

Heads 1/2 in. in diameter. Leaves oppo- 

Heads less than 1/4 in. in diameter. 
Leaves not opposite. 
Plants 2-6 ft. tall. Heads very 
small, numerous, in large terminal 
Small, often prostrate herbs. Stems 9 

in. or less long. 
Heads subsessile 
Heads on peduncles about 1/2 in. long 

4. Cyathocline. 
9. Ifioga. 
29. Oarthamua. 

29. Carthamus. 

14. Xanthium. 

16. Spilanthes. 

21. Artemesia. 

3. Centipeda. 
20. Cotula. 






Heads simple, radiate ; pappus of hairs. 
Heads 3/4-1 in. in diameter 
Heads 1/4-1/3 in, in diameter 

Heads simple, radiate ; pappus of bristles or 


Ray florets white. 
Pappus of 2-5 minute teeth 
Pappus of 2-4 awns provided with retrorse 

Ray florets yellow. 

Disk florets also yellow 

Disk florets white or pale-yellow 

Heads simple, radiate ; pappus 0. 
Rays yellow 
Rays white. 

Leaves entire or slightly toothed 

Leaves 1-2-pinnatisect 

Heads simple, ligulate. 
Achenes beaked 
Achenes not beaked. 
Juice yellow 
Juice white. 

Cauline leaves or few, stalked ; achenes 


Cauline leaves 1/2-amplexicaul ; achenes ob- 
long, with 4-5 rugose ribs; outermost 
bracts with scarious margins 
Cauline leaves many, amplexicaul ; achenes 
compressed, ovoid or obovoid, with 3-5 
ribs on each face 


Heads compound. 
Heads terminal. 
Heads axillary. 

Leaves prickly . . 
Leaves not prickly 

1. Vernonia Schreb. 

12. Vicoa. 

13. Pulicaria. 

15. Eclipta. 

17. Bidens. 

16. t Spilanthes. 

18. Tridax. 

16. Spilanthes. 

15. Eclipta. 

19. Matricaria* 

31. Lactuca. 
34. Launea. 

30. Crepis. 

32. Picridium. 

33. Sonchus. 

22. Echinops. 

11. Ccesulia. 

Herbs or shrubs, bearing alternate leaves. Heads discoid, pink or 
purple, in corymbose cymes orpanicled, homogamous ; involucre globose, 
equalling or shorter than the flowers ; bracts many-seriate, inner longest ; 
receptacle naked or pitted, sometimes shortly hairy. Corollas all equal, 

Heads are rarely discoid and without ray-florets in Matricaria. 



Fig. 94, Vernonia cmerascens t X i ; Fig. 95, Ageratum conzoides, xj; Fig. 96, 
Cyathodine lyrata, xi ; Fig. 97, Conyza ambigua, X J. 


tubular, slender ; lobes 5, narrow ; anther-bases obtuse ; style-arms 
subulate. Achenes ribbed or terete ; pappus of many hairs, girt on the 
outside with a row of short hairs or flattened bristles. 

Key to the species. 

Herb : leaves ovate or lanceolate ; achenes not 

ribbed . . . . . . 1. V. cinerea. 

Small shrub ; leaves spathulate ; achenes 5-ribbed . . 2. V. cinerascens. 

1. V. cinerea Less. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 233. An erect or 
rarely suberect, more or less hairy, generally slightly branched, annual 
herb, l/2ylj ft. tall. Leaves short- or long-petioled, 1-3 in. long, up to 
1 in. broad, ovate or lanceolate, obtuse or acute, little or deeply, 
obtusely or acutely toothed, membranous or sub-cariaceous, hairy on 
both sides. Heads 1/4 in, in diam., on slender bracteate peduncles, corym- 
bose ; involucral bracts linear-lanceolate, sharply pointed. Corolla 
pink or lilac, lobes pubescent. Achenes 1/15-1/20 in., terete, not ribbed, 
clothed with appressed white hairs ; pappus white or dirty white, outer 
hairs very short. 

A very common weed and very variable especially in size and leaves. This 
probably depends on the amount of water and shelter available. Plants growing in 
fields are generally larger, while those growing on road-sides are stunted. 

Flowers during the cold season. 

2. V. cinerascens Schultz-Bip. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., Ill, p. 237. A 
much-branched undershrub, up to 3 ft. tall, ashy -pubescent. Leaves 
1-2 in. long, spathulate, tapering to a narrow base, rounded or apiculate, 
entire or serrate, pubescent on both sides, gland-dotted. Heads 1/4 in. 
in diam., in terminal corymbose cymes ; peduncles ebracteate or with 
minute bracts ; involucral bracts linear, subacute. Corolla purple, 
glabrous. Achenes 1/5-1/10 in. long, 5-ribbed, silky ; pappus white ; outer 
hairs much shorter than the inner, rigid. (Fig. 94.) 

Flowers during winter. 

2. Ageratum Linn. 

Erect herbs. Leaves opposite or the upper alternate. Heads 
discoid, corymbose, homogamous ; involucre campanulate ; bracts 
2-3-seriate, linear, subequal ; receptacle flat or nearly so, naked or with 
caducous scales. Corollas all tubular, equal, regular ; limb 5-oleft ; 
anthers appendaged, base obtuse ; style-arms elongate, obtuse. Achenes 
5-angled ; pappus of 5 short connate scales. 

A. conyzoides Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 243. A softly hairy, 
generally branched, annual herb, 1-2 ft. tall. Leaves 2-5 in. long 


including the long petiole, ovate, crenate ; base wedge-shaped to sub- 
cordate. Heads in dense terminal corymbs, pale-blue or white ; involucral 
bracts linear, acute, striate. Achenes black ; pappus scales awned, often 
serrate below. (Fig. 95.) 

A very common winter weed. 

3. Centipeda Lour. 

Herbs with alternate, entire or coarsely toothed leaves. Heads 
small, sessile on the branches or racemose, discoid, yellow ; involucre 
hemispheric ; bracts 2-seriate, subequal, with scarious margins, spreading 
in fruit ; receptacle flat or somewhat convex, naked. Florets all regular, 
tubular, but heterogamous ; outer female, many-seriate, fertile ; corolla 
narrow, obscurely 2-3-lobed ; central florets bisexual, few, fertile, with 
broader, campanulate, 4-fid corolla ; anther-bases obtuse, entire ; style- 
arms of bisexual florets short, truncate. Achenes obtusely 4-angled, 
hairy or bristly at the angles, lacking pappus. 

C. orbicularis Lour. ; FL Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 317. A prostrate 
annual ; stems many from the root, 4-9 in. long, glabrous or sparsely 
woolly. Leaves subsessile 1/4-1/2 in. long, oblong-spathulate, with few 
teeth. Heads 1/10-1/6 in. in diarn., axillary solitary, nearly sessile, 
globose, yellow ; involucral bracts small, oblong, obtuse, with 
membranous margins. Achenes minute. 

In wet places. Flowers during winter. 

4. Cyathocline Cass. 

Erect, annual, odorous herbs. Leaves alternate, pinnatisect. 
Heads small, discoid, corymbose, heterogamous ; involucre hemispheric ; 
bracts sub-2-seriate, lanceolate, acute, margins scarious ; receptacle 
with a contracted base, elevated, top concave, naked. Outer florets 
many-seriate, female, fertile, filiform, 2-toothed ; central florets herma- 
phrodite, usually sterile, regular, 5-cleft ; anther-bases truncate ; style 
exserted. Achenes minute, oblong, smooth ; without pappus. 

C. lyrata Cass. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 246. Sparsely hairy, sweet- 
scented, branched annual, 1-2 ft. tall. Leaves 1-5 in. long, mostly 
pinnatisect, segments toothed, generally decreasing in size towards the 
leaf-base. Heads in small rounded panicled corymbs, rose-purple or 
sometimes white, 1/6 in. in diam. Achenes minute. (Fig. 96.) 

A winter plant, generally found in moist situations. 


5. Conyza Less. 

Herbs. Leaves alternate. Heads discoid, corymbose or panicled, 
heterogamous ; involucre campanulate ; bracts 2-many-seriate, narrow, 
outer smaller ; receptacle flat or convex, naked or pitted and fimbriate. 
Outer florets female, 2-many-seriate, filiform, rarely ligulate, 2-3-toothed, 
fertile ; inner hermaphrodite, all or mostly fertile, yellow, tubular, limb 
5- toothed ; anther-bases obtuse, entire ; style-arms of female florets 
flattened, tips long or short. Achenes minute, compressed ; pappus 
slender, 1 -seriate. 

Key to the species. 

Heads 1/1^0 in. in diam. . . . . ..1.0. stricta. 

Heads 1/5 in. in diam. . . . . 2. C. ambigua. 

1. C. stricta Willd. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 258. An erect, 
pubescent or hoary, annual herb, 1-2 ft. tall, generally much corym- 
bosely branched in the upper part. Stems leafy. Leaves 1/2-3 in. long, 
subsessile, linear, spathulate or obovate-spathulate, entire or toothed, 
rarely pinnatifid, hairy on both sides. Heads numerous, yellow, 1/10 in. 
across or less, ovoid, peduncled, corymbose ; involucral bracts linear- 
lanceolate. Achenes pale yellow, about 1/40 in. long, narrowly elliptic, 
puberulous ; pappus reddish. 

Ravi bank. It is probably a recent introduction from the hills. 

C. ambigua DC. ; Syn. Erigeron linifolius Willd. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., 
Ill, p. 254. A greyish-green herb, 1-2J ft. tall. Stems solitary or more 
commonly several from the base, erect, very leafy, appressed hairy or 
villous. Leaves sessile, l-3 in. long, linear, entire or distantly serrate, 
densely hairy, rarely glabrescent above, sub-tomentose or villous beneath. 
Heads about 1/5 in. in length and diam. ; involucral bracts many, linear, 
very acute, centre hairy, margins scarious. Outer florets numerous, 
1/6 in. long, with filiform minutely 2-3-toothed pale corolla; inner florets 
pale yellow ; anthers linear, somewhat appendiculate. Achenes pale- 
brown, 1/20 in. long, margins sparsely silky ; pappus dirty-white, 1/6 in. 
long. (Fig. 97.) 

Quite common in irrigated lands. Flowers : March-June. 

This plant is frequently called Erigeron linifolius or sometimes E. canadense. 
Hooker says that the plant is found as an escape or a garden weed in Punjab and 
elsewhere. It is however so abundant now at Lahore that it can hardly be called 
an escape. 

6. Blumea DC. 

Glandular pubescent or woolly herbs. Leaves alternate, usually 
toothed or lobed. Heads discoid, corymbose, panicled or fascicled, 
rarely racemed, heterogamous, purple, rosy or yellow ; involucre ovoid 


or campanulate ; bracts many-seriate, narrow, acute, soft or herbaceous, 
outer smaller ; receptacle flat, naked. Outer florets many-seriate, 
female, fertile, with filiform, 2-3- toothed corolla ; central florets bisexual, 
few, fertile ; corolla tubular, slender, limb 5-toothed ; anthers sagittate, 
tails small, slender ; style-arms of bisexual florets flattened or almost 
filiform, rarely connate with the adjoining anthers. Achenes small, 
sub-terete or angled, ribbed or not ; pappus 1 -seriate, slender, often 

Key to the species. 

Corolla purple .. .. . . 1. B. Wightiana. 

Corolla yellow. 

Achenes not-ribbed, glabrate ; whole plant 

strongly smelling of turpentine or camphor . . 2. B. lacera. 
Achenes ribbed, silky ; plants not strongly 

odorous . . . . . . 3. B. membranacea. 

1. B. Wightiana DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 261. A pleasantly 
aromatic, villous, rarely thinly hairy and glandular, erect herb, 1-2 ft. 
tall. Stems solitary to a few from the root, very leafy. Leaves petioled, 
at the base of the stem 2-4 in. long, cauline 1-2 in. long including the 
petiole. Heads 1/4 in. long, collected into terminal spiciform dense (rarely 
open) cymes or panicles ; receptacle glabrous ; involucral bracts linear, 
acuminate, with softly hairy tips, not spinous- tipped. Corolla purple 
or pale-purple ; lobes in hermaphrodite florets glandular. Achenes pale- 
brown, terete or 4-5-angled, not ribbed, sparsely hairy. 

A weed. Flowers : February-May. 

2. B. laccra DC. ; FL Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 263. A generally 
glandular, densely or sparsely hairy, simple or branched, erect annual 
herb, 1-3 ft. tall, strongly smelling of camphor or turpentine. Leaves 
petioled or upper sessile, 1-5 in. long, gradually decreasing in size from 
below upwards, obovate or elliptic, sharply toothed or serrate, lower 
often lobulate or lyrate, always more or less hairy, often densely beneath. 
Heads 1/3 in. long, in short axillary cymes or collected into terminal 
spiciform or corymbose, pubescent or sub-tomentose panicles ; involucral 
bracts linear, acuminate, hairy, often glandular, margins scarious ; 
receptacle glabrous. Corolla yellow, in hermaphrodite florets nearly 
glabrous. Achenes grey-brown, slightly 4-angled, not ribbed, glabrate. 
(Fig. 98.) 

A very common weed. Flowers : February-June. 

3. B. membranacea DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 265. A pube- 
scent or sparsely hairy glandular herb, 1-4 ft. tall, often much branched. 
Stem stout, often woody below. Leaves lower up to 6 in. long, gradually 


decreasing in size upwards, obovate, deeply lobed, pinnatifid or lyrate, 
sharply, sometimes spinosely, toothed, membranous, glabrescent or 
pubescent, tapering downwards into winged petioles. Heads numerous, 
\ in. in diam., on slender divaricating peduncles up to 1 in. long, forming 
large much branched open panicles terminating all the upper branches ; 
involucral bracts many, 4-5-seriate, green or purplish, narrow, outer 
spreading in fruit, all or the outer sharply tipped. Corolla yellow, in 
hermaphrodite florets glandular. Achenes 8-10-ribbed, silky. (Fig. 99.) 
A common and a very variable plant. Flowers : February-May. 

Var. gracilis J. D. Hooker. Stem not much branched. Leaves 
lyrate or sub-lyrate, sharply toothed, bright green. Heads sub-solitary, 
racemose or clustered at the ends of the branches. 

Var. muralis J. D. Hooker. Stem usually simple, slender. Leaves 
elliptic-ovate or lanceolate, toothed or serrulate, very membranous, 
glandular hairy. Involucral bracts rigid, purplish. 

7. Laggfera Sch. Bip. 

Annual or perennial, often glandular hairy herbs. Leaves alternate. 
Heads discoid, in terminal or axillary corymbose racemes, heterogamous ; 
involucre campanulate ; bracts many-seriate, narrow, often rigid, outer 
shorter ; receptacle flat, naked. Outer florets female, many-seriate, 
fertile ; corolla filiform, mouth minutely toothed ; disk-florets bisexual, 
fertile ; corolla tubular, limb 5-fid ; anther-bases 2-lobed or sagittate > 
auricles obtuse or acute, often unequal, not prominently tailed ; gynae- 
cium and fruit as in Blumea. 

L. aurita Schultz-Bip. ; FL Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 271. A coarse grey- 
green, annual or perennial, hairy herb, 1J-3 ft. tall, strongly smelling 
somewhat like turpentine, generally branched from the base. Stems 
leafy, not winged. Leaves sessile or petioled, l-2i in. long, lanceolate 
or ob-lanceolate, toothed, lobed or pinnatifid ; basal lobes not prominently 
decurrent on the stem. Heads 1/3-1/2 in. in diam., in small lateral or 
terminal corymbs, on peduncles mostly 1-2 in. long; outer involucral 
bracts slender, soft, villous, spreading and recurved ; inner straight, often 
with purplish pointed tips. Flowers pink ; anthers shortly tailed ; style 
pubescent ; arms very short, obtuse. Achenes small, hairy ; pappus 
long, white. (Fig. 100.) 

In waste places. Flowers : February-May. 

8. Pluchea Cass. 

Perennial, pubescent or tomentose, herbs or undershrubs, woody 
below. Leaves alternate, simple. Heads small, discoid, in terminal 



Fig. 98, Blumea lacera, xj; Fig. 99, Blumea membranacea, xj; Fig. 100, 
Lagga aurita, (a) a branch, (6) a lower leaf, X i ; Fig. 101, Ifloga Fontawsii, X ; 
Fig. 102, Omiphalium luteo-album, X^; Fig. 103, O. indicum, Xi; Fig. 104, 
Q. pulvinatum, X J. 


compound leafless corymbs, white or lilac ; heterogamous ; involucre 
ovoid or campanulate ; bracts ovate, mostly broad, dry, rigid ; receptacle 
flat, naked. Outer florets female, fertile, many-seriate ; corolla filiform ; 
inner florets hermaphrodite, sterile, few ; corolla tubular, 5-fid ; anthers 
sagittate, cells tailed ; style-arms of hermaphrodite florets filiform, entire 
or 2-fid. Achenes small, 4-5-angled ; pappus hairs rigid, slender, 1-seriate, 
of the outer florets free, of the inner many and connate. 

P. lanceolata Oliv. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., Ill, p. 272. Hoary undershrub. 
Steins many from the base, erect, slender, silky-pubescent. Leaves 
sessile, 1-2| in. long, lanceolate or oblanceolate, entire or toothed, pro- 
minently nerved. Heads longer than broad ; involucre contracted at the 
mouth \ bracts short, rounded, outer hoary, usually tinged with purple. 

Changa Manga. Flowers : February -April. 

9. Ifloga Case. 

Herbs. Leaves alternate, small, slender, often clustered. Heads 
discoid, small, solitary or clustered, sessile, forming leafy spikes, hetero- 
gamous ; involucral bracts few ; receptacle cylindric below, top flat, or 
slightly elevated, naked, with an outer ring of scales as long as the 
involucral bracts. Outer florets female, 1 -many- seriate, fertile ; corolla 
very slender, obscurely toothed ; disk-florets hermaphrodite, sterile ; 
corolla-limb 5-toothed ; anther-bases sagittate, tails very slender. Achenes 
glabrous ; of outer florets small, oblong, without pappus ; of inner florets 
with pappus of a few feathery hairs. 

I. Fontanesii Cass ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., Ill, p. 277. Hairy or glabrate 
annual. Stems generally many from the root, 4-6 in. long, ascending, 
densely covered with leaves and heads. Leaves 1/2-1 in. long, linear, 
acute. Heads reddish, 1/6 in. long, glistening, glabrous, 2-3 in the axil 
of each leaf throughout the length of the branches and thus giving rise 
to dense leafy spikes ; involucral bracts red, scarious, aristate. Pappus 
red. (Fig. 101.) 

Flowers : February-May. 

10. Gnaphalium Linn. 

Hoary or woolly herbs. Leaves alternate, quite entire. Heads 
small, in terminal or axillary corymbs or fascicles, discoid, heterogamous ; 
involucre ovoid or campanulate ; bracts many -seriate, all scarious, or 
with a white, yellow or brown more or less scarious blade ; receptacle 
flat, naked. Florets all fertile ; outer female, 2- or more-seriate, filiform, 
3-4-toothed ; disk-florets hermaphrodite, fewer, slender, limb dilated, 6- 
toothed ; anther-bases sagittate, tails slender ; style-arms of hermaphro- 


dite florets truncate or capitate. Achenes oblong or obovoid, not ribbed ; 
pappus caducous ; hairs 1 -seriate, slender or thickened at the tip, connate 
at the base or not. 

Key to the species. 

Leaves more than 1 in. long. 

Heads in corymbose leafless clusters . . 1. O. luteo-album. 

Heads in leafy spikes . . . . 2. O. indicum. 

Leaves less than 1 in. long ; heads in rounded, leafy, 

axillary or terminal clusters . . 3. G. pulvinatum. 

1. G. luteo-album Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 288. 4-16 in. 
high, white -tomentose. Leaves sessile, 1-3 in. by 1/4-1/2 in., oblong- 
spathulate to lanceolate, lower obtuse, upper acute. Heads about 
1/4 in. in diam., whitish, yellow or brownish, glistening, in dense leafless 
corymbose clusters ; involucral bracts oblong, obtuse, hyaline except 
near the base. Achenes muricate or minutely bristly. (Fig. 102.) 

In damp places. Flowers : March-May. 
Two varieties are distinguished. 

Var. multiceps. Heads golden-yellow ; stems often more than one 

from the root. 
Var. pallida. Heads pale-brown. 

The second form is more common, but the first is also frequently met with. 
Young heads often form terminal globose clusters, but this species can always 
be distinguished from O. pulvinatum from the larger size of its leaves and heads. 

2. G. indicum Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 289. Stems generally 
several from the root, 416 in. high, more or less white-woolly. Leaves 
mostly 1-2 in., obovate or spathulate, apiculate, usually woolly on both 
the surfaces. Heads 1/8 in. in diam., in simple or branched, short or 
long, leafy spikes, pale yellow or pale brownish ; involucral bracts linear- 
oblong, acute. Achenes minutely papillose. (Fig. 103.) 

Common. Flowers : February- April. 

3. G. pulvinatum Delile. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 289. A small 
woolly annual. Stems many, 2-6 in. long, spreading from the root, nearly 
prostrate. Leaves 1/2 in. or less in length, 1/5 in. broad, spathulate, 
narrowed at the base into a short petiole. Heads 1/12 in. in diam., 
hidden amongst the bases of the crowded spreading terminal leaves and 
immersed in wool ; involucral bracts linear, recurved, green, with acute 
hyaline tips. Achenes slender, minutely papillose. (Fig. 104.) 

In drying up ponds and in other damp localities. 
Flowers during winter. 


11. Caesulia Roxb. 

A glabrous herb. Leaves alternate, serrulate. Heads in sessile, 
axillary, involucrate balls, each sessile on a broad convex common 
receptacle, 1 -flowered ; involucral bracts 2, opposite, keeled or winged, 
and at length adnate to and enclosing the achene. Flowers tubular ; 
limb narrowly campanulate, deeply 5 -fid ; anthers sagittate, tails 
branched ; style-arms short, linear- cuiieate, sub-truncate. Achenes 
included in the laterally compressed bracts, without pappus. 

C. axillaris Roxb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 291. A sub-erect or 
prostrate herb. Stems several, 6-16 in. long. Leaves 2-5 in. long, 
sessile, linear or linear- lanceolate, narrowed towards both ends, serrulate ; 
base sheathing, enclosing the compound heads. Heads pearly- white ; 
1/3-3/4 in. in diam. ; anthers exserted. 

In marshy places ; canal-side. Flowers from October onwards during the 
cold season. 

12. Vicoa Cass. 

Rough or hairy herbs. Leaves alternate, entire or toothed ; upper 
amplexicaul. Heads radiate, terminal, solitary or on leaf-opposed 
peduncles, woolly, heterogamous ; involucre campanulate ; bracts many- 
seriate, narrow ; inner scarious ; outer shorter, margins scarious ; receptacle 
flat or subconvex, naked. Ray-florets female, 1-2-seriate, fertile ; ligule 
narrow, 2-3-toothed ; disk-florets bisexual, fertile, slender ; limb hardly 
dilated, 5 -toothed ; anthers sagittate ; tails slender ; style -arms of bisexual 
florets flattened, broader upwards, obtuse or truncate. Achenes small, 
cylindric, hardly ribbed, rounded at the apex ; pappus 1 -seriate ; hairs 
5 -many, smooth, scabrid or bearded. 

V. vcstita Benth. ; FL Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 297. Densely and softly 
hairy, sometimes glabrate, rigid, leafy herb, 10-18 in. tall, much branched. 
Leaves 1-3 in. long, lower petioled, upper sessile, oblong, oblong-lanceolate 
or broadly spathulate, serrate or subentire, obtuse or sub -acute. Heads 
bright yellow, 3/4-1 in. in diam. ; involucrai bracts 1/5 in. long, squarrose, 
with filiform recurved tips. Achenes sub-silky. (Fig. 105.) 

Flowers : March-June. 

13. Pulicaria Gaertn. 

Usually woolly or villous herbs. Leaves alternate, sessile, 1/2-amplexi- 
oaul. Heads solitary, radiate and heterogamous or disciform and homo- 
gamous, yellow ; involucre hemispheric or obconic ; bracts few-seriate, 
narrow, acuminate or awned ; receptacle flat or somewhat convex, pitted. 
Ray-florets, if present, 1-2-seriate, pistillate ; ligules narrow, minute or ; 
disk-florets hermaphrodite, fertile, slender ; limb elongate, shortly 5-fid ; 



Fig. 105, Vicoa vestita, (a) a flowering branch, xj, (6) a lower leaf, Xj; 
Fig. 106, Pulicaria crispa, x}; Fig. 107, Xanthium strumarium, (a) a flowering 
twig, x J, (6) a female flowering head, X 1$, (c) a fruiting head, X f, (d) a female 
flower, xlj, (e) a male flower, x3; Fig. 108, Eclipta alba, Xi; Fig. 109, Tridax 
procumbent, Xj. 


anther-bases sagittate ; tails capillary, simple or branched ; style-arms 
linear, obtuse. Achenes terete or ribbed ; pappus double, outer of short 
jagged teeth, inner of filiform or flattened hairs. 

P. crispa Benth. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., Ill, p. 299. A stout perennial, 
1-2 ft. tall, branches cottony. Leaves 1/2-2 in. long, linear or linear- 
oblong ; in young plants sometimes up to 4 in. long, obovate-spathulate ; 
margins recurved, toothed or crisped ; undersurface densely cottony. 
Heads yellow, 1/4-1/3 in. in diam. ; involucral bracts linear, setaceous, 
pubescent outside. Ligules shorter than the bracts, sometimes absent. 
Achenes glabrous ; pappus hairs 3 times as long as the achenes, connate 
at the base with the outer involucral teeth. (Fig. 106.) 

Race-course ground, at Chaburji, and in waste places and fields. Common. 
Flowers : February-May. 

14. Xanthium Linn. 

Annual, rough herbs. Leaves alternate, toothed or lobed. Heads 
monoecious, female and hermaphrodite (male), axillary ; hermaphrodite 
in the upper axils, globose, many-flowered, sterile, with tubular 5-toothed 
corolla ; female 2 -flowered, fertile, apetalous ; involucre of hermaphrodite 
(male) heads short ; bracts few, 1-2-seriate, narrow ; receptacle cylindric, 
with hyaline scales enclosing the flowers ; in vol. of female heads of bracts 
united into an ovoid 2 -beaked green utricle with two 1 -flowered cells, 
clothed with hooked bristles and sometimes with a few small free outer 
bracts. Filaments monadelphous ; anthers free, bases obtuse, tips 
mucronate, inflexed ; style of hermaphrodite florets slender, undivided ; 
of female florets with free arms, exserted from the involucre. Achenes 
enclosed in the hardened involucral cells, obovoid, without pappus. 

This is a peculiar genus, and when in fruit, it is not at once recognizable as a 

X. strumarium Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 300. An erect rough 
annual, l|-3 ft. high. Leaves long- stalked, with blades 2-5 in. long, 
ovate-triangular, lobed and toothed, cordate or cuneate at the base, 
scabrid. Heads in terminal and axillary racemes ; female involucres 
1/2-1 in. long, ovoid or oblong, closely covered with hooked spines, with 
erect or diverging beaks ; hermaphrodite heads 1/4 in. in diam., with 
prominent exserted anthers. (Fig. 107.) 

A winter annual, especially abundant in moist localities, e.g. the banks of 
Chhota Ravi. 

15. Eclipta Linn. 

Strigose or hirsute herbs bearing opposite leaves. Heads small, 
axillary or terminal, peduncled, heterogamous, rayed ; involucre broadly 
campanulate ; bracts sub-2-seriate, green, outer large and broad ; recep- 


tacle flat, covered with broad scales enclosing several flowers ; ray- 
florets sub-2-seriate, female, fertile or sterile ; ligule small, entire or 2- 
toothed, white ; disk-florets bisexual, fertile, tubular, limb 4-5-fid ; 
anther-bases obtuse, subentire ; style-arms flattened, with short or 
triangular obtuse appendages. Achenes from ray-florets narrow, triquet- 
rous, often empty; from the disk-florets stouter, laterally sub- compressed; 
pappus absent or of two short awns or teeth. 

E. alba Hassle. ; Fl. Brit. Ind. y III, p. 304. An erect or prostrate, 
strigose or hirsute, annual weed, much branched, frequently rooting 
from the lower nodes ; branches 1/2-2 ft. long. Leaves opposite, sessile, 
1-3 in. long, variable in width and form, linear to oblong-lanceolate, 
narrowed at both ends, toothed or nearly entire. Peduncles solitary or 
paired, short or long. Heads 1/4-1/3 in. in diameter ; involucral bracts 
ovate, obtuse or acute, as long as or longer than the flowers ; outer larger 
than the inner and leaf- like. (Fig. 108.) 

Common in waste places and on road-sides. 
Flowers practically throughout the year. 

16. Spilanthes Linn. 

Annual herbs bearing opposite leaves. Heads usually long- 
peduncled, axillary or terminal, broadly ovoid or conical, homogamous 
and discoid or heterogamous and shortly radiate ; involucre ovoid or 
campanulate ; bracts sub-2-seriate ; receptacle conical, elongate, covered 
with concave scales enclosing the flowers and often connate with the 
ovary into a stalk. Ray-florets pistillate, 1 -seriate, fertile ; ligule white 
or yellow ; disk-florets hermaphrodite, fertile ; corolla tubular, 4-5-fid ; 
anther-bases truncate, entire or 2-toothed ; style-arms of disk-florets 
truncate. Achenes dorsally compressed, margins and angles usually 
ciliate ; pappus 0, or 1-3 bristles. 

S. Acmella Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 307. Prostrate or sub-erect ; 
branches 1-3 ft. long, pubescent or hairy. Leaves 1-2 in. long, stalked, 
ovate or lanceolate, coarsely toothed or serrate. Heads yellow, pretty- 
looking, 1/2 in. in diam., often longer than broad, on long peduncles ; 
ligules very short. 

Near moist places. Flowers : October-March. 

S. Acmella Linn., var. oleracea Clarke, which is more robust and succulent 
and bears larger leaves and flowers, is cultivated in gardens. 

17. Bidcns Linn. 

Herbs bearing opposite, entire, toothed or pinnate leaves. Heads 
corymbose or sub-solitary, heterogamous and rayed or homogamous and 


discoid ; involucre campanulate or hemispheric ; bracts sub-2-seriate, 
connate at the base, outer green, inner membranous ; receptacle flat or 
convex, covered with narrow flat scales nearly as long as the disk-florets. 
Ray-florets 1 -seriate, pistillate or neuter ; ligule spreading, 2-3-toothed, 
yellow or white ; disk-florets hermaphrodite, fertile ; limb tubular, 5-fid ; 
anther-cells entire or sub-sagittate ; style-arms of hermaphrodite flowers 
hairy above, tips short, acute. Achenes 4-gonous or dorsally compressed, 
linear or wedge-shaped, often narrowed, but not beaked above ; pappus 
of 2-4, erect, stiff, retrosely hispid bristles. 

B. pilosa Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 309. An erect, glabrous 
or pubescent annual, 1-3 ft. tall. Leaves opposite, long-stalked, 2-5 in. 
long, very variable, simple, 3-fid, trifoliolate or 1-2-pinnatifid ; leaflets 
ovate or lanceolate, serrate. Heads on long peduncles, 1/4-1/2 in. in diam. ; 
ray-florets 5-7 or sometimes absent, white ; disk-florets yellow. Achenes 
1/2-2/3 in. long, black, linear, 4-gonous, with 2-4 pale awns armed with 
retrorse bristles. 

Lahore, near Lawrence gardens and at other places. The achenes with bristly 
awns easily stick to clothes. 

Flowers : December-February. 

18. Tridax Linn. 

Perennial herbs. Leaves opposite, toothed, lobed or pinnatisect. 
Heads very long-peduncled, rayed, heterogamous ; in vol. bracts few- 
seriate ; outer short, broad, green ; receptacle slightly convex, covered 
with membranous scales. Ray-florets female, fertile, ligulate or 2-lipped, 
with the outer lip large 3-fid or 3-partite, the inner small 2-lobed or 
-parted or ; disk-florets hermaphrodite, fertile, tubular ; limb elongate, 
5-lobed ; anthers with short acute basal lobes ; style-arms of herma- 
phrodite florets hairy above, tips subulate. Achenes turbinate or 
oblong, silky ; pappus of aristate feathery bristles. 

T. procumbens Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 311. A weak 
HtrajfuliMtr hirsute-hairy herb ; branches 1-3 ft. long. Leaves in distant 
pairs, 1-3 in. long, petioled, ovate or lanceolate, deeply irregularly 
serrate, hairy on both sides. Heads 1/2-3/4 in. in diam., on peduncles up to 
1 ft. long ; scales on the receptacle in fruit up to 1/3 in. long. Disk-florets 
pale-white ; ligules of ray-florets yellow. Achenes dark- or grey-brown ; 
pappus 1/5 in. long. (Fig. 109.) 

On road-sides and in cultivated lands. Flowers almost throughout the year. 

19. Matricaria Linn. 

Erect herbs. Leaves alternate, 1-2-pinnatisect. Heads terminal, 
peduncled, solitary or corymbose, heterogamous, rayed, rarely discoid ; 


involucre hemispheric ; bracts few- seriate, appressed, outer shorter, 
with usually scarious margins ; receptacle naked. Ray-florets pistillate, 
fertile or sterile ; ligule white, elongate, rarely short ; disk-florets herma- 
phrodite, fertile ; tube terete or 2-edged ; limb 4-5-fid ; anther-bases 
obtuse, entire ; style -arms of hermaphrodite florets with truncate and 
penicillate tips. Achenes oblong, often incurved, truncate ; dorsally 
convex and ribbed or not, ventrally 3-5-ribbed ; faces glandular or 
wrinkled ; pappus very short or 0. 

M. Chamomilla Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 315. A glabrous 
aromatic herb, about 1 ft. tall, much branched. Leaves 1/2-1^ in. long, 
1-2-pinnatisect ; segments nearly filiform. Heads corymbose, 1/2-3/4 in. 
in diam. ; involucral bracts with white margins ; receptacle conical, elon- 
gating during fruiting. Ligules white, much longer than the bracts, 
deflexed after flowering, or rarely absent. Achenes small, grey, 
white-ribbed on the ventral face only ; pappus absent. 

The flower-heads and the oil obtained from this plant are often used as a 
substitute for the true Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), a native of Europe. 

20. Cot u la Linn. 

Small, often creeping, herbs. Leaves alternate, pinnatifid or pinna ti- 
sect. Heads small, peduncled, discoid, yellow, heterogamous (rarely 
homogamous) ; involucre hemispheric or campanulate; bracts sub-2- 
seriate, green, margins often scarious ; receptacle naked. Outer florets 
female, 1-2-seriate, fertile ; corolla conic, 2-toothed, or ; disk-florets 
hermaphrodite, fertile ; tube slender ; limb 4-fid ; anther-bases obtuse, 
entire ; style- arms of hermaphrodite florets truncate or obtuse ; styles 
of female florets sometimes entire. Achenes from the ray-florets or all 
stipitate, compressed, sheathed at the top by the base of the corolla 
or possessing a short ear-shaped pappus. 

Key to the species. 

Leaf-segments not rnucronate ; outer achenes with 

winged margins .. .. .. 1. C. anthemoides. 

Leaf-segments mucronate ; outer achenes not winged 2. C. hemispherica. 

1. C. anthemoides Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 316. A small 
diffuse glabrate or hairy annual herb. Stems 3-6 in. long. Leaves 
1/3-3/4 in., 1-2-pinnati-nd or -sect; segments with lanceolate lobes, not 
mucronate. Peduncles generally more than 1/2 in. long, slender, naked. 
Outer achenes broad, flat, with winged margins. (Fig. 111.) 

Common in moist places. Flowers : March-May. 




Fig. 110, Cotula hemispherica^ Xf ; Fig. Ill, C. anthemoides, X f . 

2. C. hcmispherica Wall. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 316. A sub-erect 
or prostrate, glabrous or villous, annual herb. Stems many, often 
thickened below, 3-8 in. long, branched in the upper part. Leaves 
stalked or sessile, 1/2-2 in. long, pinnatisect ; segments many, linear, 
mucronate. Heads solitary, yellow, 1/6 in. in diam. ; peduncles 1/2 in. 
or generally less in length, erect in flower, inclined or drooping in fruit. 
Achenes angled, not winged. (Fig. 110.) 

Ravi bank. Flowers : February-May. 

21. Artemisia Linn. 

Aromatic herbs or undershrubs. Leaves radical and alternate, 1-3- 
pinnatisect. Heads numerous, small, globose, discoid, in simple or 
compound, never corymbose, racemes, forming long terminal panicles, 
heterogamous or homogamous ; involucral bracts few-seriate, hairy, outer 
shorter, margins scarious ; receptacle flat or raised, naked or hisrute. 
Outer florets, if present, female, 1 -seriate, fertile ; corolla very slender, 
2-3-toothed ; disk-florets hermaphrodite, fertile or sterile, limb 5-toothed ; 
anther-bases obtuse, entire ; style-arms of hermaphrodite florets with 
truncate usually penicillate tips, often connate in the sterile florets. 
Achenes very minute, faintly striate ; pappus 0. 

A. scoparia Waldst. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 323. Glabrate, hoary 
or villous, annual or sometimes perennial herb, 2-6 ft. tall, much branched. 
Leaves 1-3 in. long, sessile or petioled, 1-3-pinnatisect, segments very 
narrow ; floral leaves short, simple, linear. Heads 1/10 in. or less in 
diam., sessile or on short capillary stalks, yellow; involucral bracts 


glistening, oblong, obtuse, margins scarious. Outer female florets mostly 
fertile ; inner hermaphrodite florets sterile and with larger corollas. 
Achenes very minute. 

River-side ; not common. Flowers after the rainy season. 

22. Echinops Linn. 

Rigid, armed, white-tementose herbs. Leaves alternate, pinnatifid, 
spinous. Heads compound, terminal, solitary, globose involucrate balls ; 
individual heads numerous, crowded, white, sessile or shortly stalked on a 
common receptacle, 1 -flowered ; involucral bracts many-seriate, rigid, 
pungent or spinescent ; outer short, of short hairs or narrow ; inner 
spathulate ; innermost linear-lanceolate ; sometimes all connate into a 
tube with one long rigid spine on the outer side ; receptacle minute. 
Florets bisexual, all fertile, tube slender, limb with 5 slender segments ; 
filaments glabrous ; anthers sagittate, auricles connate, tails fimbriate ; 
style-arms thick, at length spreading. Achenes long, villous ; pappus 
a ring of many short bristles. 

E. cchinatus DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 358. 1-3 ft. high, much 
branched annual. Stem white-cottony. Leaves sessile, 3-5 in. long, 
pinnatifid ; lobes oblong or triangular, ending in long rigid spines up to 
\\ in. long, glabrous or rough above, white-tomentose beneath. 
Compound head 1-1| in. in diam. with many stout spines. Florets 
white. Achenes 1/6 in. long, obconic, densely silky, surrounded by the 
connate hardened inner involucral bracts. (Fig. 112.) 

Common in the district. Flowers during summer. 

23. Cousinia Cass. 

Herbs with alternate, toothed, lobed or pinnatisect, more or less 
spinescent leaves. Heads solitary or clustered, homogamous ; involucre 
globose ; bracts many-seriate ; outer appressed, with long erect spreading 
or recurved spinous tips ; inner erect, slender, scarious ; receptacle flat, 
densely bristly. Flowers all similar, bisexual (outer rarely neuter), 
tubular, yellowish ; limb cylindric, slender, usually unequal, 5-fid ; 
filaments glabrous ; anthers sagittate, auricles connate, tails branched, 
villous ; style-arms narrow. Achenes glabrous, obovoid, 5 -many-ribbed, 
compressed ; pappus hairs 1 -seriate, slender or flattened, simple, free, 

C. minuta Boiss. ; Fl. Brit. Ind. t III, p. 359. A dwarf, rigid, sub- 
dichotomously branched, annual herb, 6-12 in. tall ; branches leafy, 
spreading. Stem yellowish or whitish. Leaves sessile, 1-3 in. long, 
oblong or lanceolate, sinuate-pinnatifid, often hoary or cobwebby, 


sparingly spinescent. Heads terminal and in the forks, 1/3-1/2 in. in 
diam. ; bristles on the receptacle smooth ; outer involucral bracts 15-20, 
triangular-lanceolate, up to 1 in. long, greenish, stout and sharply pointed. 
Flowers yellow. Achenes obovoid, compressed, 5-7-ribbed, truncate 
with a crenulate ring ; ribs sub-crenate ; pappus caducous ; hairs scabrid. 
(Fig. 113.) 

Lahore, river-side ; Sheikhupura. Flowers : March May. 

24. Cnicus Linn. 

Erect, stiff, armed herbs. Leaves alternate, often decurrent, serrate- 
toothed or pinnatifid, spinescent. Heads solitary, long or short peduncled, 
scattered or crowded, bisexual or dioecious ; involucre ovoid, hemispheric 
or globose ; bracts many-seriate, appressed, erect, spreading or recurved, 
spine-tipped ; outer foliaceous ; receptacle flat, densely bristly. Flowers 
white, pale-yellow or red ; tube slender ; limb equal or oblique, 5-fid ; 
anthers sagittate, auricles connate, tails slender ; style-arms short, rarely 
filiform, obtuse. Achenes glabrous, obovoid, obtusely 4-angled, smooth 
or 5-10-ribbed ; pappus copious, but soon falling off ; hairs many-seriate, 
feathery, unequal. 

Key to the, species. 

Flowers dioecious, dingy purple . . . . 1. C. arvensis. 

Flowers bisexual, pale-yellow or white . . . . 2. C. argyracanthus. 

1. C. arvensis Hoffm. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 362. Annual or 
perennial erect herbs with creeping root-stock. Stems solitary or tufted, 
simple or branched, 1 J-3 ft. tall, not winged, cobwebby- tomentose above. 
Leaves sessile, 3-6 in. by 1-2 in., sinuate-pinnatifid, pale-green above, 
white, more or less woolly- tomentose beneath, spinous. Heads unisexual, 
male and female on different plants, solitary, clustered or corymbose, 
dingy purple ; male 1/2-1 in. in diam., globose ; female longer, more 
campanulate ; involucral bracts glabrate or cobwebby ; outer ovate or 
triangular, ending in a short spine ; inner longer, with undulate, often 
recurved, tips; innermost linear-lanceolate, scarious. Corolla-limb 5- 
partite. Achenes 1/8 in. long, linear-oblong, compressed, smooth, shin- 
ing; pappus brownish. (Fig. 114.) 

A common weed ; especially abundant in somewhat moist places. Flowers . 
February May. 

2. C. argyracanthus DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 362. 3-6 ft. 
tall. Stems robust, branched, grooved, often cottony. Leaves green, 
glabrous above, cottony or glabrate beneath, irregularly pinnatifid, 
margins densely beset with long, sharp spines ; radical petioled, 10-24 in. 
by 1-2 in. ; cauline shorter, sessile. Heads densely clustered, sessile or 




Fig. 112, Jfichinops echinatua, (a) a twig bearing young heads, x, (6) a 
flowering compound head, x , (c) an individual head, x 1, (d) one flower, X 1 ; 
Fig. 113, Oousinia mimtia, x J; Fig. 114, Onicus arvensie, (a) a flowering branch, 
Xi, (6) a lower leaf, x$, (c) a male flower x 1, (d) a female flower, x 1 ; Fig. 115, 
Silybum Marianum, (a) a flowering twig, x, (6) a leaf, x; Fig. 116, Saussurea 


subsessile, 3/4-1 in. in diam., globose, pale-yellow or white ; involucral 
bracts with woolly margins ; outer ending in long, rigid, erect or spreading 
spines; innermost linear, acuminate. Flowers bisexual; corolla 1/2 in. 
long; limb 5-lobed. Achenes 1/8 in. long, oblong, compressed ; pappus 
nearly white. 

Race-course ground and canal-side. Rare. Recently introduced by canals 
from the Himalayas, where it grows generally from 6,000-9,000 ft. 

25. Silybum Gaertn. 

Stout glabrous herb with alternate, sinuate-lobed, spinescent leaves. 
Heads large, solitary, terminal, nodding ; involucre sub-globose ; bracts 
many-seriate ; outer broad and fimbriated with spines below, above 
terminating in a spreading rigid spine ; inner lanceolate, erect, pungent ; 
receptacle flat, densely bristly. Flowers all bisexual, similar and fertile, 
purple ; tube slender ; limb dilated below, 5-fid ; filaments glabrous, 
united in a sheath below ; anthers sagittate, auricles connate, mucronate 
or shortly tailed ; style subentire. Achenes glabrous, obovoid-oblong, 
compressed ; pappus many-seriate ; hairs unequal, somewhat scaly, 
united at the base in a deciduous ring. 

S. Marianum Gaertn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., Ill, p. 364. Annual or 
biennial, 1-4 ft. tall. Stem often stout, smooth, grooved, leafy through- 
out. Leaves 3-12 in. by \-A in., broadest about the middle ; margin 
spinous. Heads 1-2 in. in diam. ; spines of involucral bracts 1/2-1 in. 
long. Flowers rose-purple. Achenes | in. long, black or grey, trans- 
versely wrinkled ; pappus white. (Fig. 115.) 

Flowers during March-May. 

26. Saussurea DC. 

Unarmed. Leaves radical and alternate, entire, toothed, pinnatifid 
or pinnatisect. Heads solitary, corymbose or panicled ; involucre ovoid, 
oblong, globose or hemispheric ; bracts many-seriate, appressed, not 
spinescent ; inner longer than outer and narrower ; receptacle flat or 
convex, densely bristly. Flowers purple or bluish, all bisexual and 
similar ; tube slender ; limb narrow 5-fid ; filaments free, glabrous ; 
anthers sagittate, auricles connate, tails usually long, lacerate ; style- 
arms linear. Achenes glabrous, oblong, angled ; top truncate and cupular ; 
pappus white, hairs feathery, base thickened and connate into a 
deciduous ring. 

S. candicans Clarke ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 373. Erect herb, 2-5 ft. 
high. Stem simple below, corymbosely branched above, cottony. 
Leaves 4-10 in. long, sometimes longer, oblong or obovate-oblong, entire, 


sinuate-toothed, or lobed at the base, or lyrate-pinnatifid, upper more 
dissected than the lower, narrowed at the base into a long or short petiole, 
glabrous or pubescent above, cottony, white-tomentose or rarely glabrate 
below. Heads numerous, corymbose, erect or sub-erect, loiig-peduncled, 
1-1 in. in diam., pale-red ; involucral bracts lanceolate, rigid, sharp, 
cottony or pubescent ; bristles on the receptacle long. Corolla 1/2 in. or 
more long. Achenes 1/10 in. long, dark-brown, 5-angled, muricate, top 
cupular ; pappus white ; hairs slender, 1/2 in. long. (Fig. 116.) 
Lahore, river-side ; Changa Manga. Flowers : December- April. 

27. Volutarella Cass. 

Leaves alternate. Heads heterogamous, purple or violet ; involucre 
ovoid or globose ; bracts many-seriate ; innermost narrow, acute ; outer 
shorter, acute, awned or spinescent ; receptacle flat, densely bristly. 
Outer florets 1 -seriate, neuter ; disk florets hermaphrodite, fertile ; tube 
slender, short ; limb cylindric, 5-fid ; filaments glabrous or hairy ; anther- 
bases sagittate, auricles connate, shortly tailed ; style filiform, arms 
free or connate. Achenes obovoid or oblong, 5-15-ribbed, striate and 
pitted between the ribs ; pappus many-seriate, bristly ; outermost 
gradually shorter. 

V. divarkata Benth. ; Fl. Brit. Ind.> III, p. 383. An erect or 
.. V 1 - stiff branched annual weed, 1-3 ft. tall. Stems angled, smooth 
or scabrid. Leaves sessile, 1-3 in. long, sometimes up to 5 in. long, 
often undulate or crisped. Heads 1/2 in. in diam. ; involucral bracts 
reddish, ovate, glabrate, with a 1/4-1/3 in. long, spreading or recurved, 
smooth, spinescent awn; bristles on the receptacle short. Corolla 1/2 in. 
long, straight, pale-purple. Achenes 1/5 in. long, acutely 4-5-angled ; 
top broad, truncate ; base narrowed ; pappus 1/2 in. long, silver-brown. 
(Fig. 117.) 

A troublesome weed from its hard spiny head. 
Flowers during the cold months. 

28. Centaurea Linn. 

Herbs. Leaves radical and alternate, entire, toothed or pinnatifid. 
Heads solitary, corymbose or panicled ; flowers all tubular but hetero- 
gamous ; involucre globose ; bracts many-seriate, overlapping, appressed, 
margins often scarious ; receptacle flat, densely bristly. Outer florets 
1 -seriate, larger, neuter, with a spreading 5-lobed limb ; inner florets 
hermaphrodite, fertile, tube slender, limb 5-lobed to the middle or 
lower ; anthers sagittate, basal lobes connate ; tails long or short, entire 
or lacerate ; style-arms with a thickened hairy basal ring, erect and 


connate or shortly spreading. Achenes oblong, compressed or obtusely 
4-angled ; pappus variable ; hairs rigid or not, many-seriate, entire, 
serrulate, bearded or feathery. 

C. Cyanus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 384. Erect, annual or 
biennial, slender herb. Leaves 1^-4 in. long, narrow, entire, toothed 
or lyrate-pinnatifid, generally cottony below. Heads blue, showy ; 
involucral bracts oblong, obtuse, cottony, with brown scarious toothed 
margins. Achenes grey, silky, longer than the middle row of pappus- 
hairs. Corn cockle or corn blue bottle. 

Grown in gardens largely as a winter annual, but now and then found growing 
as an escape in gardens and cultivated fields. 

C. moschata Linn, is the Sweet Sultan and is also commonly grown for 
ornamental purposes. 

29. Garth amus Linn. 

Herbs with alternate, stiff, spinescent leaves. Heads discoid, 
terminal, horn ogam ous ; involucre ovoid or sub-globose ; bracts many- 
seriate ; inner dry, entire or with a short fimbriate appendage ; outer 
without or with a foliaceous, toothed or spinescent appendage ; receptacle 
flat, densely bristly. Flowers all tubular, hermaphrodite, fertile (rarely 
a few marginal pistillate or neuter), yellow or orange-red ; corolla-tube 
slender ; limb oblong, dilated at the base, 5-cleft (or in pistillate flowers) ; 
filaments usually hairy in the middle ; anther-bases sagittate, connate ; 
tails short, fimbriate ; style-arms short or long. Achenes glabrous, 
obovoid, 4-angled or compressed ; pappus absent or chaffy. 

Key to the species. 

Upper leaves very spinous ; flowers yellow . . 1. C. Oxyacantha. 

Upper leaves unarmed or spinulose-toothed ; 

flowers orange-red . . . . 2. C. tinctorius. 

1. C. Oxyacantha Bieb. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., Ill, p. 386. A stout, 
strongly armed, generally much branched, puberulous herb, 1-1 ft. 
tall, stem and branches white. Leaves sessile, 1-5 in. long, oblong or 
oblong-lanceolate ; lower often pinnatifid, shortly spinulose-toothed ; 
upper 1/2-amplexicaul, very spinous. Heads 3/4- 1| in. in diameter ; 
outer involucral bracts exceeding the head, white below the contracted 
portion, green above it, with yellow spines. Flowers yellow. (Fig. 118.) 

Very abundant in fields after the winter crops have been harvested. Flowers : 
March- June. 

2. C. tinctorf us Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 386. An erect nearly 
glabrous herb up to 2 ft. tall, corymbosely branched in the upper part. 



Fig. 117, Volaturella divaricata, (a) a branch from a small plant xf, (6) a leaf, 
X 1J; Fig. 118, Carthamus Oxycantfia, xj; Fig. 119, G. tinctorius, xj. 

Leaves sessile, 1-3 in. long, lanceolate, spinulose- serrate, sometimes 
entire and unarmed. Heads 1/2-1 in. in diameter ; involucral bracts 
ovate-oblong ; outer constricted above the base, green, spinous or not ; 
inner narrower than the outer, acute. Flowers orange-red. The 
Safflawer-, Vern., Kusumbh. (Fig. 119.) 

Sometimes cultivated as a winter season crop. The seeds yield oil, flowers a 
red dye. Flowers during March and April. 

30. Crcpis Linn. 

Glabrous or hairy herbs ; hairs never stellate. Leaves largely 
radical and pinnatifid ; cauline few, alternate, generally stem -clasping, 
entire or toothed. Heads peduncled, bearing only ligulate flowers ; 
involucre cylindric or campanulate ; involucral bracts either many- 
seriate and regularly imbricate, or the outer small or very much shorter 
than the linear 1- seriate inner ; base or midrib thickened when fruiting 
or not ; receptacle flat, naked. Ligules yellow, spreading, 5-toothed. 
Achenes more or less fusiform or oblong, finely 10-20-ribbed, tip narrowed ; 
pappus short or long, usually copious ; hairs usually silvery, simple and 



C. japonica Benih. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 395. Glabrous or sparsely 
hairy annual. Stems solitary or tufted, 
erect, 1/2-2 ft. tall, simple or branched, 
naked or bearing a few leaves. Leaves 
largely radical, rosulate, 2-6 in. long, 
soft, membranous, mostly pinnatifid or 
sinuate-toothed, sometimes obovate ; 
lobes toothed, terminal large. Heads 
in terminal corymbs, on slender brac- 
teolate peduncles, 1/6-1/4 inch in dia- 
meter ; involucral bracts 6-8, narrowly 
oblong, green with hyaline margins, 
glabrous, fruiting with a strong basal 
midrib. Achenes 1/12 in. long, reddish, 
flattened, narrowly fusiform, pointed, 
but not beaked ; pappus soft, white, 
equalling or longer than the achenes. 
(Fig. 120.) 

An elegant plant ; common on road-sides 
and in gardens, especially in damp and shady 
places. Flowers probably throughout the 

31. Lactuca Linn. 


Fig. 120, Crepis japonica, (a) a 
plant, xj, (6) a leaf, x. 

Glabrous or hispid herbs, with milky 
juice. Leaves radical and alternate, 
entire, toothed, pinnatifid or pinnate ; 

cauline often stem-clasping and auricled. Heads sessile or peduncled, 
panicled, corymbose, racemose or subspicate, yellow, purple or blue, 
ligulate; involucre usually narrow; bracts few-seriate, thin, green, 
margin often membranous ; inner long, narrow, subequal ; outer shorter ; 
receptacle flat, naked. Ligules long, spreading, 3-5-toothed ; style-arms 
long. Achenes compressed or flattened, ovoid, oblong or narrow, 
beaked, faces 3-ribbed ; ribs slender or strong, smooth or transversely 
wrinkled, the middle one often strongest; beak slender or short and 
cylindric, dilated into an entire or toothed pappus-bearing disk ; pappus 
copious, soft and white ; hairs very slender, simple. 

Key to the species. 
Flowers blue . . . . . . . . 2. L. dissecta. 

Flowers yellow. 

Leaves more than 1 in. broad, spinulose-toothed 1. L. Scariola. 
Leaves or leaf-semgnets narrow, linear, mostly 

less than in. broad, not spinous . . 3. L. polycephcda. 



1. L, Scariola Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 404. Erect herb, 
2-5 ft. tall, annual or biennial, glabrous or nearly so, very leafy, corym- 
bosely or paiiiculiitcly branched above. Stem usually prickly in the 
lower part. Leaves 5-7 in. long, mostly more than 1 in. broad, sessile, 
runcinate or pinnatifid, teeth spinulose, cauline 1/2-amplexicaul, midrib 
prickly on the lower surface. Heads 1/2 in. long, erect, cylindric, arranged 
in irregularly corymbose or lax panicles ; branches and peduncles white 
and bearing green appressed cordate bracts ; outer involucral bracts 
shorter, triangular or ovate ; inner longer and linear. Flowers yellow. 
Achenes brown, 1/4-1/3 in. long (including the beak) ; body oblanceolate, 

Fig. 121, Lactuca Scariola, (a) portion of a branch bearing 3 leaves, X J, (a) achene, 
; Fig. 122, L. dissecta, (a) plant, xj, (b) achene, x2; Fig. 123, L. polycephala, 
(a) a flowering branch, x J, (6) (b') leaves, X J, (c) a head of achenes, x 1J, (d) an 
achene, X2. 


many-ribbed ; beak capillary, as long as or slightly longer than the body ; 
pappus shorter than the achene. (Fig. 121.) 

This species is a recent introduction from the Himalayas, the seeds having been 
probably brought down by the canal water to the plains of the Central Punjab. 
Flowers in the early part of summer. 

2. L* dissecta Don. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 405. Annual herb, 
erect or spreading, glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Stems often tufted, 
6-18 in. long, dichotomously branched from the base and leafy, rarely 
little branched and nearly naked. Leaves 1-4 in. long, very variable, entire, 
lyrate, runcinate-pinnatifid or almost bipinnatifid ; radical leaves usually 
many, sessile or petioled ; cauline leaves 1/2-amplexicaul, lobed at the 
base, uppermost linear. Heads corymbose, 1/4-1/2 in. long, erect, 
narrowly cylindric ; peduncles slender ; outer involucral bracts minute, 
ovate ; inner narrowly linear. Flowers blue or pale-blue. Achenes 
including the beak 1/4 in. long ; body much compressed, transversely 
rugose, 3-ribbed on each face, margins thickened ; beak capillary, twice as 
long as the body ; pappus 1/6 in. long. (Fig. 122.) 

In waste places. Flowers during the early part of summer. 

3. L. polycephala Benth. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 410. A slender 
flaccid glabrous annual, erect or partly spreading. Stems 618 in. long, 
striate, simple or sub-dichotomously branched. Leaves 2-10 in. long, 
1/4-3/4 in. broad, membranous ; radical leaves stalked, narrowly linear or 
lanceolate, entire, sinuate-toothed or pinnatifid ; cauline leaves sessile , 
shorter but broader than the radical leaves, narrowly or broadly lanceolate, 
mostly entire, finely acuminate, sagittate at the base and with acute 
lobes. Heads 1/3 in. long, erect, 10-20-flowered, arranged in dichotomous 
or sub-umbellate corymbs or panicles ; outer involucral bracts minute, 
inner 6-10 linear-oblong, green with scarious margins. Flowers yellow. 
Achenes 1/8-1/6 in. long, reddish brown, little compressed, elliptic-lanceo- 
late, strongly about 10-ribbed, smooth, narrowed into a short slender 
brown beak ; pappus as long as the achenes. (Fig. 123.) 

Ravi bank near Lahore. Flowers : March -April. 

L. sativa Linn. ( = L. Scariola Linn. var. sativa Linn.) is the garden 
lettuce and is commonly grown in gardens. The parts are more succulent than 
those of L. Scariola and quite smooth. 

32. Picridium Desf. 

Glabrous herbs with milky juice. Leaves radical or alternate, 
toothed or pinnatifid, lobes often crisped and toothed or spinulose. 
Heads campanulate, yellow ; flowers all ligulate ; involucral bracts 
many-seriate, thin, green ; innermost subequal, lanceolate, unchanged in 


fruit ; outer shorter, broader, with scarious margins ; receptacle flat, 
naked. Achenes oblong, truncate at both ends, constricted at the tip ; 
ribs 4-5, thick, transversely rugose ; pappus very soft, white ; hairs 
many-seriate, slender, simple, connate at the base into a deciduous ring. 

P. tingitanum Desf. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., ///, p. 413. Annual, 6-18 in. 
tall. Stem stout. Leaves 3-8 in. long, variable in breadth, membranous ; 
radical elongate-obovate or spathulate, sinuate-toothed or pinnatifid, 
sometimes with a large terminal sagittate lobe, denticulate ; cauline 1/2- 
amplexicaul, auricled. Heads 1-1J in. in diam., on thickened peduncles ; 
outer involucral bracts cordate, with broad membranous margins and 
thickened tips. Achenes 1/10 in. long, pale, corky, 4-angled or showing 
four moniliform ribs ; pappus 1/2 in. long. 

Occasionally found near Lahore. 

33. Sonchus Linn. 

Erect herbs with milky juice. Stem fistular, grooved or angled. 
Leaves radical or alternate, the former stalked, the latter generally 
stem-clasping, coarsely toothed or pinnatifid, teeth often spinulose. 
Heads terminal, in irregularly subcorymbose or umbellate panicles, 
yellow ; flowers many, all ligulate ; involucre ovoid, campanulate or 
cylindrio, often dilated, thickened and conic at the base ; bracts many- 
seriate, overlapping, green, outer smaller ; receptacle flat, naked. Ligules 
long, spreading, 5-toothed. Achenes ovoid, obovoid or ellipsoid, sub-terete 
or markedly flattened, not beaked, 3-5-ribbed on each face ; ribs smooth 
or minutely transversely wrinkled ; pappus copious, white ; hairs many- 
seriate, very slender, simple, usually united at the base into a deciduous 

Key to the species. 

Basal lobes of the cauline leaves acute . . 2. S. oleraceous. 

Basal lobes of the cauline leaves obtuse. 

Leaves hard ; teeth long, spinous ; involucral 
bracts glabrous ; achenes much compressed, 
not transversely wrinkled . . 1 . 8. asper. 

Leaves thin ; teeth small, not spinous ; involu- 
cral bracts glandular-hairy ; achenes hardly 
compressed, transversely wrinkled . . 3. S. arvensis. 

1. S. asper Vill. ; Fl Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 414. Annual herb, 2-3 ft. 
tall, glabrous or sparsely glandular in the upper parts. Stem sub- 
umbellately branched. Leaves 6-10 in. long and 2-3 in. broad, hard, 
lanceolate, 1/2-amplexicaul, with rounded basal lobes ; teeth numerous 
long and spinous. Heads crowded, 3/4-1 in. in diameter, the ultimate 


peduncles mostly less than 2 in. long ; involucral bracts glabrous. Achenes 
flattened ; faces with 3 prominent ribs, obscurely muricate between the 
ribs. (Fig. 125.) 

In gardens and cultivated fields. Flowers : January April. 

2. S, oleraceous Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 414. Habit similar 
to that of the last. Leaves 3-9 in. long, thin, lanceolate or pinnatifid, 
with a large terminal lobe ; marginal teeth small, prickly ; basal lobes 
of the cauline leaves acute or acuminate, entire or pinnatifid. Heads 
mostly short peduncled, 3/4-1 in. in diameter. Achenes as in 8. asper, 
but distinctly muricate between the ribs. (Fig. 124.) 

A common weed of gardens. Flowers : April-May. 

3. S* arvensis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., Ill, p. 414. Plant 2-4 ft. 
tall, glabrous below, glandular hairy above. Leaves 4-10 in. long, 1-2 in. 
broad, thin, largely radical, nearly entire, lanceolate or pinnatifid, 
uppermost nearly linear ; teeth small, not spiny ; basal lobes rounded ; 
under-surface glaucous. Heads 1 in. in diameter ; peduncles ultimately 
2-4 in. long ; involucral bracts glandular-hairy. Achenes narrow, each 
face minutely transversely wrinkled. (Fig. 126.) 

On road-sides and in fields and gardens. Flowers : November-March. 

34. Launea Cass. 

Glabrous perennial herbs with yellow juice. Leaves chiefly radical, 
sinuate-lobed or pinnatifid, margins often spinulose- toothed. Heads 
peduncled or sessile, solitary or fascicled, forming interrupted racemes, 
yellow ; flowers all ligulate ; involucre campanulate or cylindric ; bracts 
many-seriate, green, with scarious margins ; inner long, linear, subequal ; 
outer shorter, with keel often thickened in fruit ; receptacle flat, naked. 
Ligules long, spreading, 5-toothed ; anther-bases sagittate, auricles 
setaceous ; style-arms slender. Achenes narrow, sub -terete, angled or 
slightly flattened, truncate at both ends ; ribs 4-5, very stout, close-set, 
smooth ; pappus copious ; hairs white, many-seriate, simple, all connate 
at the base into a deciduous ring. 

L. nudicaulis Less. ; Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 ///, p. 416. Stems few to 
many, 6-24 in. long, tufted, decumbent, naked or with a few small 
leaves. Radical leaves 28 in. long, sessile ; lobes entire or coarsely 
toothed, obtuse or acute, margin at least in the older leaves beset with 
sharp, white, cartilaginous teeth. Heads 1/2-2/3 in. long. Achenes 1/12 in. 
long, pale, columnar or outer slightly curved and compressed, very thickly 
ribbed, much shorter than the soft white pappus. (Fig. 127.) 
Abundant. Flowers throughout the year. 



Fig. 124, Sonchus oleraceus, Xi; Fig. 125, 8. asper, xj; Fig. 126, 8. arvensis, 
Xj; Fig. 127, Launea nudicaulis, (a) vegetative parts, xj, (b) a flowering 
branch, x. 




Mostly herbs, nearly always with milky juice. Leaves alternate, 
rarely opposite, simple, exstipulate. Flowers bisexual, regular, axillary 
or terminal, solitary, or in panicles or racemes ; sepals 5, connate ; tube 
adnate to the ovary, persistent ; corolla gamopetalous, tubular or cam- 
panulate ; lobes 5, valvate; stamens 5, alternate with the corolla-lobes, 
inserted along with the corolla or on the disk on the top of the ovary ; 
filaments usually free from each other ; ovary inferior, or rarely superior, 
2-5-celled ; placentation axile, rarely basal or apical ; ovules usually 
numerous ; style linear ; stigmatic lobes as many as the constituent 
carpels. Fruit a capsule or a berry, often crowned by the persistent 
calyx-lobes. Seeds small, albuminous ; embryo straight, axial. Genera 
about 50, species nearly 800, widely distributed, but more abundant in cold 

Key to the genera. 

Flowers in panicled 

clusters . . 1. Campanula. 

Flowers in a dense 

spike . . 2. jSphenoclea. 

1. Campanula, Linn. 

Perennial or annual, erect or 
decumbent herbs. Leaves alternate 
or the radical forming a rosette. 
Flowers peduncled or subsessile, 
axillary or terminal, panicled, spi- 
cate or subcapitate, purple or white ; 
sepals 5, connate, tube adnate to the 
ovary, top-shaped, persistent ; 
corolla campanulate, 5-fid ; stamens 
5, free, filaments dilated at the base ; 
anthers free ; ovary inferior, 3- (rarely 
4-5-) celled ; ovules very many in 
each cell ; style cylindric ; stigma 
shortly 3-5-lobed. Capsule obovoid 
or elongate, truncate, dehiscing by 
pores or valves at the base or on the 
sides below the calyx-limb. Seeds 
usually flattened. 

Fig. 128, Campanula canescenf, X i 

C canescens Wall. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., Ill, p. 439. An erect herb, 
clothed with rather stiff hairs. Stems 6-24 in. high. Leaves l- 



long, oblong or lanceolate, crenate. Flowers in panicled clusters, 
dimorphic, normal and cleistogamic, the latter without petals or stamens ; 
calyx teeth linear-lanceolate, 1/4 in., smaller in cleistogamic flowers ; 
corolla 1/3 in. long, purplish ; ovary 3- or occasionally 4- or 5-celled. 
Capsule 1/5-1/4 in. in diameter, smaller in the cleistogamic flowers. 
(Fig. 128.) 

Lahore, river-side. Flowers : March -April. 

2. Sphenoclea Gaertn. 

Herbs, annual, erect. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, entire. Flowers 
small, sessile, in lateral and terminal, peduncled, dense, cylindric spikes, 
with a conical apex, bracteate ; bracteoles 2 ; calyx 1/2 -superior, limb 
5-fid, lobes ovate ; corolla epigynous, 5-lobed ; stamens 5, epipetalous ; 
filaments short, linear ; anthers ovate ; ovary at first inferior, 2- celled ; 
ovules numerous on stalked placentas ; style short ; stigma obscurely 
2-lobed. Capsule 1/2-inferior, membranous below, truncate, opening 
transversely at the level of the calyx teeth. Seeds narrowly oblong. 

S, zeylanica Gaertn. ; FL Brit, 2nd., Ill, p. 438. Stem 9-30 in., 
branched or not, glabrous. Leaves 1-2 in., sessile or almost so, glabrous. 
Spikes and peduncles each 3/4-2 in. long. Flowers greenish-yellow. 
Capsule 1/6 in. in diameter, Browned above with the persistent calyx- 
lobes. Seeds minute, slightly rough. 

River-side, in moist places. Flowers : September-October. 


Perennial or annual herbs. Leaves all radical or, when cauline, 
alternate, opposite or whorled, exstipulate. Flowers bisexual, regular, 
from solitary to paniculate or umbellate, often heterostyled ; sepals 
mostly 5, connate, inferior, persistent ; petals 5, connate, imbricate ; 
stamens 5, inserted opposite the corolla-lobes, rarely with alternating 
staminodes ; ovary 1 -celled, superior ; ovules numerous ; placentation 
free central ; style long or short ; stigma entire. Fruit a many-seeded 
capsule, dehiscing by valves or transversely. Seeds albuminous ; embryo 
transverse. Genera about 25, species nearly 550 ; distributed mostly in 
mountainous regions of the north temperate, rare in the tropics and the 
southern hemisphere. 

Anagallis Tournef. 

Slender annual or perennial herbs. Leaves opposite, quite entire. 
Flowers axillary, solitary, peduncled, red or blue, rarely white ; calyx 



5-partite ; corolla rotate, 5-partite ; stamens 5, filaments villous ; ovary 
globose ; style filiform ; ovules many, amphitropous. Capsule globose, 
opening by a transverse cut about the middle. Seeds many, peltate, 

A* arvensis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., Ill, p. 506. 
bent herb, glabrous. Stems 6-18 in., 
branching from the base. Leaves 1/2-1J 
in., sessile, ovate or lanceolate, acute, 
gland-dotted. Peduncles 1-2 in. long, 
slender, erect in flower, decurved in fruit. 
Flowers blue ; sepals narrowly lanceolate, 
acuminate, almost equalling the corolla ; 
corolla 1/3-1/2 in. in diameter, lobes 
ciliate at the margin. Capsule 1/5-1/4 
in. in diameter ; style persistent ; seeds 
trigonous. (Fig. 129.) 

An annual procum- 

Fig. 129, Anagallis arvensis, X 1. 

Abundant during the cold season as a weed 
of cultivation. 


Unarmed or spiny trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite, simple, entire ; 
stipules rudimentary. Flowers in dense axillary clusters or panicles, 
bisexual or dioecious, regular ; calyx 3-4-toothed ; petals 4, free or 
partially connate, imbricate ; stamens 4, inserted on or near the base 
of the petals, alternate with them ; filaments free or connate at the base ; 
anthers 2-celled, dorsifixed, opening lengthwise ; disk or of separate 
glands between the filaments ; ovary superior, 1 -2-celled ; ovules 1-2 in 
each cell, basal, erect ; style short ; stigma 2-fid or sub-entire. Fruit a 
berry or drupe. Seed usually 1, erect, exalbuminous ; embryo with 
thick cordate cotyledons. Genera 3, species 8, in Asia and Africa. 

Salvadora Linn. 

Shrubs or trees. Leaves opposite, entire. Flowers small, herma- 
phrodite or functionally unisexual, in* panicled racemes or spikes ; bracts 
minute ; calyx campanulate, lobes 4, imbricate ; corolla campanulate ; 
tube with 4 small teeth (sometimes sub-obsolete) between the bases of 
the filaments ; stamens 4, on the corolla, alternate withi ts lobes ; ovary 
1 -celled, with one erect basal ovule ; style ; stigma truncate. Drupe 
globose, supported by the slightly enlarged calyx, and sub-persistent 
corolla ; endocarp crustaceous. Seed erect, globose, exalbuminous. 



S. oleoidcs Dene. ; FL Brit. Ind., Ill, p. 620. A small evergreen 

tree ; branches many, 
spreading, whitish. 

Leaves lf-3 by 1/3-1/2 
in., linear- or ovate- 
laiiceolate, pale-green, 
coriaceous, glabrous ; 
petiole 1/5-1/3 in. 
Flowers sessile, greenish- 
white, in erect axillary 
panicled spikes ; bracts 
ovate, acute, deciduous ; 
calyx 1/12 in. long; 
corolla slightly longer, 
lobes obovate-oblong, 
reflexed ; stamens exser- 
ted. Drupe 1/5 in. in 
diameter, yellow when 
ripe. (Fig. 130.) 

Throughout the plains of 
the Punjab, except in the 
moister tract towards the 
foot of the hills. Abundant 
and together with Prosopis 
spicigera and Capparis 
aphylla forms the bulk of the 
vegetation in the Punjab 
rakhs. Flowers during March 
to May. 

Fig. 130, Salvador a oleoides, 


Shrubs or herbs, erect or climbing, generally with milky and acrid 
juice. Leaves mostly opposite, simple, entire, exstipulate. Flowers 
mostly cymose, bisexual, regular ; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate or open, 
inferior ; corolla 5-lobed ; lobes contorted or valvate ; corona simple or 
of 5 or more scales, either adnate to the corolla-tube or the stamens or 
to both ; stamens 5, mostly inserted at the base of the corolla and 
alternate with its lobes ; filaments flat, usually connate in a fleshy tube 
round the ovary (staminal-tube), the apex of the tube often united to 
the much dilated stigmas (the stigmatic disk) ; anthers 2-celled, coherent 
round the stigma, the pollen of each cell usually agglutinated in a small 
ovoid waxy pollen-mass (pollimum), rarely granular, the pollinia of the 
adjoining cells of two contiguous anthers united in pairs or fours either 


directly or by appendages (caudicles) to glands (corpuscula) which lie 
at the angles of the stigmatic disk ; ovary of 2 distinct superior carpels 
enclosed by the staminal-tube ; ovules numerous, in several series on the 
projecting ventral placentas ; styles 2, distinct, but united at the apex 
in a common thick, often disk-like, ~Miii::iilnr stigmatic disk. Fruit of 2, 
often widely divergent, follicles ; one occasionally abortive. Seeds 
numerous, small, usually flattened, crowned with a tuft of long hairs. 
Genera about 325, species nearly 1,800, mainly found in tropical and sub- 
tropical countries, very numerous in 8. Africa, rare in cool countries. 

Key to the genera. 

Stems erect . . . . 1. Calotropis. 

Stems twining. 

Leaves not markedly cordate ; follicles smooth. 

Corolla 1 inch or more in diameter, white or 

pink with purple veins, divided 1/3 way 

down . . . . 2. Oxystelma. 

Corolla 1/2 inch in diameter, greenish, cleft 

nearly to the base . . 3. Pentatropis. 

Leaves deeply cordate ; follicles spiny . . 4. Daemia. 

1. Calotropis Br. 

Erect, glabrous or hoary, shrubs or small trees. Leaves opposite, 
broad, sub-sessile. Flowers medium-sized, in umbelliform or sub- 
racemose cymes ; sepals glandular within ; corolla broadly campanulate ; 
lobes broad, naked, valvate ; corona scales 5, fleshy, laterally compressed, 
radiating from the large staminal-tube, dorsally spurred ; anther-tips 
membranous, inflexed ; pollen-masses one in each cell, pendulous, 
flattened, waxy ; stigma depressed, 5-angled or -lobed. Follicles turgid, 
smooth. Seeds comose. 

C. proccra Br. ; FL Brit. Ind. 9 IV, p. 18. Shrub, 3-6 ft. high ; 
young parts and under-surface of leaves covered with appressed white 
floccose tomentum. Leaves 2-5 in. long, sessile, thick, glaucous-green, 
elliptic or obovate-oblong, acute or shortly acuminate, with a slightly 
cordate or often amplexicaul base. Flowers about 1 in. across, scented ; 
corolla pink or whitish with purple spots ; lobes erect ; corona scales 1/4 in. 
long, glabrous, equalling or exceeding the staminal column, apex bifid 
and without auricles. Follicles 3-4 in. long, recurved. Seeds 1/4 in. 
long, broadly ovate, flat, minutely tomentose, with a tuft of silky hairs. 
(Fig. 131.) 

Common ; a weed of fallow land and in waste places. 
Flowers : March-May. 

Fig. 131, Calotropis procera, (a) flowering branch, x-, (6) flower with corolla 
opened out, x|-, (c) flower with corolla removed, X 1J, (d) gynaecium, X 1|, (e) 
pollinia, X 1^, (/) follicle, x^ ; Fig. 132, Pentatropis cynanchovdes, (a) part of a plant 
with two branches arising from the perennial root-stock, x \* (6) a flower as 
seen from above, xf, (c) a pair of follicles, xj, (d) seed, xf; Fig. 133, Daemia 
eztensa, (a) (a') branches with flowering and fruiting inflorescences, X f, (b) flower, 
X f , (c) flower with corolla removed, X 1 J f (d) gynaecium, x Ifc, (e) a pair of 


C. gigantca Br. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 17. A large shrub 8-10 ft. high. 
Flowers 1J-2 in. across, purplish or white, not scented; corolla-lobes spreading; 
corona scales shorter than the staminal column, with rounded apex and 2 obtuse 
auricles just below it. 

Cultivated plants are found in some gardens. The species possesses a number 
of medicinal properties. 

2. Oxystelma Br. 

Twining glabrous herbs. Flowers large, in few-flowered cymes ; 
pedicels filiform ; calyx small, 5-partite, glandular within ; corolla broadly 
saucer- shaped, campanulate or rotate ; lobes ciliate and sub-valvate 
below, tips overlapping to the right ; corona double, one annular, at the 
base of the corolla, other staminal, of 5 scales adnate to the bases of the 
stamens, with cordate or dilated bases, 2-keeled within ; filaments short, 
connate ; anther-tips membranous, inflexed ; pollen-masses one in each 
cell, oblong, compressed, pendulous, waxy ; stigma slightly convex. 
Follicles thick, oblique or curved, smooth or narrowly 2-winged. Seeds 

CX csculentum Br. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., IV, p. 17. A much-branched, 
slender, deciduous, perennial climber. Leaves 2-4 in. long, about 1/8 in. 
broad, linear-lanceolate, acute or acuminate ; petiole 1/4-1/2 in. long, very 
slender. Flowers 1 in. or more in diameter, white and rose-coloured 
with purple veins ; peduncles and pedicels very slender, the former often 
exceeding the leaves ; calyx -lobes oblong-lanceolate, acute ; corolla rotate, 
margin ciliate ; staminal corona-scales acuminate, with incurved subulate 
tips. Follicles 2-2J in. long, ovoid-lanceolate, tapering to a point, 
glabrous. Seeds 1/3 in. long, broadly ovate, flat, hairs 3/4 in. long. 

On hedges and trees on the river- side. 

Flowers : June-November. 

3. Pentatropis Br. 

Twining slender herbs or undershrubs. Flowers small, in sub- 
umbellate cymes ; calyx deeply divided, lobes 5 ; corolla rotate, 5-fid ; 
lobes elongate, overlapping to the right ; corona scales laterally com- 
pressed, vertically adnate to the backs of the anthers, with free tips and 
spurred bases ; staminal-tube short ; anther-tips inflexed ; pollen- 
masses one in each cell, not compressed, pendulous, waxy ; stigma flat 
on the top, slightly 5-angled. Follicles smooth. Seeds with long hairs. 

P. cynanchoides Br. (P. spiralis Dene.) ; FL Brit. Ind., IV, p. 19. 
A glabrous twiner. Roots tuberous. Leaves l-3 by 1/4-1 in., ovate, 
lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, usually mucronate, 
base rounded or cordate, more or less fleshy ; petiole 1/10-3/4 in. long, 
slender. Flowers greenish, in 5-6-flowered cymes, 1/2 in. in diameter ; 


peduncles or short ; pedicel 1/4-1/2 in. long, slender ; calyx-lobes ovate, 
acuminate, puberulous; corolla-lobes 1/3-1/2 in. long, narrowly acuminate, 
glabrous outside, puberulous within ; corona scales deltoid-ovate, acute 
or acuminate. Follicles 2-3 in. long, lanceolate, with narrow back. 
Seeds 1/6 in. long, ovate, flat, minutely crenate at the lower end. 
(Fig. 132.) 

In the rakh forests, climbing on Salvadora, Capparis, etc. 
Flowers : February-March. Fruits ripen in May. 

4. Daemia Br. 

Perennial twiners. Flowers long-stalked, in axillary, racemose or 
corymbose cymes ; calyx 5-lobed, cleft to the base, glandular within ; 
corolla-tube short, funnel-shaped ; lobes 5, large, broadly ovate, spreading, 
overlapping to the right ; corona of an outer annular 5-10- crenate or 
-lobed membrane and 5 laterally compressed scales vertically adnate 
to the anthers, spurred behind and with free long subulate tips ; staminal- 
tube large ; anther-tips inflexed ; pollen-masses one in each cell, slightly 
compressed, pendulous, waxy ; stigma flat on top. Follicles tapering to 
a narrow point, covered with soft spines. Seeds comose. 

D. extensa Br. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 20. A more or less hispid, 
foetid, twining herb. Leaves long-petioled, 1^-4 in. long, broadly ovate, 
acuminate, base deeply cordate, more or less hairy on both sides, margin 
ciliate. Peduncles 2-6 in. long, longer than the leaves ; bracts linear, 
acute ; pedicels 1/2-2 in. long, pubescent ; flowers yellowish-green, tinged 
with pink at the base ; corolla nearly 3/4 in. in diameter. Follicles 2-2 in. 
long, lanceolate, often slightly curved, long-pointed, covered with long 
soft spines. Seeds 1/4 in. long, ovate, crenate at the rounded base, 
densely pubescent. (Fig. 133.) 

Lahore, Changa Manga. 

Flowers and fruits : November-April. 

Cryptostegia grandiflora Br. A large evergreen climbing shrub with thick 
glossy foliage and large handsome pink-purple flowers about 2 in. across ; corolla 
funnel-shaped ; filaments free. Follicles 4-5 by 1 in., woody. 

Native of Madagascar, cultivated in gardens and sometimes found as an escape. 

Flowers : April-September. 

Asclepias curassavtca Linn. A native of W. Indies; an erect perennial herb 
with linear-lanceolate leaves and handsome orange-coloured flowers is also commonly 
cultivated in the gardens. 


Herbs, rarely aquatic, sometimes shrubs. Leaves opposite, rarely 
.alternate, entire, exstipulate. Flowers bisexual, usually regular, in 



dichasial cymes, mostly bright coloured and showy ; sepals usually 4 or 5, 
free or connate, imbricate, persistent ; petals usually 4 or 5, connate, 
usually contorted ; stamens as many as the petals and alternate with 
them, epipetalous ; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise ; disk 0, or 
annular or of glands below the ovary ; ovary superior, 1 -celled, with two 
parietal placentas bearing numerous ovules ; style simple. Fruit a 
capsule. Seeds numerous, with copious endosperm. Genera about 80, 
species nearly 800, in every part of the globe, 
but mainly in temperate and subtropical 
regions, abundant on the mountains. 

Erythraea L. C. Rich. 

Herbs, erect, branched. Leaves opposite, 
sessile. Flowers in dichotomous cymes, rose- 
coloured or white ; calyx 4-5-partite ; corolla- 
tube long or short ; lobes 4 or 5, spreading ; 
stamens 4 or 5, near the summit of the 
corolla-tube ; filaments short, linear ; anthers 
narrowly oblong ; ovary 1 -celled, placentas 
far intruded ; style linear ; stigmas semi- 
circular or oblong. Capsule oblong, about 
as long as the calyx, 2-valved. Seeds 
numerous, very small. 

E, ramosisshna Pers. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., IV, 
p. 101. Annual, 2-15 in. high. Leaves 
1/2-1J in. long, ovate, elliptic or lanceolate, 
obtuse or acute. Bracts conspicuous ; flowers 
sessile, pink or white ; calyx teeth linear, 
nearly <'<|imlliii'j the corolla-tube. (Fig. 

Common in grassy plots. Flowers : March-May. 

Fig. 134, Erythraea ramo- 
issinia, X J. 


Herbs, shrubs or trees, usually scabrid or hispid. Leaves alternate, 
rarely opposite, simple, exstipulate. Flowers in simple, forked, spiked 
or racemed cymes, rarely solitary axillary, mostly bisexual, sometimes 
polygamous, usually regular, bracteate or not; calyx 5-, rarely 6-8- 
toothed or -lobed ; imbricate or rarely valvate, usually persistent ; coroDa 
tubular, funnel-shaped or rotate ; lobes usually 5, rarely 6-8, contorted or 
imbricate ; stamens as many as the corolla-lobes and alternate with them, 


epipetalous ; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise ; disk present or 
obsolete ; ovary superior, 2-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell or 4-celled 
with 1 ovule in each cell, entire or deeply 4-lobed ; styles 2 or 1, when 1 
terminal or from the middle of the lobes (gynobasic). Fruit a drupe or 
of 4 nutlets. Seeds albuminous or not. Genera about 100, species nearly 
1,800, widely distributed, numerous in the Mediterranean region. 

Key to the genera. 

Ovary entire or only slightly 4-lobed, style terminal. 

Style twice forked . . 1. Cordia. 

Style once forked . . . . 2. Ehretia. 

Herbs . . . . . . 3. Heliotropium. 

Ovary deeply lobed, style gynobasic. 
Flowers not yellow. 

Throat of the corolla- tube closed by scales. 

Flowers in elongate, ebracteate racemes 4. Cynoglossum. 
Flowers mostly axillary, solitary. 

Flowers pedi celled, bluish white . . 5. Bothriospermum . 
Flowers subsessilc, pink-blue . . 6. Oastrocotyle. 

Throat of the corolla-tube without scales, 

naked or simply hairy ; flowers white . . 7. Nonnea. 
Flowers yellow . . . . 8. Arnebia. 

1. Cordia Linn. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, rarely sub-opposite, petioled. 
Flowers in dichotomous corymbs or clusters, ebracteate, polygamous 
(bisexual and male) ; calyx tubular or campanulate ; teeth very short, 
often irregular, in fruit accrescent ; corolla funnel-shaped ; lobes 4-8, as 
long as the tube, recurved ; stamens 4-8, filaments often hairy at the 
base ; anthers shortly ex sorted ; ovary entire, 4-celled, glabrous ; style 
terminal, long, bipartite ; branches again bipartite, linear or sub- 
spathulate ; cells 1-ovuled. Fruit an ovoid or ellipsoid drupe with 
sticky pulp ; cells 1-4, usually fertile. Seeds exalbuminous. 

Key to the species. 

Leaves alternate, 3-5-nerved . . 1. C. obliqua. 

Leaves subopposite, 1 -nerved . . 2. C. Rothii. 

1. C. ofcliqua Willd. ; Fl Brit. 2nd., IV, p. 137. A deciduous 
medium-sized tree. Leaves alternate, 3-5 by 2J-4J in., rounded, entire 
or sinuate -dentate, glabrous or nearly so above, more or less pubescent 


beneath, basal nerves 3, rarely 5 ; petiole 3/4-1 J in. long. Peduncles 1-2 in. 
long. Flowers white, 1/5-2/5 in. across, shortly pedicellate ; calyx glabrous 
without, pubescent within, splitting irregularly on the opening of the 
flowers ; corolla-lobes 5 ; filaments hairy at the base. Drupe ovoid, 
1/2-1 in. long, yellow-pink or nearly black when ripe ; pulp viscid, 
sweetish, edible. Vern., Lasura. (Fig. 135.) 

2. C. Rothii Roem. <& Sch. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 138. A large 
shrub or small tree. Leaves nearly or quite opposite, 2-4 by 3/4-1 in., 
broadly oblanceolate, entire, obtuse, base tapering, rough and glabrous 
above, more or less pubescent beneath, 1 -nerved : petiole 1/4-1/2 in. long. 
Peduncles 1/2-1 in. long. Flowers white, 1/5 in. across, usually 
tetramerous ; calyx minutely pubescent on the outside, silky within ; 
filaments glabrous. Drupe ovoid, 1/2 in. long, usually 1-seeded, yellow or 
reddish brown when ripe, with gelatinous edible pulp. Vern., Oondi. 
(Fig. 136.) 

2. Ehrctia Linn. 

Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate. Flowers in axillary or terminal 
corymbs or panicles, small, white ; calyx 5-partite ; corolla-tube short or 
cylindric ; lobes 5, imbricate, spreading or reflexed ; stamens 5, inserted 
on the corolla- tube ; anthers usually exserted ; ovary 2 -celled ; cells 
2-ovuled ; style terminal, shortly or deeply cleft into two parts ; stigmas 
capitate. Drupe small, subglobose, containing 4 or by suppression 3-1 
seeds. Seeds straight ; testa thin ; albumen scanty. 

E, laevis Roxb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 143. A small deciduous tree 
or a large shrub. Leaves 3-5 by 2-3| in., very variable, broadly elliptic 
or elliptic -obovate, glabrous or nearly so, bright green above, paler 
beneath, entire ; petiole 1/3-3/4 in. long ; apex variable. Flowers 
numerous, 1/3 in. across, shortly pedicellate, mostly in terminal corymbs ; 
corolla -tube exceeding the calyx, lobes exceeding the tube ; style shortly 
2-fid. Drupe 1/8 in. across. 

Flowers : February -March. 

3. Heliotropium Linn. 

Herbs, rarely shrubby. Leaves alternate. Flowers small, white or 
nearly so, in terminal dichotomising cymes, usually with long scorpioid 
branches ; bracts small, 0, or leafy ; calyx 5-partite or -lobed ; segments 
lanceolate or linear ; corolla tubular ; lobes 5, imbricate, spreading ; 
stamens 5, on the corolla -tube, included ; anthers subsessile ; ovary 
completely or imperfectly 4- celled, 4-ovuled ; style terminal, short or 
long ; stigma conical. Fruit dry, of 4, more or less free, nutlets. 



Fig. 135, Cordia obliqtut, xj; Fig. 136, 0. Rothii, (a) flowering twig, Xj, 
(b) flower, x 3 ; Fig. 137, Heliotropium undulatum,, X f ; Fig. 138, H. strigosum, X f . 

Key to the species. 
Leaves obovate, more than 1/2 in. broad ; an erect 

herb .. .. .. . . 1. H. Eichwaldi. 

Leaves lanceolate, less than 1/2 in. broad but never 

very narrow ; plants erect or suberect . . 2. H. undulatum. 

Leaves very narrowly lanceolate, about 1/10 in. 

broad ; usually prostrate herb . . . . 3. H . strigosum. 


1. H. Eichwaldi Steud. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 149. An erect 
annual herb, up to 2 ft. high, much branched from a woody base. Stems 
softly closely hairy. Leaves 1-3 by 3/4-l in., obovate, obtuse, usually 
tapering to the base, entire, with bulbous-based hairs on both sides, 
nerves more prominent on the underside ; lower long-petioled. Flowers 
sessile, ebracteate, in dense, l-3 in. long, 2-ranked spikes, grouped in 
twos or threes, 1/8 in. long, white ; calyx 5-partite, densely hairy on both 
sides ; corolla hairy on the outside. Nutlets 4, 1/12 in., ellipsoid, 
glabrous or minutely warty. 

Abundant in the fields after the winter crops have been cut down and in gardens 
as a weed. 

Flowers : March=-June. 

2. H, undulatum Vahl ; FL Brit. 2nd., IV, p. 150. Shoots erect 
or suberect, much branched, 6-24 in. high, scabrous. Leaves 1/2-1^ by 
1/4-1/3 in., sessile or almost so, lanceolate, acute, very rough, margin 
crisped- cremi late. Flowers sessile, in short, 3/4-2 in. long, lax spikes, 
ebracteate ; sepals 1/16 in., scabrous ; corolla-tube 1/8 in., scabrous on the 
outside. Nutlets 1/12 in., hispid. (Fig. 137.) 

Minto Park, Race Course grounds, etc. 
Flowers : March-May. 

3. H. strigosum Willd. ; FL Brit. Ind., IV, p. 151. A small 
prostrate perennial herb, covered with straight, stiff, appressed, white 
hairs ; stems tufted, much branched, up to 8 in. long. Leaves small, 
1/4-1 by 1/10 in., nearly sessile, linear-lanceolate, entire, acute. Spikes 1-3 
in. long ; flowers small, white or pale-blue, 1/10 in. long, bracteate, lower 
often pedicellate and with leafy bracts ; sepals 1/12 in., ovate-lanceolate ; 
stigma narrowly conical. Nutlets 1/16-1/12 in. long, more or less united, 
glabrous or slightly hairy. (Fig. 138.) 

Flowers : April-October, perhaps throughout the year. 

4. Cynoglossum Linn. 

Erect hairy herbs. Leaves radical and alternate, radical petioled. 
Flowers in long, simple or forked, one-sided racemes, sessile or lower 
shortly pedicellate, ebracteate ; calyx deeply 5-lobed, in fruit spreading, 
not (or slightly) enlarged ; corolla-tube as long as the calyx, with 5 obtuse 
scales in the throat ; lobes 5, obtuse, imbricate ; stamens 5, included 
beneath the scales ; ovary 4-lobed ; style short, gynobasic. Nutlets 
4, ovoid, flattened on one side, without a margin, more or less covered 
with minute hooked bristles ; receptacle convex ; carpophore (after the 
nuts have fallen) linear, shortly conical at the base. 


Fig. 139, Cynoglossum lanceolatum, X \ ; Fig. 140, G. micranthum, (a) flowering 
branch, X , (6) lower leaf, X \, (c) fruit, Xl&; Fig. 141, Bothriospermum tenellum, 
(a) a flowering and fruiting branch, xf, (b) fruit, x \, (c) a nutlet, x5; Fig. 142, 
Gastrocotyle hispida, (a) branch, X i, (b) flower, x 3, (c) fruit, x 3. 


Key to the species. 

Racemes divaricately forked . . ..1.0. micranthum. 

Racemes not divaricately forked . . . . 2. 0. lanceolatum. 

1. C. micranthum Desf. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 156. An erect 
herb, 1-4 ft. high, covered with rough long white bulbous-based hairs, 
often mingled with short pubescence. Radical leaves usually absent at 
the time of flowering, larger than the cauline leaves ; cauline lf-3| by 
1/3-3/4 in., lanceolate, narrowed at both ends, minutely round- toothed, 
acute, conspicuously veined on the under-surface ; lower petioled, upper 
subsessile. Racemes characteristically divaricate, branches bearing fruits 
up to 5 in. long. Flowers 1/10 in. in diameter, shortly pedicellate, 
white, with blue black scales in the throat of the corolla ; calyx-lobes in 
the fruit 1/20 in. Nutlets 1/16 in. long, uniformly bristly. (Fig. 140.) 

Flowers about August. 

2. C. lanceolatum Forsk. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 156. Very 
much like the first, but the leaves somewhat broader. Racemes not 
conspicuously divaricate, forking usually unequal ; branches in fruit 
often 6-10 in. long. Calyx-lobes in fruit 1/8-1/6 in. ; nutlets 1/8 in. 
(Fig. 139.) 

Flowers : September-April. 

5. Bothriospermum Bunge 

Weak herbs covered with stiff appressed hairs. Flowers axillary, 
pedicellate, the upper often going off into a bracteate raceme ; calyx 
5-partite ; lobes narrow, not (or scarcely) enlarged in fruit ; corolla-tube 
short, throat with 5 scales ; lobes 5, imbricate in bud, obtuse, spreading ; 
stamens 5, included ; ovary deeply 4-lobed ; style short, gynobasic ; 
stigma capitate. Nutlets 4, ellipsoid, with a large hollow scar near the 
middle on the inner face ; carpophore oblong. 

B. tenellum Fisch. and Mey. ; FL Brit. Ind., IV, p. 167. A 
prostrate or diffuse, adpressedly hairy herb ; stems 6-18 in. long. Leaf- 
blades mostly 1/2-1 in. long, spathulate or ovate-lanceolate, entire, crenu- 
late, irregularly obtuse or acute ; petiole in the lower leaves up to 1 J in., 
in the upper. Flowers bluish white, distant or the upper in close bracteate 
racemes ; pedicel 1/10-1/6 in., as long as the calyx, slender ; corolla 
1/6 in, across, tube with pouch-like enlargements at the base. Nutlets 
1/20-1/15 in. ; scar elliptic, longitudinal. (Fig. 141.) 
Lahore, Ravi side. Flowers : March-May. 


6. Gastrocotylc Bunge 

A diffuse hispid herb. Flowers small, axillary, solitary and subsessile, 
or in dense small axillary racemes ; calyx 5-partite ; corolla- tube short, 
closed with scales ; lobes 5, imbricate in bud, obtuse, spreading ; stamens 5, 
included ; ovary 4-lobed ; style short, gynobasic ; stigma sub- capitate. 
Nutlets 4, or fewer, ovoid, erect, incurved, with an oblong, elevated, 
margined scar near the middle of the inner face ; carpophore half as long 
as the nutlets, with a 4-ridged apex. 

G* hispida Bunge ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 168. A diffuse herb, 
densely covered with large stiif white bristly hairs, branching from the 
base ; branches up to 18 in. long. Leaves 1-3J in. long ; lower larger, 
petioled, spathulate ; upper sessile, lanceolate, obscurely crenate, acute. 
Flowers pink-blue, 1/5 in. in diameter ; pedicels or much shorter than the 
calyx. Nutlets 1/8-1/6 in. long, wrinkled, minutely papillose. (Fig. 142.) 

Chaburji side. Flowers : February-April. 

7. Nonnca Moench. 

Hispid or villous, annual or perennial herbs. Flowers in dense 
bracteate cymes, elongating in fruit ; calyx 5-fid, much enlarged in fruit, 
tube enclosing the nutlets; corolla-tube straight, about as long as the 
calyx ; throat naked or hairy, not provided with scales, small scales some- 
times present lower down ; lobes 5, imbricate in bud, obtuse, spreading ; 
stamens 5, included ; ovary deeply 4-lobed ; style filiform, gynobasic ; 
stigma shortly or obscurely 2-lobed. Nutlets 4, ovoid, reticulately 
wrinkled, on a conic receptacle and with large, basal, oblique, hollow 
scar appendaged at the centre and hard margined. 

N. pulla Lamk. ; FL Brit. Ind., IV, p. 169. A much branched 
herb up to 1 \ ft. high, densely covered with stiff pointed hairs. Leaves 
1-2 by 1/4-1/2 in., elongate -ovate or lanceolate, gradually tapering to the 
apex, upper more or less stem- clasping, lower often petioled, entire, 
acute or acominate. Flowers white, in dense racemes 1-3 in. long, 
elongating in the fruit up to 6 in. ; pedicel 1/8-1/4 in. ; bracts up to 1 \ in. 
long, leaf- like ; calyx 1/4 in. long, 1/2 in. in fruit, subglobose, lobes 
acuminate ; corolla- tube 1/4 in. long. Nutlets 1/10 in., slightly wrinkled. 
(Fig. 143.) 

Common near railway lines, also in other waste places and fields. Flowers : 
February- April . 

8. Arnebia Forsk. 

Annual or perennial, densely hispid herbs ; root often staining red. 
Flowers in terminal elongate bracteate racemes, subsessile, heterostylic ; 



Fig. 143, Nonnea pulla, (a) flowering branch, xj> (6) one nutlefc, X3; 
Fig. 144, Arnebia hispidissima, X J. 

calyx deeply cleft into 5 linear lobes ; corolla-tube slender, longer than 
the calyx-lobes ; throat naked, without scales ; lobes 5, imbricate in bud, 
obtuse, spreading ; stamens 5, inserted much below the mouth of the 
tube in the long-styled flowers, in the throat and semi-exserted in the 
short-styled flowers ; ovary deeply 4-lobed ; style gynobasic, shortly 
bipartite ; stigmas small, capitate. Nutlets 4, ovoid, acute, erect, with 
a large triangular flat basal scar shortly produced up the inner face. 

A. hispidissima DC. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 176. A more or less 
prostrate herb, branching from a woody base and densely clothed all 
over with long, white, stiff hairs, spreading from tubercular bases ; 
branches 3-10 in. long. Leaves 3/4-3 in. long, sessile, lanceolate or 
narrowly so, entire, acute or somewhat obtuse. Racemes compact, one- 
sided. Flowers yellow ; bracts 1/4-1/3 in. long, linear ; sepals 1/5 
in. long ; corolla-tube 1/3 in. long ; hairy outside. Nutlets very small, 
tubercled on all sides. (Fig. 144.) 

In sandy places mostly. Flowers : November-April. 



Herbs or shrubs, often twining ; juice often milky. Leaves alternate, 
simple, exstipulate (absent in Cuscuta). Flowers bisexual, regular, 
bracteate, often large and showy, mostly in pedunculate axillary cymes, 
rarely solitary ; sepals 5, rarely 4, connate for a short distance, sometimes 
distinct to the base, usually persistent ; petals as many as the sepals, 
connate ; tube bell- or funnel-shaped ; limb entire or shortly lobed, 
plaited and contorted in bud ; stamens as many as, alternating with and 
inserted upon the petals ; anthers linear or oblong, dorsifixed, 2-cclled, 
opening lengthwise ; disk below the ovary, annular or lobed ; carpels 2, 
connate, superior ; ovary 2- celled, with 2 ovules in each cell or 4- celled 
with one ovule in each cell ; style linear, simple or forked ; stigma one, 
capitate or 2-lobed, or stigmas 2 ; ovules sessile, erect, anatropous. 
Fruit dry or fleshy, indehiscent or a capsule opening by 2 or 4 valves 
or irregularly. Seeds 1-4, exalbuminous and with plaited cotyledons 
(albuminous and without cotyledons in Cuscuta). Genera about 50, 
species nearly 1,100, mostly in tropical and subtropical countries. 

Key to the genera. 

Leaf-bearing shrubs or herbs. 

Fruit indehiscent, or breaking up irregularly 

a large climbing shrub . . 1. Rivea. 

Fruit dehiscent, capsular, opening by 2 or 4 


Style unbranched, stigma capitate . . 2. Jpomea. 

Style branched, stigmas two . . . . 3. Convolvulus. 

Leafless parasitic herb . . . . 4. Cuscuta. 

1. Rivca Chois. 

Large twining shrubs. Flowers on 1-3-flowered axillary peduncles ; 
bracts 2, narrow ; sepals subequal ; corolla large, white ; tube long, 
cylindric ; limb widely funnel-shaped, plicate ; stamens included, attached 
near the middle of the corolla-tube ; anthers never twisted ; ovary 4- 
celled, 4-ovuled, with an annular disk below ; style filiform ; stigmas 2. 
Fruit nearly dry, globose, polished, indehiscent or irregularly breaking 
up. Seeds 1-4, glabrous, in mealy pulp. 

R. hypocratcriformis Chois. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., IV, p. 184. Stems 
grey silky pubescent. Leaves 1-4 by 1-4 in., orbicular- cordate, obtuse, 
omnrginato or mucronate, entire, nearly glabrous above, adpressedly 
silky beneath, with a gland on either side of the midrib at the base of 


the lower surface; petiole up to 2 in. long. Flowers usually solitary, 
2J-3 in. long, 2 in, across, pedicellate, on 1/5-2 in. long peduncles ; sepals 
1/3 in., ovate-elliptic, obtuse, silky-hairy ; corolla glabrous or with a few 
scattered hairs on the outside. Fruit 1/2 in. in diameter, brown. 

In hedges or growing over bushes. Lahore and Changa Manga. 
Flowers during the rains. The flowers open at sunset and close and wither 
by next morning (Parker). 

2. Ipomea Linn. 

Twining or prostrate herbs, rarely shrubs or sub-erect. Leaves 
alternate, entire, lobed or divided. Flowers generally showy, of various 
colours, in 1 -many-flowered axillary cymes; sepals equal or unequal, 
ovate or linear ; corolla bell- or funnel-shaped ; tube long or short ; 
limb 5-plaited, shortly lobed ; stamens unequal, shorter or longer than 
the corolla-tube ; filaments filiform or dilated below ; anthers oblong, 
twisted or straight ; ovary generally 2-celled and 4-ovuled ; disk annular ; 
style filiform ; stigma entire or 2 -lobed. Capsule rounded or ovoid, 
mostly opening by 4 valves, sometimes indehiscent. 

L aquatica Forsk. ; Syn. L reptans Poir.\ Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 210. 
Shoots elongate, trailing on mud and rooting from the nodes or floating, 
glabrous or nearly so. Stem hollow. Leaves 3-6 in. long, elliptic- 
oblong, cordate or hastate, or much narrowed, entire or somewhat lobed, 
acute ; petiole 1-6 in. long. Cymes 1-5-flowered, on peduncles up to 7 in. 
long ; bracts inconspicuous ; pedicel often 1-2 in. long ; sepals subequal, 
1/3 in. long, ovate, obtuse ; corolla about 2 in. long, funnel-shaped ; limb 
pale rose-coloured ; throat and tube dull purple ; stamens unequal ; 
filaments woolly at the base. Capsule ovoid, 1/3 in. long, glabrous. 
Seeds minutely closely covered with silky hairs. 

In ponds and ditches. Flowers during winter. Dried juice is useful as a 

I. palmata Forsk. ; the railway creeper. A graceful climber, with deeply 
5-7-lobed leaves. Flowers pale-purple, in small cymes ; corolla campanuiate, 3-4 in. 
long. Commonly cultivated in gardens and very frequently at the railway 

I. Batatas Lamk. ; the sweet potato ; Vern., Shakar-kandi. It is cultivated 
for the sake of the tuberous roots which are eaten after boiling or roasting. It is 
believed to be a native of tropical America. Flowers and fruits are very rarely 

3. Convolvulus Linn. 

Erect, prostrate or twining herbs. Flowers on 1 -many-flowered 
axillary peduncles ; bracts narrow ; sepals subequal or the outer wider ; 
corolla campanuiate ; limb 5-plaited, nearly entire ; stamens included ; 
ovary 2-celled, 4-ovuled ; style filiform ; stigmas 2, distinct, oblong or 



linear. Fruit a globose 2-celled capsule, opening by 4 valves or irregularly. 
Seeds normally 4, usually smooth or minutely tuber culate. 

Key to the species. 

Branches not twining, prostrate ; flowers nearly 

Stems trailing or twining ; flower stalks 1-2 in. 


1. C. pluricaulia. 

2. C. arvensis. 

Fig. 145, Cuscuta reflexa on Duranta plumieri, xj; 
Fig. 146, Convolvulus pluricaulis, X J ; Fig. 147, C. 
arvensis, xj. 


1. C pluricaulis Chois. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 218. A perennial 
herb with a woody root-stock. Branches up to 2 ft. long, prostrate or 
suberect, slender, hairy. Leaves nearly sessile, linear, linear -oblanceolate 
or spathulate, mostly up to 1 in. long, but often up to 2 in., the distal 
ones smaller, hairy on both sides. Flowers mostly solitary or in pairs, 
subsessile ; calyx thin, hairy, segments subequal, acuminate ; corolla 
white or various shades of pink, 1/3-3/4 in. in diameter ; throat 
yellowish; stamens white. Capsule 1/8- 1/6 in. in diameter. Seeds dark 
brown, microscopically tuberculate. (Fig. 146.) 

Very variable in habit, size and hairiness of the leaves. Mostly in dry places. 
Flowers : March June. 

2. C, arvensis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 219. A glabrous or 
somewhat pubescent annual herb, with many trailing or twining stems 
1/2-3 ft. long. Leaves stalked, 1-3 by 1/4-1 in., ovate or lanceolate, entire 
or the lower ones lobed ; base auriculate or hastate ; apex obtuse or 
apiculate ; petiole 1/4-1 in. long. Peduncle 1-3 in. long, solitary, slender, 
bearing 2-4 tlowers ; pedicel up to 1 in. long ; sepals unequal, obtuse or 
sometimes mucronate, nearly glabrous ; corolla widely funnel-shaped, 
3/4-1 in. long, 1 in. in diameter, white or various shades of pink with a 
yellowish centre, glabrous. Capsule 1/4-1/3 in. in diameter. (Fig. 147.) 

Common in the gardens, fields and on road-sides. 
Flowers : March-June. 

4. Cuscuta Linn. 

Leafless twining parasites, with thread-like yellowish steins, attached 
to the host plants by minute haustoria. Flowers small, in clusters or 
racemes ; bracts or small ; sepals 5, distinct or shortly connate ; corolla 
tubular ; throat with 5 fimbriate scales near the base ; lobes short, imbri- 
cate ; stamens 5, inserted near the throat of the corolla-tube ; filaments 
short ; ovary completely or incompletely 2-celled, 4-ovuled ; styles 1 or 2 ; 
stigmas 2. Capsule globose, opening by a horizontal split near the base, 
2-4- seeded. Seeds glabrous, albuminous ; embryo slender, twisted ; 
cotyledons or obscure. 

C* rcflexa Roxb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 225. Stems long, branched, 
succulent, glabrous, forming dense yellow interlaced masses over other 
trees, shrubs and herbs. Flowers fragrant, waxy white, shortly pedi- 
cellate, in many small clusters or racemes ; bracts small, fleshy ; corolla- 
tube 1/4-1/3 in. long ; lobes short, triangular, reflexed ; style very 
short ; stigmas 2, large, nearly sessile, diverging. Capsule 1/4-1/3 in. 
in diameter. (Fig. 145.) 

Very common on almost every kind of plant. 

Flowers : October-February. 



Herbs, shrubs or rarely small trees. Leaves alternate, but often 
two at a node, rarely clustered, simple, exstipulate. Flowers regular, 
bisexual, in terminal or lateral cymes or solitary ; sepals inferior, usually 5, 
connate, persistent and often much enlarged in fruit ; petals 5, united 
into a funnel- or bell-shaped or rotate corolla, often plicate, contorted 
or valvate ; stamens usually 5, inserted on the corolla- tube and alternate 
with its lobes ; anthers 2-celled, cells parallel, opening lengthwise or by 
apical pores ; carpels 2, superior, oblique, connate into a 2-celled ovary, 
the cells sometimes again divided by a false septum ; ovules very 
numerous, axile on large swollen placentas ; style terminal, linear ; 
stigma capitate or shortly lobed. Fruit a capsule or a berry. Seeds 
albuminous ; embryo curved or annular. Genera about 85, species nearly 
1,800 ; tropical to temperate regions. 

Key to the genera. 
Fruit a berry. 

Herbs, unarmed (prickly only in Solanum 

xanthocarpum) . 
Anthers opening by apical pores ; calyx not 

enlarged in fruit .. .. . . 1. Solanum. 

Anthers opening longitudinally ; calyx much 
enlarged in fruit. 
Flowers solitary . . . . 2. Physalis. 

Flowers in umbellate cymes . . 3. Wiihania. 

A spinous shrub . . . . 4. Lycium. 

Fruit a capsule. 

Capsule spiny . . . . 5. Datura. 

Capsule not spiny . . . . . . 6. Nicotiana. 

1. Solanum Linn. 

Shrubs or herbs, unarmed or prickly. Leaves alternate or sub- 
opposite, entire or pinnatifid, petiolate. Flowers hi lateral or terminal, 
often umbellate, cymes or solitary ; calyx 5-lobed, not enlarged in fruit ; 
corolla-tube very short ; limb 5-lobed, spreading, plicate ; stamens 5 in 
the corolla-throat ; filaments short ; anthers large, oblong, narrowed 
upwards and coherent in a projecting cone, opening by apical pores ; 
ovary 2-celled ; style long ; stigma small. Fruit a globose berry con- 
taining numerous discoid seeds. 



Key to the species. 

Leaves smooth ; flowers white .. . . 1. S.nigmm. 

Leaves prickly ; flowers bluish-purple . . 2. S. xanthocarpum. 

1. S* nigrum Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., IV, p. 229. An erect, nearly 
glabrous, much branched annual herb, 1-2 ft. high. Leaves 1-4 in. 
long, ovate, with coarse angular teeth, tapering into the petiole below, 
acute at the apex, thin. Flowers white, 1/4-1/2 in. in diameter, in 
umbellate extra-axillary pedunculate cymes ; pedicel slender, drooping ; 
calyx 1/8 in. long ; teeth small, oblong, obtuse, smooth ; corolla glabrous 
outside ; filaments hairy at the base. Berry 1/4 in. in diameter, yellow, 
red or black when ripo. (Fig. 148.) 

A very common weed. Flowers during the greater part of the year. 

2. S* xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 236. 
A prostrate perennial herb, beset with yellow prickles all over, young 
parts covered with stellate hairs. Leaves 2-5 in. long, pinnatifid, nerves 
on both surfaces armed with numerous long straight prickles. Flowers 
bluish -purple, 1 in. in diameter, solitary or in small cymes; calyx 1/5-1/2 
in. long, stellate-hairy and prickly ; corolla hairy outside ; filaments 
glabrous. Berry 1/2-3/4 in. in diameter, yellow or white, streaked with 
green. (Fig. 149.) 

Common in waste places. Flowers : March -May. 

Two species of Solarium are very common plants of cultivation. 

S. tuberosum Linn. ; the potato ; Vern., Alu. 

S. Melongena Linn. ; the egg plant or brinjal ; Vern., Baingan. 

2. Physalis Linn. 

Annuals. Leaves alternate. Flowers axillary, solitary ; calyx bell- 
shaped, becoming much enlarged and inflated in the fruit ; segments 5, 
small, convergent ; corolla also bell -shaped ; stamens 5, attached near 
the base of the corolla ; anthers oblong, shorter than the filaments, 
dehiscing longitudinally ; ovary 2- celled ; style linear ; stigma obscurely 
2-lobed. Berry globose, many- or few- seeded. 

Key to the species. 

Corolla J in. in diam., fruiting calyx about 1 in. 

long . . . . . . 1 . P. minima. 

Corolla in. in diam., fruiting calyx often much 

larger . . . . . . . . 2. P. peruviana. 

P, minima Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 238. Erect or somewhat 
prostrate pubescent herb, 6-18 in. high, much branched. Leaves 1-1J in. 

Fig. 148, Solatium nigrum, (a) flowering branch, x$, (6) leaf, xi; Fig. 149, 
S. xanthocarpum, (a) flowering branch, x J, (6) fruits, xf; Fig. 150, Physalis 
minima. X*: Fig. 151. Withamia somnifera, X ; Fig. 162. Datura alba, (a) flower- 


long, ovate, acute, tapering to the base, sinuate-toothed, thin ; petiole 
slightly less than or as long as the blade. Pedicel slender, nodding ; 
corolla 1/4 in., lurid yellow, very shortly 5-lobcd. Berry 1/3-1/2 in. in 
diameter, loosely enclosed within the much enlarged, membranous, 5-10- 
ribbed, reticulately veined calyx up to 1} in. long. (Fig. 150.) 

A wood in cultivated fields. Flowers : March onwards. 

P. peruviana Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 238. Plants stouter. 
Corolla 1/2 in. in diameter, with 5 large purple spots near the base within. 
Ripe berry yellow or amber- coloured ; fruiting calyx 1-lf in. long, 
usually villous or pubescent. Cape goose-berry ; Vern., Ras Bhari. 

A native of Central America, but cultivated throughout India for its fruits. 
Flowers during winter. 

3. Withania Pauq. 

Perennial herbs or shrubs, unarmed. Leaves alternate or in unequal 
pairs. Flowers in subsessile axillary umbellate cymes ; calyx bell-shaped, 
5-toothed ; in fruit much enlarged, subglobose ; corolla also bell-shaped ; 
lobes 5, short, valvate ; stamens attached near the base of the corolla ; 
anthers oblong, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary 2-cellcd; style linear ; 
stigma shortly 2-fid. Berry globose. Seeds numerous, discoid. 

W. somnifera Dunal ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 239. A perennial 
much branched herb, semi-shrubby at the base, densely covered with 
fine stellate hairs. Leaves 2-5 by 1-2 in., ovate ovate-oblong or ovate- 
lanceolate, entire, acute or obtuse, tapering to the base, thick ; petiole 
up to 1 in. long. Flowers greenish or lurid yellow, in about 5-flowered 
cymes ; pedicel 1/4 in. or less long ; calyx (in flower) 1/5 in. long, tomentose ; 
corolla 1/3 in. long, pubescent outside ; lobes recurved at the apex ; ovary 
glabrous ; style as long as the stamens. Berry 1/4-1/3 in. in diameter ; 
yellow or red when ripo ; fruiting calyx 1/2 in. or more, enclosing the 
berry. Vern., Asgatidh. (Fig. 151.) 

Abundant, especially m waste places. Flowers throughout the year. Various 
of the plant are used in medicine. 

4. Lycium Linn. 

Spinous shrubs. Leaves alternate or clustered at the nodes. Flowers 
solitary ; calyx bell-shaped, 5- or less-lobed, not much enlarged in the 
fruit ; corolla funnel-shaped ; lobes 5-4, imbricate ; stamens 5-4, on the 
corolla-tube ; anthers almost included, dehiscing longitudinally; ovary 
2-celled ; style filiform ; stigma sub-capitate. Berry small, sub-globose. 
Seeds many, compressed. 

L. europaeum Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., IV, p. 240. A nearly glabrous 
thorny shrub. Leaves usually small, 1/2-1 in. long, rarely large, up to 


2J by 1 in., subsessile or petioled, linear-oblong, oblanceolate or 
spathulate, entire, acute or rounded at the apex, tapering to the base. 
Mowers nearly white to pale-purple, on slender pedicels longer than the 
flowers ; calyx 1/8 in., often sub-bilabiate ; corolla 1/2 in. long ; tube some- 
what curved ; lobes 1/4 to 1/3 the length of the tube, rounded. Berry 
1/6 in. in diameter, yellow. 

In dry places. ^ 

Flowers : June-November. 

5. Datura Linn. 

Annual strong smelling herbs. Leaves alternate, large. Flowers 
very large, solitary ; calyx tubular, 5-toothed at the apex, breaking 
transversely above the base in fruit ; corolla long, tubular-funnel-shaped ; 
limb recurved, shortly 5-lobed, plicate ; stamens 5, adnate to the base 
of the corolla-tube ; filaments filiform ; anthers included, longitudinally 
dehiscent ; ovary 2- or 4-celled by false septa ; style long, filiform ; 
stigma 2-lobed. Capsule rounded, covered with rigid spines all over, 
4-valved or irregularly breaking up near the apex. Seeds numerous. 

D. alba Nees (D, fastuosa ., var. alba) ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., IV, p. 243. 
Stems up to 6 ft. high, herbaceous or woody below, finely pubescent. 
Leaves 310 in. long, ovate, acute or acuminate, entire or sinuate, unequal 
at the base, pubescent ; petiole long or short. Pedicel 1/2 in. long ; calyx 
1 J-1J in. long, deeply 5-toothed ; corolla 4-5 in. long, white. Capsule 
globose, equally spiny on all sides, suberect or nodding, 1 in. in diameter. 
(Fig. 152.) 

In gardens and waste grounds near habitation. 
Flowers : March-June, 

6. Nicotiana Linn. 

Erect viscid herbs. Leaves radical and alternate. Flowers in 
terminal or subterminal racemoid cymes ; calyx ovoid-tubular, segments 
5 ; corolla tubular or funnel-shaped, 5-lobed ; stamens attached in the 
lower part of the corolla-tube ; filaments filiform ; anthers opening length- 
wise ; ovary 2 -celled ; style filiform ; stigma shortly 2-fid. Capsule 2- 
valved to the middle. Seeds numerous, small, hardly compressed. 

N. plumbaginifolia Viv, ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 246. An erect 
branched herb, up to 3 ft. high, viscid ly pubescent all over. Leaves 3-7 by 
1J-4J in., radical larger than the cauline, sessile, elliptic -oblong, entire, 
usually wavy, acute, base narrowed, sub-amplexicaul. Cymes elongated ; 
flowers greenish or pinkish white ; pedicel 1/4-3/4 in. ; calyx about 
1/2 in. long, cleft to the middle ; corolla l-lf in. long ; tube long and 


narrow ; lobes small, only 1/3 inch. Capsule 3/8 by 1/4 in., ovoid- 
conical ; valves again splitting. (Fig. 153.) 

A common introduced weed ; native of Mexico and the W. Indies. It first 
came to Bengal but has now spread all over Northern India from Assam to Punjab. 
Flowers : February-June. 

N. Tabacum Linn, and N. rustica Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 245. These 
species yield tobacco and are commonly cultivated in fields. 

Besides those mentioned above, following more Solanacese are commonly 
cultivated : 

1. Lycopcrsicum esculentum Mill., the tomato plant. 

2. Capsicum annum Linn. 

3. C. frutcsccns Linn. 

These two species of Capsicum and their varieties include the various 
forms of chillies commonly cultivated in India. A key to the various 
forms is given in Duthie's * Flora of the Upper Gangetic Plain '. 

4. Petunia nyctaginifera Juss. 

5. P. violacea Lindl. 

Both are natives of Argentina and are largely grown during winter in 
gardens throughout India for their showy flowers. 


Herbs and undershrubs. Leaves opposite, alternate or whorled, 
often lower opposite, upper alternate ; stipules 0. Inflorescence racemose 
or cymose, often spikate. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, hypogynous ; 
sepals 5, rarely 4, distinct or more or less connate, usually persistent ; 
corolla 4-5-lobed, more or less two lipped or spreading, variously imbri- 
cate ; stamens usually 4, sometimes 5 or 2, inserted on the corolla-tube 
and alternate with its lobes ; anthers often coherent, 2- rarely 1 -celled ; 
disk annular or one-sided ; carpels 2, median, connate ; ovary superior, 
2-celled, rarely unilocular ; ovules usually numerous, anatropous, on thick 
axile placentas ; style simple ; stigma capitate, 2-lobed. Fruit mostly a 
capsule, opening by 2, rarely 4, valves or pores. Seeds numerous and 
small or few and large, albuminous ; embryo straight or slightly curved. 
Genera about 200, species nearly 2,500, in all parts of the world. 

Key to the genera. 

Leaves all alternate. 

Stamens 5 . . . . . . 1. Verbascum. 

Stamens 4 . . . . . . 2. Gelsia. 


Leaves all or at least the lower opposite. 
Stamens 4. 

Corolla distinctly 2-lipped. 

Corolla saccate, mouth closed . . 3. Antirrhinum. 

Corolla not saccate, mouth open . . 4. Mazus. 

Corolla not 2-lipped, 4-lobed . . 5. Herpestis. 

Perfect stamens only 2. ^ 

Calyx 5-lobed . . . . 6. Bonnaya. 

Calyx 4-lobed . . . . 7. Veronica. 

1. Vcrbascum Linn. 

Tall, erect, woolly herbs. Leaves alternate. Flowers nearly sessile, 
in simple spikes ; calyx 5-lobed ; corolla rotate ; tube very short ; lobes 5, 
broad, spreading ; stamens 5 ; style-top dilated ; stigma capitate. Capsule 
ovoid, septicidal, valves separating from the axis. Seeds numerous, 
wrinkled, not winged. 

V, Thapsus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 250. A densely woolly 
stout herb, up to 5 ft. high. Stem usually unbranched, winged with 
prolonged leaf -bases. Leaves 4-18 in. long, ovate, oblanceolate or 
oblong-lanceolate, entire or crenate, obtuse, acute or acuminate, very 
decurrent, lower petioled, upper sessile. Spikes usually 6-12 in. long, 
sometimes up to 3 ft., densely woolly. Corolla yellow, 3/4-1 in. across, 
woolly outside ; filaments 3 short and bearded, 2 longer and glabrous. 
Capsule tomentose. (Fig. 154.) 
Flowers : April -August. 

2. Celsia Linn. 

Annual herbs. Leaves radical and alternate. Flowers pedicellate, 
in simple or branched terminal racemes, often forming a large terminal 
panicle ; calyx deeply 5- cleft ; corolla rotate ; tube very short ; lobes 5, 
nearly equal, spreading ; stamens 4, nearly equal. Capsule globose, 
septicidally 2-valved, valves usually 2-fid. Seeds numerous, minute, 
transversely wrinkled, not winged. 

C, coromandeliana Vahl ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 251. An erect 
pubescent herb, l|-3 ft. high. Radical leaves 2-6 in. long, crowded, 
petioled, often pinnately lobed ; cauline alternate, 1-3 J in. long, sessile or 
nearly so, oblong-ovate, passing into bracts ; all leaves dentate and 
hairy on both sides. Pedicel glandular-pubescent ; bracts leafy ; corolla 
yellow, 1/2 in. in diameter, lobes rounded ; filaments hairy. Capsule 1/3 
inch. (Fig. 155.) 

In comparatively moist waste places. Flowers : March-May. 



Fig. 154, Verbascum Thapsius, x J ; Fig 166, Celsia coromandelina, 
(a) flowering branch, X J, (c) flower, X 1J ; Fig. 156, Antirrhinum 
Crontium, (a) (b) X J, 1. 

3. Antirrhinum Linn. 

Annual or biennial herbs. Lower leaves opposite, upper alternate. 
Flowers solitary in the axil of the upper leaves or racemed ; calyx 5- 
parted ; corolla 2-lipped, compressed ; upper lip erect, 2-lobed ; lower 
spreading, 3-lobed ; base saccate, closing the throat ; stamens 4, in 
unequal pairs ; anther- cells distinct, parallel ; style simple ; stigma 2- 


lobed. Capsule ovoid, many-seeded, opening by pores at the top. Seeds 

A* Orontium Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 253. A slender erect 
more or less hairy herb, 6-18 in. high, branched from the base. Leaves 
1-2 in. long, linear or narrowly spathulate, entire, narrowed at the base. 
Flowers pale -pink, streaked with purple, nearly 1/2 in. long, nearly sessile ; 
calyx-segments linear, spreading, longer than the corolla. Capsule l/2 / in. 
or slightly less, pubescent. (Fig. 156.) 

In fields and along railway lines. Flowers in spring. 

4. Mazus Lour, 

Small herbs. Lower leaves opposite or forming a rosette, upper 
opposite or alternate. Flowers in terminal racemes ; bracts very short ; 
calyx bell-shaped, 5-lobed ; corolla- bilabiate ; tube short ; upper Up 
erect, 2-lobed ; lower much larger, spreading, 3-lobed ; palate 2-ridged, 
mouth open ; stamens 4, in unequal pairs, forming two arches ; stigma 
2-lobed. Capsule globose, included within the calyx, loculicidal ; valves 
entire. Seeds numerous, very minute. 

M. rugosus Lour. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IF, p. 259. A glabrous or sparsely 
hairy annual. Stems tufted. Radical leaves 1-3J in. long, broadly 
spathulate, with petiole-like base ; cauline leaves 1/2-1 in., spathu- 
late ; all leaves irregularly toothed. Racemes many from the base, 
3-10 in. long, simple or branched ; calyx 1/4 in. long, lobes nearly as 
long as the tube ; corolla 1/3-1/2 in. long, pale-blue or white, streaked 
with purple -blue. Capsule 1/5 in. in diameter. (Fig. 157.) 

A very common weed of gardens and lawns. 
Flowers : November-May. 

5. Herpestis Gaertn. 

Herbs. Leaves opposite. Flowers axillary, solitary ; calyx 5- 
parted, segments unequal, posterior larger ; corolla not markedly bi- 
labiate ; tube cylindric ; limb spreading, lobes 4, nearly equal, upper outer- 
most in bud, notched ; stamens in unequal pairs, included ; style dilated 
at the top ; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule 2-grooved, 2- or 4-valved. Seeds 
numerous, very minute. 

H, Monnieria H.B. & K. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 212. A glabrous, 
creeping, much branched, somewhat succulent herb ; branches 3-12 in. 
long, rooting at the nodes. Leaves 1/4-1 in. long, sessile, oblong-obovate 
or spathulate, entire, obtuse, veins obscure, lower surface gland-dotted. 
Flowers nearly 1/2 in. long and as much in diameter ; pedicel usually 



longer than the leaves ; corolla pale-blue with purple veins ; tube longer 
than calyx. Capsule ovoid, pointed, included within the calyx. 

(Fig. 158.) 

In marshy places. 

Fig. 157, Mazus rugosus, Xf ; Fig. 158, Herpestis Monnieria, (a) branch, 
Xl, (b) flower, x 1; Fig. 159, Bonnaya veronicaefolia, xf ; Fig. 160, Veronica 
Anagallis, x; Fig. 161, V. agrestis, xf. 

6. Bon nay a Link et Otto 

Annual, quite glabrous herbs. Leaves opposite. Flowers in terminal 
or leaf-opposed racemes ; bracteoles ; calyx deeply cleft into 5 linear 
segments ; corolla bilabiate ; tube cylindric ; upper lip erect, broad, 
concave, 2-fid ; lower larger, spreading, 3-lobed ; stamens 2, lower only 


perfect ; upper pair reduced to staminodes ; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule 
narrowly cylindrical, much longer than the calyx, septicidally 2-valved. 
Seeds numerous, wrinkled. 

B, veronicaefolia Spreng. ; FL Brit. Ind., IV, p. 285. A more, or 
less prostrate branched herb, often rooting at the nodes ; branches 
quadrangular. Leaves 1/2-1 J in. long, oblong- lanceolate or obovate, 
distinctly toothed or the lower sub -en tire, obscurely nerved. Corolla 
1/4-1/3 in. long, violet, streaked with purple. Capsule about twice as long 
as the calyx. (Fig. 159.) 

Flowers during the rains and winter. 

7. Veronica Linn. 

Herbs. Lower leaves opposite, upper often alternate, passing 
into bracts. Flowers axillary solitary or in terminal or axillary racemes, 
bracteate ; bracteoles ; calyx 4-partite ; segments unequal ; corolla- 
tube very short ; lobes 4, spreading, unequal, upper and lower usually 
narrowest ; stamens 2, exserted ; ovules few in each cell ; style simple, 
linear ; stigma subcapitate. Capsule notched, opening by 2 valves. 
Seeds ovate or globose. 

Key to the species. 

Racemes axillary; leaves sessile, entire or nearly so 1. V. Anagallis. 
Flowers solitary, axillary, forming terminal leafy 

racemes ; leaves shortly stalked, toothed . . 2. V . agrestis. 

L V, Anagallis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 293. An erect, nearly 
glabrous herb, 6-24 in. high. Stems succulent, hollow, often stoloniferous. 
Leaves mostly opposite, 2-6 in. long, sessile, narrowly or broadly lan- 
ceolate, entire or minutely serrate ; base more or less stem -clasping. 
Flowers light pink, 1/6-1/3 in. in diameter, in lax axillary racemes ; pedicel 
slender, filiform, up to 1/2 in. long, longer than the bracts. Capsule 
1/8-1/6 in. long, compressed. (Fig. 160.) 

Common in wet places. Flowers during winter, largely from January to 

2. V. agrestis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 294. A prostrate, 
pubescent, much branched annual herb ; branches 6-12 in. long. Leaves 
lower opposite, upper alternate, passing into floral leaves, 1/3-1 in. long, 
shortly petioled, ovate or broadly so, toothed. Flowers in terminal 
racemes ; bracts leafy ; pedicel slender, drooping, nearly as long as the 
bracts ; sepals 1/4 in. long, ovate, obtuse, ciliate ; corolla 1/6-1/3 in. in 


diameter, white, bluish or pinkish. Capsule 1/4 in. in diameter, halves 
globose. (Fig. 161.) 

A common weed, appearing during winter in gardens and grassy plots. 
Flowers : January-April. 


Brownish root-parasites, never green, often with tuberous root- 
stock. Stem usually stout, simple or branched. Leaves alternate, scaly, 
often crowded near the base. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, bracteate, 
in racemes or spikes, hypogynous ; calyx 4-5-parted ; corolla-tube curved ; 
limb bilabiate or with 5 subequal lobes, upper lip often arched, lower 
3-fid, throat with 2 villous folds ; stamens 4, in unequal pairs, inserted 
on the corolla-tube and alternate with the lobes ; anthers 1- or 2-celled, 
cells opening by slits or apical pores ; disk usually obscure ; ovary superior, 
1 -celled, with numerous ovules borne on 4 parietal placentas, which 
sometimes ultimately reach the centre of the ovary. Fruit a capsule, 
often enveloped by the calyx, usually opening by 2 valves. Seeds very 
numerous, small, albuminous, with a minute embryo. Genera 11, 
species about 150, in tropical, subtropical and temperate countries, chiefly 
S. Europe and E. Asia. 

Key to the genera. 

Corolla-lobes broad, subequal, yellow . . 1. Cistanche. 

Corolla bilabiate, blue, upper lip 2-lobed, lower 

3-lobed . . . . . . . . 2. Orobanche. 

1. Cistanche Hoffm. & Link 

Flowers in dense spikes, subsessile ; bracteoles 2 ; calyx broadly 
tubular- campanulate ; lobes 5, subequal, obtuse ; corolla-tube long, 
incurved, dilated above ; limb spreading, oblique, lobes 5, broad, nearly 
equal ; stamens 4, sub-exserted ; ovary 1-celled, with 4 nearly equidistant 
placentas ; stigma broad. Capsule ovoid, laterally compressed, 2-valved 
to the base. 

C. tubulosa Wight ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 324. A glabrous or hairy, 
very stout, unbranched herb, 1-5 ft. high, and up to 3 in. thick ; scales 
1/2-1 1 in. long, lanceolate. Spikes 3-10 in. long ; bracts longer than the 
calyx, lanceolate ; bracteoles shorter and linear ; calyx 1/2-3/4 in. long ; 
lobes about J as long as the tube ; corolla yellow, 2-3 times as long as 
the calyx ; tube inflated ; mouth 3/4-1 J in. in diameter ; lobes short, 
rounded, reflexed ; filaments hirsute below ; anthers woolly. Capsule 1 
in. long, beaked. 

Parasitic on many plants, Calotropis, Sueda, etc. 
Flowers during winter. 



2. Orobanche Linn. 

Flowers in somewhat lax bracteate spikes ; bracteoles 2 ; calyx 
bell-shaped, 4- or rarely 5-toothed ; corolla-tube 
curved, dilated above, breaking off transversely 'at 
the base ; limb 2 -lipped ; upper lip erect, 2-lobed ; 
lower spreading, 3-lobed ; stamens 4, included ; 
ovary 1-celled ; placentas 4, in pairs ; stigma funnel- 
shaped, more or less 2-lobed. Capsule 2-valved, 
valves often cohering with the style. 

CX indica Ham. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 326. A 
more or less hairy scapigerous herb, 4-18 in. high. 
Stem simple or branched from the base. Scales few, 
lanceolate. Flowers sessile or nearly so ; bracts half 
as long as the corolla-tube ; bracteoles filiform ; calyx 
nearly 1/2 in. long, pubescent, teeth about 1/3 of the 
tube ; corolla 3/4-1 J in. long, pubescent, upper 
portion blue or lilac, lower whitish ; tube almost 
funnel-shaped, constricted above the insertion of the 
stamens ; anthers hairy. Capsule 1/3 in. long, oblong, 
narrow-pointed, glabrous. (Fig. 162.) 

Parasitic on various cultivated plants, especially members 
of the Cruciferce and Solanacece. 
Flowers during winter. 


Fig. 162, Orobanche 
indica, Xj. 


Herbs or shrubs, sometimes climbing. Leaves opposite, exstipulate. 
Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, in cymes, racemes, spikes or panicles, 
rarely solitary, often with conspicuous bracts ; bracteoles 2 or more ; 
calyx 4-5-lobed or -parted ; corolla 2-lipped or subequally 5-lobed ; 
lobes imbricate or contorted ; stamens 4, in unequal pairs, or 2, inserted 
on the corolla- tube and alternate with its lobes ; filaments free or partially 
connate in pairs ; anthers 2 -celled or sometimes 1-celled by abortion ; 
cells close together or separated, sometimes one much smaller than the 
other, opening lengthwise ; disk present, often conspicuous ; ovary 
superior, 2-celled ; placentation axile ; ovules 2 or more in each cell, 
often on hook-like processes (retinaculae) ; style simple, linear ; stigmas 2, 
often of unequal size, one minute or wanting. Fruit a capsule opening 
by 2 valves from the apex downwards. Seeds usually exalbuminous ; 
embryo large. Genera about 240, species nearly 2,000, mostly tropical 



Key to the genera. 

Corolla subequally 5-lobed, stamens 4 
Corolla deeply 2-lipped, stamens 2 . . 

1. Ruellia. 

2. Peristrophe. 

1. Ruellia Linn. 

Herbs or undershrubs. Flowers sessile or subsessile ; bracteoles 
large ; calyx 5-partite ; teeth subequal, narrow, acute ; corolla not 
bilabiate, limb subequally 5-lobed ; stamens 4, in unequal pairs ; anthers 
2-celled ; ovary elongated ; ovules in each cell 3-10 ; style long, linear ; 
stigma one missing, other simple, linear. Capsule clavate, base solid, 
seed-bearing upward. Seeds large, thinly discoid, margined, on large 
hooked retinaculse. 

R. tuberosa Linn. ; Sp. PL, 635. An annual, erect or ascend- 
ing herb, branching from the base ; branches 1-2 ft. long. Leaves 


Fig. 163, Ruellia tuberosa, (a) branch, X J, (6) flower, X J; Fig. 164, Pristrophe 
bicalyculata, (a) flowering branch, x 1, (b) flower, xj. 


1|-3| in. long, petioled, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, margin wavy and 
irregularly toothed, apex acute or acuminate, base acute ; petiole 1/3-1 in- 
long. Inflorescence a panicle of axillary dichasial cymes passing into 
monochasia ; floral leaves linear, 1/4-1/3 in. long ; pedicel short, up tp 1/3 
in. long ; calyx 2/3-3/4 in. long, pubescent ; corolla 1 J in. long, bluish pink ; 
tube funnel-shaped, curved ; anterior lobe 2-ridged. Capsule 2/3 in. long. 
(Fig. 163.) 

A foreign plant, native of America. 

Common in gardens, near moist places. Flowers : March-June. 

2. Peristrophe Nees 

Erect, spreading herbs. Flowers in axillary and terminal tricho- 
tomous cymes, forming large lax panicles ; bracts 1-4 together ; bracteoles 
4 ; calyx deeply 5-lobed, segments equal, linear-lanceolate ; corolla- tube 
slender ; limb deeply 2-lipped, upper lip subentire, lower very shortly 
3-lobed ; stamens 2 ; anthers 2-celled, one cell higher than the other ; 
ovary 4-ovuled ; style filiform, minutely bifid. Capsule ellipsoid, stalked. 
Seeds ovoid, compressed. 

P. bicalyculata Nees ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 554. A 2-4 ft. high, 
hairy, rough annual, much branched ; branches angular. Leaves 1-3 in. 
long, ovate, acuminate, entire, more hairy on the lower surface ; petiole 
1/4-1/2 in. long. Bracts 2, unequal, opposite, longer than the calyx ; 
bracteoles 4, smaller ; calyx 1/8-1/6 in. long, margin ciliatc ; corolla pink, 
1/3-1/2 in. long, hairy outside ; anther- cells ovoid ; filaments pubescent 
below. Capsule 1/3 in. long, narrowed below into a stalk, pointed at the 
apex. (Fig. 164.) 

Abundant on canal banks, river-side and in shady places in the gardens. 
The plants come out during the rains. 
Flowers : September-April. 


Herbs, shrubs or trees ; young branches often quadrangular. Leaves 
opposite or whorled, simple or palmately or pinnately compound, ex- 
stipulate. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, in cymes, racemes or spikes, 
these often compound or paniculate ; calyx 4-5-lobed or -toothed, per- 
sistent ; corolla bilabiate or subequally 4- or 5-lobed ; stamens 4, rarely 2 
or 5, epipetalous ; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise ; disk usually 
inconspicuous ; ovary superior, 2-8- celled, usually 4-celled, entire or 
4-lobed ; ovules 1 or 2 in each cell, erect or rarely pendulous ; style 
terminal ; stigma usually entire. Fruit usually drupaceous, containing 4 
or less one-seeded nutlets (pyrenes). Seeds exalbuminous or nearly 



so ; embryo straight. Genera about 70, species nearly 750, tropical and 

Key to the genera. 

Flowers in long slender mostly terminal spikes ; 

erect herbs .. .. . . 1. Verbena. 

Flowers in ovoid or cylindric pedunculate axillary 

heads ; a creeping herb . . 2. Lippia. 

Flowers in axillary cymes ; ari erect shrub . . 3. Callicarpa. 

1. Verbena Linn. 

Erect, pubescent herbs. Leaves opposite, toothed or pinnatifid. 
Flowers small, sessile, in simple or corymbose terminal spikes ; calyx 
tubular, shortly 5-toothed ; corolla tubular, obscurely 2-lipped, 5-lobed ; 
stamens 4, in unequal pairs, included ; ovary 4-lobed, 1- or 4-celled, 4- 
ovuled ; style short, obscurely 2-lobed. Fruit shorter than the calyx, 
dry ; pyrenes 4 or fewer. 

Fig. 165, Verbena officinalis, X$ ; Fig. 166, V. bonariensis, 



Key to the species. 
Flowers in lax elongated spikes, mostly more than 

3 in. long . . . . . . I. V. qfficinalis. 

Flowers in dense spikes, not more than 1 J in. long 2. V. bonaridnsis. 

1. V* officinalis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 565. A perennial 
herb, more or less pubescent, 1-3 ft. high ; stem quadrangular. Leaves 
2-4 in. long ; lower petioled, pinnatifid or coarsely toothed ; upper sessile, 
3-partite, or entire. Flowers pinkish, in long slender spikes, 3-10 in. 
long ; calyx glandular-hairy ; corolla hairy, tube nearly cylindric, twice 
as long as the calyx. (Fig. 165.) 

In waste places and as a garden weed ; common. 
Flowers : March-June. 

2. V. bonariensis Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., IV, p. 565. An erect, 
more or less woody, rough, hairy herb, about 3 ft. high ; stem sharply 
quadrangular. Leaves 1J-4 by 1/2-1^ in., sessile, lanceolate or obovate, 
stem- clasping, sharply serrate, veins prominent on the under-side. 

Spikes short, dense, cylindric, 1/2-1 J 
in. long, in closely packed terminal 
corymbs ; the internode below the 
corymbs greatly elongated ; flowers 
bluish purple ; calyx ciliate on the out- 
side, 1/8-1/6 in. long. Pyrencs half as 
long as the calyx. (Fig. 166.) 

A native of Brazil, but now naturalized in 
various parts of India. 

2. Lippia Linn. 

Herbs. Flowers very small, sessile, 
in ovoid or cylindric peduncled axillary 
spikes ; bracts exceeding the calyx, 
conspicuous ; bracteoles ; calyx small, 
membranous, 2-parted ; corolla-tube 
cylindric ; limb obscurely 2-lipped, 
upper lip bifid, lower 3-lobed ; stamens 
4, in unequal pairs ; ovary 2-celled, 
2-ovuled ; style short ; stigma subcapi- 
tate. Fruit dry, separating into 2 one- 
seeded pyrenes. 

L. nodiflora Rich. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., 
IV, p. 565. A prostrate widely creep- 
ing, much branched, perennial herb, rooting at the nodes, pubescent 

Fig. 167, Lippia nodiflora, xf. 



or sometimes nearly glabrous. Leaves 3/4-1 in. long, sessile or nearly 
so, obovate or spathulate, narrowed to the base, sharply toothed at the 
rounded apex. Peduncles 1-3 in. long, usually from the axil of one only 
of each pair of leaves ; bracts 1/10 in. long ; calyx 1/12 in. long, hairy 
outside, closely covering the fruit ; corolla white or pink, 1/10-1/8 in. 
long. Fruit smaller than the calyx. (Fig. 167.) 

Abundant, especially near moist places. Flowers throughout the year. 

3. Callicarpa Linn. 

Shrubs with opposite leaves. Flowers in axillary peduncled cymes, 
shorter than the leaves ; bracts linear, inconspicuous ; calyx bell-shaped, 
limb minutely 4-lobed ; corolla tubular, tube short, limb 4-lobed, lobes 
nearly equal, spreading ; stamens 4 ; ovary imperfectly 2- celled, cells 
2-ovuled ; style linear ; stigma dilated, obscurely bifid. Fruit a small, 
succulent, globose drupe, containing 4 one-seeded pyrenes. 

C. macrophylla Vahl ; FL Brit. Ind., IV, p. 568. An erect shrub 
4-8 ft. high ; branches, petioles, under-surface of the leaves and inflo- 
rescence densely woolly- tomentose. Leaves 4-10 by 1-4 in., shortly 
petioled, lanceolate, acuminate, crenate, upper surface stellately pubes- 
cent or glabrescent. Flowers hardly 1/5 in. long, pink. Drupe 1/6 in. 
in diameter, white. (Fig. 168.) 

Shalamar side. Flowers during winter. 

Fig. 168, Callicarpa macrophylla, X J. 

Several Verbenacece are commonly cultivated in the gardens. 

1. Duranta Plumierl Jacq. A very common hedge plant, native of tropical 
America. Flowers through the greater part of the year. Flowers pinkish blue; 
stamens included. 

2. Clerodendron Inerme Oaertn. A seashore plant, but very commonly 
used for hedges and covering banks, walls, etc. Grows very quickly. Flowers 
white ; stamens far exserted. 

Flowers during summer. 



Fig. 169, Mentha sylvestris X^; Fig. 170, SaJw'a ptebeia, x; Fig. 171, 
Nepeta ruderalis, x|; Fig. 172, Lattemaniia Royleana, xj. 



Herbs, rarely shrubs, usually aromatic. Stem usually quadrangular. 
Leaves opposite, rarely whorled (not in the local species), simple, exstipu- 
late. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, rarely almost regular, in opposite, 
few- or many-flowered, axillary cymes, hypogynous; calyx 4-5-lobed, often 
distinctly 2-lipped, persistent ; corolla usually distinctly 2-lipped, upper 
lip erect and 2-lobed or notched, lower .piviMlinu' and 3-lobed or rarely 
entire, rarely lip only one or the limb cleft into 4 or 5 subequal lobes ; 
stamens 4, all equal or in unequal pairs, or 2, epipetalous ; anthers 2- 
celled, opening lengthwise ; cells in Salvia widely separated ; disk present ; 
ovary superior, of 2 deeply lobed carpels, 4-celled ; ovules solitary in 
each cell, erect ; style gynobasic (rising from between the 4 lobes) ; 
stigma usually 2-fid. Fruit of 4 one-seeded dry nutlets, included within 
the persistent calyx. Seeds exalbuminous, usually with straight em- 
bryo. A large order; genera about 200, species nearly 3,000, spread all 
over the world. 

Key to the genera. 

Corolla not 2-lipped, subequally 4-lobcd . . 1 . MentJia. 

Corolla 2-lipped. 

Stamens 2 . . . . 2. Salvia. 

Stamens 4. 

Bracts without awns ; calyx 1/6 inch long . . 3. Nepeta. 

Bract-teeth with long-pointed awns ; calyx 1/3 inch 

long . . . . . . . . 4. Lallemantia. 

1. Mentha Linn. 

Strong -scented perennial herbs with a creeping root-stock. Flowers 
in large whorls, forming axillary and terminal spikes ; calyx bell-shaped, 
5-toothed ; corolla subequally 4-lobed ; stamens 4, equal, erect, pro- 
truding ; anther- cells parallel ; style- arms short. 

M* sylvestris Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., IV, p. 647. An erect or diffuse 
hoary herb, 1-3 ft. high. Leaves 1-3 by 2/3-2 in., nearly sessile, lanceolate, 
ovate or oblong, serrate, acute, base rounded or cordate, upper surface 
hoary-pubescent, lower white- tomentose. Spikes cylindric, 1-3 by 1/3-1/2 
in. ; lower bracts leaf-like, upper smaller, lanceolate ; pedicel hairy ; 
calyx hairy, teeth triangular or lanceolate, acute ; corolla lilac, about 1/8 
in. in diameter, tube included in the calyx, hairy outside, glabrous within. 
Nutlets usually pale and smooth, sometimes brown and delicately 
reticulate. (Fig. 169.) 

On canal banks. 

M. piperata Linn, (peppermint) is commonly grown in vegetable gardens. 
Vern., Pudina. 


2. Salvia Linn. 

Herbs. Flowers in small whorls forming erect panicled racemes ; 
calyx bell-shaped, 2-lipped, upper lip entire, lower 2-fid, throat naked ; 
corolla 2-lipped, upper lip erect, entire, lower 3-lobed, lateral lobes 
spreading ; stamens 2 perfect ; filaments short ; anther- cells widely 
separated by the much elongated, slender, curved connective ; upper 
cell perfect, enclosed within the upper lip of the corolla ; lower imperfect ; 
disk usually enlarged in front ; style bifid. Nutlets triquetrous, smooth. 

S, plebeia^. Br. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 655. A roughly pubescent 
erect herb, 6-24 in. high, fasti giately branched. Leaves 1-6 in. long, 
petioled, broadly lanceolate or ovate, obtuse or sub-acute, crenate, base 
rounded or acute, often decurrent ; petiole 1/2-3 in. long ; size of the leaves 
and their petioles decreasing from below upwards. Racemes spikate, 
slender ; bracts lower leaf-like, upper small and lanceolate ; flowers 
hardly 1/4 in., bluish ; corolla-tube with a ring of hairs inside. Nutlets 
brown when ripe. (Fig. 170.) 

Common, especially near moist places. 
Flowers : March June. 

3. Nepcta Linn. 

Erect or prostrate herbs. Flowers in axillary or terminal whorls ; 
calyx tubular, 15-ribbed, equally 5-toothed, or 2 lower teeth narrower ; 
corolla bilabiate, tube not annulate within, throat inflated ; upper lip 
straight, notched ; lower 3-fid, midlobe largest ; stamens 4, ascending 
under the upper lip, posterior pair longer than the anterior ; style-lobes 

N* ruderalis Buch.-Ham. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 661. A pubescent, 
erect or more or less prostrate annual herb, branching from the base, 
6-28 in. high. Leaves 1/2-2 \ in. long, long-petioled, rounded, cordate or 
truncate at the base, crenate, obtuse, green or hoary. Flower whorls 
distant, unilateral, in interrupted spikes, villous and at least the lower 
ones distinctly pedunculate. Flowers pedicellate, 1/4 in. long ; calyx 
hairy, teeth subequal, 3 posterior triangular, 2 anterior filiform ; corolla 
purplish, pubescent, slightly longer than the calyx. (Fig. 171.) 

Flowers during the cold season. 

4. Lallcmantia Fisch. & Mey. 

Erect or prostrate herbs. Flowers in numerous whorls, forming 
long narrow interrupted spikes ; calyx tubular, 15-nerved, 2-lipped, upper 
lip with 3 obtuse lobes of which the lateral are placed under the central, 
lower of 2 acute lobes ; corolla bilabiate, tube not annulate within ; 


upper lip erect, notched ; lower spreading, 3-lobed, midlobe largest ; 
stamens 4, ascending under the upper lip ; style-lobes subulate. 

L. Royleana Benth. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., IV, p. 667. An annual, hoary- 
pubescent or glabrescent herb ; stems 6-18 in. long. Leaves 1/2-2J in. 
long, petioled up to 1 in., elliptic or ovate, large-toothed, base cordate or 
narrowed into the petiole. Flowers shortly pedicellate ; bracts about 1/2 in. 
long, oblong or lanceolate, toothed, teeth awned ; calyx 1/3 in. long, teeth 
erect with incurved margins ; corolla pale-lilac, slightly longer than the 
calyx, limb small. Nutlets 1/10 inch. (Fig. 172.) 


For description see the description of the genus Plantago. The two 
other genera of the family are monotypic, not very important and 
unrepresented in India. 

Plantago Linn. 

Herbs. Leaves radical, alternate or opposite. Flowers on axillary 
scapes, small, greenish, spicate, often dimorphic, bisexual, hypogynous ; 
sepals 4, persistent ; corolla salver-shaped, 4-lobed, scarious ; stamens 4, 
epipetalous ; filaments very fine, persistent ; anthers large, pendulous, 
versatile ; ovary superior, 2-4- celled, ovules 1 or more in each cell ; style 
filiform, with 2 lines of stigmatic hairs. Capsule 1-4-celled, dehiscing 
transversely, membranous, 1- or more-seeded. Seeds usually peltate, 
albuminous ; testa thin, mucilaginous ; embryo cylindric. 

Key to the species. 

Leaves all radical or alternate. 

Corolla lobes hirsute . . . . 1. P. ciliata. 

Corolla glabrous. 

Lobes ovate, acute . . . . 2. P. amplexicaulis. 

Lobes rounded, obtuse or apiculate . . 3. P. ovata. 

Stem with opposite leaves . . . . 4. P. pumila. 

1. P. ciliata Desf. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 707. A densely woolly 
or silky, annual or perennial herb. Stem or very short. Leaves 1-6 in. 
long, long- or short-petioled, oblanceolate, acuminate. Scapes numerous, 
longer or shorter than the leaves ; spikes 1-2 in. long, oblong or cylindric ; 
bracts ovate, obtuse, membranous, green on the back, villous ; sepals 
membranous, villous ; corolla-lobes acuminate, hirsute. Capsule 2- 
celled, cells 1 -seeded. Seeds boat-shaped. (Fig. 173.) 

2. P. amplcxicaulis Cav. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 706. A sparsely 
hairy or glabrate, annual or perennial herb. Stem or branched from 



the base, branches 2-5 in. long. Leaves 2|-6 in. long, narrowly lanceo- 
late, sheathing at the base, finely acuminate, entire or sparingly toothed, 
5-nerved. Scapes numerous, as long as or longer than the leaves, glabrous ; 
spikes 1/2-1 in. long, ovoid ; bracts cupular, glabrous, membranous except 
for the green midrib. Flowers 1/4-1/3 in. long ; sepals rounded, outer with a 
green keel, inner all membranous ; corolla-lobes ovate, acute. Capsule 
2-ceUed, cells 1-2-seeded. Seeds 1/6 in., boat-shaped. (Fig. 174.) 
Flowers during spring. 


Fig. 173, Plantago ciliata, xj; Fig. 174, P. amplexicaulis, (a) a fruiting 
plant, xi, (6) lower leaf, x, (c) flower, x3; Fig. 175, P. ovata, (a) plant, X4, 
(6) flower, front view showing the corolla lobes, X 3. 

3. P. ovata Forsk. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd. , / V, p . 707 . A sparsely or thickly 
villous annual, 3-12 in. high. Stem mostly 0, branched when rarely 


present. Leaves 3-9 in. long, filiform, linear or narrowly lanceolate, 
finely acuminate, entire or distantly toothed, usually 3-nerved. Scapes 
numerous, longer or shorter than the leaves, glabrous or pubescent ; 
spikes 1/2-2 in. long, ovoid or cylindric ; bracts ovate-oblong, obtuse, 
glabrous, with broad scarious margins. Flowers 1/4 in. long ; sepals all 
nearly alike, glabrous or pubescent ; corolla-lobes rounded, concave, 
obtuse or apiculate. Capsule 2-celled, cells 1 -seeded. Seeds boat- 
shaped. Vern., Isabgol. (Fig. 175.) 

The seeds yield, when boiled, a large amount of tasteless mucilage which is 
used medicinally. 

Flowers : March-May. 

4. P. pumila Willd. ; FL Brit. Ind., IV, p. 707. A glabrous or 
puberulous, erect or ascending herb. Leaves 1|-2| in. long, opposite, 
filiform, re volute. Peduncles in the axil of the upper leaves, 2^4 in. 
long, flexuous ; spikes 1/3-1/2 in. long, ovoid or subglobose ; bracts all longer 
than the calyx, as Jong as the spikes, filiform. Flowers very small ; 
corolla- lobes finely acuminate. 

Cultivated. Flowers during spring. 


Herbs or shrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, exstipulate. 
Flowers arranged in various ways, usually cymose, often surrounded by 
brightly coloured bracts, mostly bisexual, sometimes unisexual, hypo- 
gynous ; perianth tubular, contracted above the ovary, petaloid ; limb 
usually 3-5-lobed, plicate, falling off after flowering ; tube persistent, 
enveloping the fruit ; stamens 1 to many, free or united at the base, 
inflexed in bud ; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise ; filaments often 
unequal ; ovary superior, 1- celled ; ovule 1, erect ; style slender. Fruit 
indehiscent, enclosed in the hardened perianth-tube. Seed albuminous ; 
embryo curved or coiled ; cotyledons folded. Genera about 25, species 
250, tropical and sub -tropical, chiefly American. 

Bocrhaavia Linn. 

Herbs. Leaves opposite. Flowers small, in paniculate umbels or 
heads, jointed on the pedicel ; perianth- tube slender ; limb funnel-shaped, 
5-lobed ; stamens 1-5, exserted ; ovary stalked ; stigma peltate. Fruit 
small, enclosed in the glandular perianth -tube. Cotyledons broad, 

B, diffusa Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., IV, p. 709. A prostrate or ascend- 
ing, diffusely branched herb, pubescent or nearly glabrous ; root fusiform, 



stout ; root-stock woody 

Fig. 176, Boerhaavia 
diffusa, Xi. 

branches 6-24 in. long. Leaves 1/2-2} by 1/2-1 J 
in., petioled up to 1 in., in unequal pairs, 
ovate or broadly so ; base cordate or rounded ; 
margin entire, usually undulate ; apex mostly 
obtuse ; upper surface green, lower often 
silvery white. Flowers minute, bracteate, 
in small umbels at the end of long slender 
axillary peduncles, usually forming loose 
terminal panicles ; perianth pink, glandular- 
viscid outside, lobes bifid ; stamens 1-3, 
slightly exserted. Fruit 1/8 in. long, shortly 
clavate, 5-ribbed. (Fig. 176.) 

Common, especially in dry places. Flowers 
practically throughout the year. 

Among the Nyctaginacece commonly cultivated at 
Lahore are : 

Mirabilis Jalapa Linn., the ' Marvel of Peru ' or 
the * Four- o'clock ' plant. It bears red, white, 
yellow or variegated flowers in large numbers. 
Vern., Qul dbbtis. 

BougainvHIea. Several species, B. glabra Choisy, 
B. spectabilis Willd., etc. are commonly cultivated. 


Herbs or undershrubs. Leaves mostly opposite, simple, often 
connate at the base ; stipules usually scarious. Flowers small, green or 
white, often with scarious bracts, bisexual, regular ; calyx 4-5-lobed or 
-partite, persistent, lobes imbricate ; petals or represented by small 
staminodes ; stamens as many as and opposite the calyx-lobes, rarely 
fewer or more, mostly perigynous ; filaments free or connate at the 
base ; anthers 2-celled ; ovule mostly erect or pendulous from a basal 
funicle ; style 1, terminal, or 2-3. Fruit an indehiscent nut, 1 -seeded, 
enclosed by the calyx. Seeds albuminous ; embryo straight, curved or 
annular. Genera about 17, species nearly 75, widely spread, inhabitants 
of dry arid regions. 

Hcrniaria Linn. 

Small tufted prostrate herbs. Leaves opposite. Flowers minute, 

in green axillary clusters ; calyx 4-5-parted ; petals ; disk annular ; 

stamens 4-5 ; staminodes present or ; ovule erect ; style 2-fid. Seed 
sub-globose or reniform ; embryo annular. 




Fig. 177, Herniaria hirsulta, (a) a large branch, x 1, 
(6) portion of a branch, x 2, (c) flower, X 6. 

H. hirsut&Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., IV, p. 712. A prostrate perennial 
herb, covered with long rather stiff appressed hairs, profusely branched 
from the base ; branches 2-8 in. long. Leaves very small, 1/10-1/3 in. 
long, shortly petioled, narrowly ovate or lanceolate, acute or obtuse, 
entire ; stipules scarious. Flowers hardly 1/10 in. long ; calyx green, 
hairy outside, smooth within, 5-parted ; stamens 5, shorter than the 
calyx, alternate with 5 staminodes ; style very short ; stigmas subsessile. 
Capsule 1/15 in. (Fig. 177.) 

Flowers during spring and early summer. 


Herbs or shrubs, sometimes rliniliiiiL'. Leaves alternate or opposite, 
simple, exstipulate. Flowers monochlamydeous, usually bisexual and 
regular, sometimes monoecious or polygamous, small, borne in spikes, 
heads, racemes or panicles ; bracts and bracteoles usually scarious, the 
latter sometimes hooked ; sepals 3-5, almost or nearly free, imbricate, 
mostly dry and membranous, persistent ; stamens mostly as many as 
the sepals, or rarely fewer, hypogynous, opposite the sepals, very often 
united at the base into a short tube ; staminodes often present in between 
the stamens ; anthers 1- or 2-celled, opening lengthwise ; ovary superior, 
1- celled, with a single basal or rarely more ovules ; style short or long, 
ending in a capitate or 2-3-fid stigma. Fruit indehiscent, or dehiscing 
irregularly or by a transverse lid, mostly one- sometimes more-seeded. 
Seeds usually with a shining crustaceous testa and an annular embryo 


surrounding a starchy perisperm. Genera about 75, species nearly 700, 
mostly inhabiting tropical and sub -tropical regions. 

Key to the genera. * 

Leaves alternate. 

Densely tomentoso, hoary undershrub . . 3. Aerua. 

Plants without dense tomentum, green. 
Flowers bisexual and with conspicuous 
pink calyx . . . . . . 2. Digera. 

.Flowers monoecious or polygamous ; calyx 
inconspicuous . . . . . . 1. Amarantus. 

Leaves opposite. 

Flowers in elongated spinescent spikes. 

Flowers all perfect, deflexed, and with 

fimbriate starninodes . . . . 5. Achyranthes. 

Flowers not all perfect, imperfect ones re- 
duced to hooked awns ; without stain - 
modes . . . . 4. Pupalia. 

Flowers in globose axillary spikes with- 
out spines . . . . 0. Alternanthera. 

1. Amarantus Linn. 

Annuals. Leaves alternate. Flowers monoecious or h-ilx-j.imiii,*. 
in axillary or in panicled, erect or drooping, densely or laxly spiked 
clusters ; sepals 3-5, ovate-oblong, linear-lanceolate or aristate ; stamena 
3-5, free ; anthers 2- celled ; stam modes ; ovary compressed ; style 
short or ; stigmas 2-3, filiform or subulate ; ovule 1, erect. Utricle 
compressed, indehiscent or opening by a transverse lid ; tip entire or 
2-3-toothed. Seeds orbicular. 

Key to the species. 
Stamens 5 ; sepals 5. 

Leaf axils armed with spines 
Leaf axils without spines 
Stamens 3 ; sepals 3. 

Fruit with an acute apex, wrinkled ; an erect 
herb ; flowers both in axillary clusters and 
in terminal spikes 

Fruit orbicular, membranous ; a prostrate 
herb with 2-lobed leaves and flowers only 
in axillary clusters 

Fruit ovoid, wrinkled ; leaves mostly obtuse ; 
flowers all in axillary clusters 


A. spinosus. 
A. paniculatus. 

3. A. viridis. 

4. A. blitum. 

5. A.polygamus. 


1. A. spinosus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 718. An erect glabrous 
herb, 1-3 ft. high, armed with sharp axillary spines up to 1 in. long. 
Stem terete, glabrous, hard, green or tinged with red. Leaves 1-4 in. 
long, lanceolate, ovate or rhomboid, long-petioled, obtuse or retuse, 
base cuneate, margin crisped or wavy. Flowers in axillary clusters, or 
on axillary or terminal lax- or dense -flowered spikes, green, sessile ; 
bracts exceeding the sepals, setaceous ; sepals 5, with a green midrib 
and scarious margins, of male flowers 1/10 in. long, acuminate, of female 
smaller, obtuse, apiculate ; stamens 5. Utricle about 1/15 in. long, 
ovoid, wrinkled, with a thickened top ; styles 2 or rarely 3, spreading. 
Seeds black, shining, without a thickened border. Vern., Chulai. 
(Fig. 179.) 

Very common in waste grounds and cultivated fields ; almost throughout the 
year, but mostly after the rains. The leaves are eaten. Ash of the plant is used 
in dyeing. 

2. A. paniculatus Linn. ; FL Brit. Intl., IV, p. 718. A tall robust 
annual, 2-0 ft. or more high, much branched. Stem often 1 in. or more 
in diameter at the base, grooved, often with red striations, glabrous or 
puberulous. Leaves 2-0 in. long and 1-3 in. broad, elliptic- or ovate- 
lanceolate, acute or acuminate, minutely clotted beneath, base cuneate, 
main secondary nerves prominent beneath, fine on the upper surface ; 
petiole 1-4 in. long. Flowers in dense, many -flowered, sub-squarrose, 
red, green or golden-coloured, sub-erect spikes, the whole forming a 
thyrsoid panicle of which the central spike is the largest, reaching 4 in. 
or more ; bracts much longer than the sepals, acicular, recurved ; sepals 5, 
1/10-1/8 in. long, oblong-lanceolate, sharply acuminate ; stamens 5. Fruit 
1/8 in. long, ovoid, narrowed towards the apex ; styles usually 3, short. 
Seeds yellowish-white with a thickened rounded border or pitchy black 
with a narrow thin border. 

Cultivated sometimes as a cold season crop within the area or occurs as an 
escape. It is more regularly cultivated in the Himalayas, where it forms a very 
handsome crop during autumn. 

3. A. viridis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 720. A slender annual 
glabrous herb, 1-2 ft. high, erect or sometimes prostrate below, usually 
much branched. Stem grooved, striate, usually pinkish. Leaves 1-3 \ 
in. long, ovate, obtuse or retuse, base broadly cuneate, margin often 
crisped ; petiole nearly as long as the blade. Flower- clusters pale-green, 
small, in axillary and terminal panicled lax slender spikes up to 5 in. 
long ; bracts shorter than the sepals, ovate -oblong or oblanceolate, acute, 
hyaline and with a green keel; sepals 3, about 1/15-1/20 in. long, quite 
awnless, otherwise similar to the bracts ; stamens 3. Fruit indehiscent, 



Fig. 178, Digera arvensis, (a) flowering twig, xj, (6) flower, x6, (c) scale bud 
in the axil of the bracteole, x6; Fig. 179, Amarantus spino&us* xl; Fig. 180, 
A. blUum, Xi; Fig. 181, A. viridis, Xj, 

acute, markedly wrinkled ; styles 2 or 3. Seeds pitchy black, border 
obtuse. (Fig. 181.) 

A common weed of fields and gardens. Abundant almost throughout the year. 


4. A. blitum Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 721. A decumbent or 
procumbent annual herb ; part of the stem often leafless. Leaves email, 
mostly l/2-l in. long, ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, dotted, obtuse, retuse 
or emarginate, base acute ; petiole usually half as long as the blade. 
Flowers in axillary clusters ; bracts nearly as long as the sepals ; sepals 3, 
about 1/15 in. long, linear- lanceolate or oblong, acute or obtuse and 
apiculate, hyaline ; stamens 3. Fruit dehiscent, globose, with short 
obtusely conical tip, membranous. Seeds rounded, deep red or shining 
black, border acute. (Fig. 180.) 

A weed ; sometimes used as a pot-herb. 

Var. oleracea ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 721. Tall, erect, succulent. 
Leaf-blades 1-2| in. long, ovate-oblong or rounded ; petiole nearly as 
long. Flower- clusters axillary and in terminal, simple or branched 
spikes. Fruit indehiscent. Vern., Sil. 

Cultivated for the sake of its grain, which is eaten either with milk or made 
into ladus (sweetmeat balls). The leaves are also sometimes used as a pot-herb. 

5. A* polygamus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 721. A small 
annual glabrous herb ; branches many, 4-8 in. long, prostrate or ascending. 
Stem striate. Leaves small, 1/3-1 in. long, obovate or oblaiiceolate, obtuse, 
rarely retuse or emarginate, often rigid and apiculate, base cuneate, 
dotted beneath or not, secondary nerves 5-6 ; petiole 1/8-1/2 in. long. 
Flowers in axillary clusters only ; bracteoles shorter than the sepals, 
lanceolate-oblong, acuminate, membranous, midrib prominent ; sepals 3, 
1/20-1/15 in. long, shortly acuminate ; stamens 3. Fruit nearly as long as 
the sepals, ovoid, tapering upwards, much wrinkled, circumscissile or 
indehiscent ; styles 3, distinct. Seeds lenticular, black and shining. 

Abundant throughout India and Ceylon and in all tropical and sub-tropical 

2. Digera Forsk. 

Leaves alternate. Flowers bisexual, spicate ; bracteoles with crested 
scales in their axils ; sepals 5, oblong ; outer larger, 5-9-nerved ; inner 
1-4-nerved ; stamens 5, free ; anthers 2- celled ; staminodes ; ovary 
oblong, truncate ; style filiform ; stigmas 2, recurved ; ovule 1, erect. 
Nut subglobose. Seeds globose, erect. 

D. arvensis Forsk. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 717. Glabrous or very 
sparsely hairy annual herb, 6-24 in. high. Leaves very variable in shape, 
membranous; blade l/2-2| in. long, mostly ovate, acute or acuminate, 
entire or irregularly toothed ; base rounded or acute ; petiole up to 2 in. 
or rarely more long. Spikes 1-4 in. long, axillary ; bracts persistent 



Fig. 182, Aerua javanica, (a), (6) branches, x; Fig. 183, Achyranthes aspera, 
X i j Fig. 184, Pupalia lappacea, (a) flowering branch, x , (6) cluster of fruits, X 2 ; 


after the falling of the fruits ; flowers 1/8 in. long, pinkish. Seeds pale. 
(Fig. 178.) 

A weed of the rainy season. Flowers : August-September. 

3. Acrua Forsk. 

Woolly herbs or undershrubs. Leaves alternate or opposite. Flowers 
small, bisexual or polygamous, in solitary or panicled spikes ; sepals 4-5, 
membranous ; stamens 4-5, connate below with interposed linear stami- 
nodes into a cup ; anthers 2 -celled ; ovary ovoid or subglobose ; style 
long or short ; stigma capitellate or 2-fid ; ovule 1, pendulous from a long 
basal funicle. Utricle indehiscent or opening by a transverse lid. 

A, javanica Juss. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 727. A hoary-tomentose 
undershrub, 2-3 ft. high. Leaves alternate, 1-4 in. long, sessile or shortly 
petioled, linear to oblanceolate, sometimes almost oblong, acute, obtuse 
or retuse, flat or margins recurved. Spikes 1/2-3 in. long, sessile, globose 
or cylindric, densely woolly, panicled. Flowers dioecious, 1/10 in. long, 
enveloped in long wool ; perianth purple on the inside ; style elongate ; 
stigma 2-fid, lobes long. (Fig. 182.) 

In dry or waste places. Flowers : March-November. 

4. Pupalia Juss. 

Herbs or undershrubs bearing opposite leaves. Flowers in spikes of 
small clusters, all not perfect ; the imperfect reduced to awns bearing 
spreading hooked bristles ; sepals 5, green, acuminate, 3-5-nerved ; 
stamens 5, nearly free below ; anthers 2- celled ; stammodes ; ovary 
ovoid ; style slender ; stigma capitellate ; ovule 1, pendulous from a long 
basal funicle. Utricle ovoid, compressed, indehiscent, top areolate. 

P t lappacea Juss. ; M. Brit. Ind., IV ', p. 724. A pubescent or 
tomentose siraoolino undershrub. Leaves 2-4 in. long, shortly petioled, 
broadly ovate or elliptic, acute, sub-acute or acuminate, membranous, 
young densely tomentose, mature thinly hairy above but always sub- 
tomcntose beneath. Spikes terminal, 4-10 in. long, tomentose ; flower- 
clusters close or distant, flowering 1/4 in. long, fruiting 1/2 in. long ; 
bracts 1/8-1/6 in. long, ovate, aristate, villous, persistent after the fall of 
the flower- clusters, the outermost very broad, membranous ; bracteoles 
1/5 in. long, lanceolate, aristate, 3-nerved, densely white- woolly ; sterile 
flowers of 4-7 stellately spreading bristly awns, yellowish during fruiting. 
Utricle membranous. Seeds 1/10 in. long, ellipsoid, compressed, black 
and shining. (Fig. 184.) 

Flowers practically throughout the year. The sterile awned flowers help in 
the distribution of the fruits by animals. 


5. Achyranthes Linn. 

Herbs or undershrubs bearing opposite leaves. Flowers in slender 
spikes, soon deflexed ; bracts and bracteoles spinescent ; sepals 5, subulate- 
lanceolate, aristate, shining, at length hardened and strongly ribbed ; 
stamens 5, filaments connate at the base with as many squarish, toothed 
or fimbriate staminodes ; anthers 2 -celled ; ovary oblong, sub-compressed ; 
style filiform ; stigma capitellate ; ovule 1, pendulous from a long basal 
funicle. Utricle oblong or ovoid. Seed oblong. 

A* aspera Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 730. Annual or perennial 
herb, 1-3 ft. high, often woody below. Stems erect or sub-scandent, 
little or much branched. Leaves 1-5 in. long, elliptic, obovate or sub- 
orbicular, rounded at the apex or shortly suddenly acuminate, young 
tomentose on both the surfaces, mature usually glabrate on the upper 
surface and with close apprcsscd hairs on the under- surface ; petiole 
1/4-3/4 in. long. Spikes rigid, rapidly lengthening during fruiting to as 
much as 2 ft. ; flowers 1/6-1/4 in. long, greenish-white, numerous, sharply 
deflexed against the stout pubescent inflorescence axis ; bracts and 
bracteoles shorter than the flowers, ovate, acuminate, spinescent, per- 
sistent ; sepals ovate-oblong, acuminate, glaucous, margin scarious ; 
stamens 5 ; staminodes fimbriate. Utricle oblong, enclosed in the 
hardened perianth. Seeds brown. (Fig. 183.) 

A very common weed of waste places and road-sides. Flowers almost through- 
out the year, but more abundantly after the rains and during the first winter months. 

6. Alternanthera Forsk. 

Usually prostrate herbs with opposite leaves. Flowers small, white, 
axillary, often in clustered heads ; sepals unequal ; anterior and 2 posterior 
flattened ; 2 lateral innermost, concave ; stamens 2-5 ; filaments short, 
connate into a short cup with or without interposed staminodes ; anthers 
1 -celled ; ovary globose or ovoid ; stigma subsessile, capitellate ; ovule 1, 
pendulous from a long basal funicle. Utricle compressed, ovoid, orbicular 
or obcordatc. Seed lenticular. 

A, scssilts R. Br. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., IV, p. 731. A prostrate herb 
with many 6-18 in. long branches. Stem rooting at the nodes, young 
with 2 opposite grooves containing hairs, mature glabrous. Leaves 
mostly 1-3 in. long, shortly stalked, linear-oblong, lanceolate or elliptic, 
obtuse or sub-acute, rather fleshy, glabrous. Flowers in small axillary 
sessile 1/4-1/2 in. long heads, white, sessile ; bracts and bracteoles ovate, 
scarious ; sepals about 1/10 in. long, ovate, acute, 1 -nerved, glabrous 


rigid, scarious ; perfect stamens mostly 2 or 3 ; ovary broader than long, 
compressed. Utricle broadly obcordate. (Fig. 185.) 

Common in damp places. Flowers almost throughout the year. 


Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, 
exstipulate. Flowers monochlarnydeous, ininute, often green, bisexual 
or unisexual, mostly regular, bracteate or not ; bracteoles 2 or ; sepals 
green, 3-5, free or connate, imbricate, sometimes wanting in female 
flowers, often accrescent in fruit ; stamens usually as many as the sepals 
and opposite to them, hypogynous or inserted on the disk or on the 
calyx ; filaments free, rarely with intervening staminodes ; anthers 2-celled, 
incurved in bud, opening lengthwise ; disk present or ; ovary superior 
or immersed in the base of the calyx, with one solitary, basal or lateral, 
campylotropous ovule ; style 1, with capitate or 2-3-lobed stigma, or 
stigmas 2-5, or styles 2-3. Fruit an indehiscent nut, rarely opening by a 
transverse lid, often enclosed in the enlarged fleshy perianth. Seed 
solitary, mostly erect, with or without albumen ; embryo curved, annular 
or spirally coiled. Genera about 75, species nearly 500, widely dispersed 
throughout the world , chiefly in saline soils. 

Key to the genera. 

Embryo annular, albumen copious ; leaves flat. 
Flowers bisexual. 

Fruiting perianth without wings. Many leaves 

more than 1/2 inch long . . 1. Chenopodium. 

Fruiting perianth with transverse wings. 

Leaves mostly not more than 1/2 inch long 2. Kochia. 
Flowers monoecious . . . . 3. Atriplex. 

Embryo spirally coiled; albumen scanty or absent. 
Perianth without wings. Leaves nearly 

cylindrical . . . . . . 4. Sueda. 

Fruiting perianth transversely winged. Leaves 

subglobose . . . . . . 5. Salsola. 

1. Chenopodium Linn. 

Erect or prostrate herbs. Leaves alternate, entire, lobed or toothed. 
Flowers minute, 2-sexual, in cymose clusters ; perianth usually 5-lobed ; 
stamens 5 or fewer ; disk ; ovary free, depressed or compressed ; styles 




Fig. 186, Chenopodium album, xf; Fig. 187, C. murale, xf; Fig. 188,0. 
ambrosoides, X J ; Fig. 189, Atriplex crassi/olia, (a) vegetative shoot, X i, (b) flowering 
shoot, x J, (c) female flower, x J. 


2-3. Utricle membranous, included in the perianth. Seed horizontal or 
vertical ; testa crustaceous ; albumen floury ; embryo annular. 

Key to the species. 

A rather tall scentless herb ; seeds smooth and 

shining . . . . . . . . 1. (7. album. 

A rather foetid and low herb ; seeds wrinkled, dull 

black . . . . . . 2. C. murale. 

Strongly aromatic glandular herb . . 3. C. ambrosioides. 

1. C. album Linn. : Fl. Brit, hid., F, p. 3. An erect annual 
scentless herb, 1-10 ft. high, greenish or mealy- white. Stem angled, 
often striped green, red or purple. Leaves very variable in shape, 1-5 
in. long ; lower ovate or oblong, toothed or entire, angled or lobecl, margin 
more or less sinuate ; upper mostly narrow, entire ; petiole slender, 
often equalling or longer than the lamina. Flowers in cymose clusters, 
forming axillary spikes or long terminal panicles; sepals 1/16-1/12 in. 
long, oblong-lanceolate, keeled at the back, completely enclosing the 
thin membranous utricle : stigmas 2. Seeds rounded, compressed, with 
an acute margin, smooth, black, shining. Vern., Bdthu. (Fig. 186.) 

A very common weed, both in cultivated fields and waste places. Also some- 
times cultivated. The leaves are often oaten raw as salad or cooked as a pot- 
herb. Flowers practically at all times in the year. 

2. C* murale Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., F, p. 4. An annual herb, 
somewhat foetid, sub-glabrous, 1/2-1 ft. high ; branches erect or somewhat 
diffuse. Leaves 1-3 in. long, bright green, rhombic or deltoid ovate, 
acute, base cuneate, sides irregularly lobcd and more or less sharply 
toothed ; petiole long or short. Flower-clusters in lax or dense axillary 
divaricate cymes; sepals 1/16 in. long, oblong, obtusely keeled, incurved 
and closing over the fruit ; stigmas 2. Seeds rounded, compressed, 
sharply keeled, dull-black, wrinkled. (Fig. 187.) 

A winter weed of cultivated fields. 

3. C, ambrosioides Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., F, p. 4. An erect, 
strongly aromatic, ., \ i-i-l'ii ir-hairy herb, 2-4 ft. high ; aroma character- 
istic. Leaves up to 3 in. long below, decreasing in size higher up, 
lanceolate or oblong, obtuse or acute, lower coarsely toothed. Flower- 
clusters scattered on the numerous branchlets, or in slender, often 
paniculate spikes ; flowers green, minute, sessile ; sepals about 1/16 in. 
long, connate at the base, elliptic, acute, valvate, incurved ; two outer 
sepals glandular and closing over the fruit ; stigmas 3-5, very minute. 
Seeds brown, depressed globose. (Fig. 188.) 

Common near Shalamar garden. Flowers : February May. 



2. Kochia Roth. 

Usually villous undershrubs or herbs. Leaves alternate, sessile, 

narrow, entire. Flowers minute, 
usually bisexual, axillary, ebracteate ; 
perianth subglobose, 5-lobed, in- 
curved, closing over the fruit ; lobes 
transversely winged on the back ; 
stamens 5, exserted ; anthers large. 
Fruit a depressed membranous utri- 
cle ; style slender ; stigmas 2, fili- 
form. Seed orbicular, horizontal ; 
testa membranous ; albumen scanty ; 
embryo annular. 

K, indica Wight ; FL Brit. hid., 
V , p. 1 1 . A tall erect whitish annual, 
up to (> ft. high, branching from the 
base, covered with woolly hairs. 
Leaves 1/4-1 J in. long, elliptic or 
linear-lanceolate, acute, base taper- 
ing, hairy on both sides. Flowers 
minute, axillary, solitary or in pairs. 
Perianth about 1/10 in. across ; lobes 
incurved, mucronate, ultimately 
closing over the utricle and deve- 
loping broadly triangular- ovate scari- 
ous transverse wings ; ovary de- 
pressed-globose. Seed 1/10 in. in 
diam. (Fig. 190.) 

Abundant on the canal side ami in 
other waste places. 


Fig. 190, Kochia indica, x. 

3. Atriplex Linn. 

Usually mealy herbs or shrubs. Leaves mostly alternate. Flowers 
monoecious or dioecious. Male flowers in slender leafless interrupted 
spikes, ebracteate ; sepals 3-5, oblong, obtuse ; stamens 3-5. Female 
flowers 2-bracteate ; bracts flat, accrescent, dilated in fruit and forming 
a 2-valved envelope on the outside of the fruit ; perianth 0. Fruit a utricle 
enclosed by the greatly enlarged and hardened bracts ; stigmas 2. Seed 
erect, or inverse and suspended from the funicle, rarely horizontal ; 
testa various ; albumen floury ; embryo annular. 



A* crassifolia C. A. Mey. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., F, p. 6. An erect 
or diffuse much branched mealy annual herb, 1-5 ft. high ; stem and 
branches white. Leaves petiolate, oblong or ovate, 1-lf in. long, entire 
or sinuate-toothed, obtuse or acute, base cuneate, hastate or sagittate ; 
petiole slender. Flowers monoecious ; male clusters in long, slender, 
terminal, leafless, interrupted spikes ; female flower- clusters small, axillary, 
mostly on the lower part of the branches. Fruiting bracts ovate to 
orbicular, with cuneate to rounded base, each entire or toothed and 
each bearing a thick white convex smooth disk on its base. (Fig. 189.) 

Abundant in the area. Flowers after the rainy season. 

4. Sueda Forsk. 

Undershrubs. Leaves fleshy, terete, rarely somewhat flattened. 
Flowers minute, axillary, mostly 2-sexual, bracteate and 2-bracteolate ; 
calyx 5-fid or 5-partite, segments equal or unequal ; stamens 5, short. 
Utricle included, membranous or spongy ; stigmas 2-5, subulate or 

Fig. 191, Stteda fruticosa, x|. 


recurved. Seed erect, oblique or horizontal ; testa crustaceous ; albumen 
scanty or absent ; embryo piano-spiral. 

S, fruticosa ForsTc. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 13. A much branched 
undershrub, 2-4 ft. high ; branches pale, glabrous, often with quite 
prominent leaf scars. Leaves alternate, subsessile, 1/4-3/4 in. long, half- 
terete, fleshy ; floral leaves smaller, sessile. Flowers solitary or 2-3 
together, upper ones forming slender leafy spikes ; bracteoles membranous, 
1/20 in. long, ovate, acute, entire or denticulate ; calyx about 1/10 in. 
long, subglobose ; segments equal, thick, obtuse, incurved, concave. 
Utricle obovoid, membranous ; stigmas 2 or 3, short, subulate, recurved. 
Seed erect, obliquely ovoid, beaked ; testa black and shining. Vern., 
Lunak. (Fig. 190.) 

Common in saline soils. Tho bushes arc often gregarious. Sajjl is prepared 
from its ash. The plant is also used for feeding camels. Flowers often in the 
rains and in early winter months. 

5. Salsola Linn. 

Undershrubs. Leaves mostly alternate, sessile, small. Flowers 
axillary, solitary or clustered, 2-sexual 2-bracteolate ; sepals 4 or 5, 
transversely winged above the middle in the fruit and completely 
embracing it ; stamens 5 or fewer, usually hypogynous. Fruit an ovoid 
or subglobose, fleshy or membranous utricle ; stigmas 2-3. subulate or 
linear. Seed usually horizontal ; testa membranous ; albumen absent ; 
embryo spiral. 

S. fcetida Del. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 18. A densely branched hoary 
perennial undershrub up to 3 ft. high ; branches stout ; leaves crowded, 
minute, subglobose, fleshy ; the floral ones somewhat imbricate and 
forming short cylindric spikes. Flowers small ; bracteoles fleshy, 1/20 
in. long, broadly ovate or orbicular ; calyx 5- (rarely 4-) partite, not 
exceeding the bracteoles, silvery-white ; segments concave, oblong, 
obtuse ; wings on the fruiting perianth scarious, symmetrical, rounded, 
margins often overlapping ; stigmas large, recurved. 

Common in saline soils. Sajji is prepared from the ash. 

The following two plants belonging to this family are commonly grown in the 
fields as vegetables : 

1. Beta vulgaris Linn. This is the garden beet and yields the beet root 
(vern., Chukandar). The flowers of this differ from those of Chenopodium species 
in the base of the perianth being thickened and ovary being sunk in the fleshy disk 
and in the presence of both bract and bracteoles. 

2. Spinacea oleracea Linn. This is the spinach (vern., Palak). It differs 
from the genus Chenopodium in possessing polygamous flowers. 



Herbs or rarely shrubs with usually alternate entire leaves ; stipules 
usually sheathing the stem (ochreate), membranous or scarious. Flowers 
mostly small, regular, usually bisexual, clustered ; clusters axillary or 
spicate or panicled ; pedicel usually jointed ; perianth of 5 sepals arranged 
quincuntially or of 6 sepals in two whorls, green or coloured, free or 
connate, persistent ; stamens 5-8, rarely more or less ; disk annular, 
glandular or ; carpels 2 or 3, united ; ovary superior, 2-3-gonous ; styles 
2 or 3, free or connate ; ovule 1, basal, orthotropous. Fruit a small nut, 
usually enclosed in the persistent perianth, biconvex or trigonous. Seed 
erect ; testa membranous ; albumen floury, sometimes ruminate ; embryo 
curved or straight. Genera about 40, species about 800, mostly distributed 
in the north temperate countries, a few tropical, arctic or in the southern 

Key to the genera. 

Perianth -segments 5 ; stamens 5-8 . . 1. Polygonum. 

Perianth- segments 6, in two whorls of three each ; 

stamens 6 . . . . 2. Rumex. 

1. Polygonum Linn. 

Herbs with alternate, entire, rarely lobed leaves and tubular 
(ochreate), membranous stipules. Flowers 2-sexual, small or minute, 
clustered ; clusters axillary and sessile, or in spiciform, capitate or panicled 
racemes ; pedicel short, usually jointed under the perianth ; bracts and 
bracteoles membranous, ochreate ; disk glandular or ; sepals petaloid, 
mostly 5, 2 outer usually smallest ; stamens 5-8, perigynous ; ovary 
biconvex or 3-gonous ; styles 2 or 3, free or connate below ; stigmas 
usually capitellate. Nut biconvex or trigonous, included in the persistent 
perianth. Seed albuminous ; embryo lateral, radicle long ; cotyledons 
small, flat. 

Key to the species. 
Flowers axillary . . . . . . 1. P. iJ>i ,*'///'. 

Flowers in terminal spiciform racemes. 

Mouth of the ochrea eciliate ; styles mostly 

2 ; fruit biconvex . . 2. P. glabrum. 

Mouth of the ochrea with cilia exceeding the 

length of the tube ; styles 3 ; fruit trigonous 3. P. barbatum. 

1. P. plebcjum Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 27. An annual or 
perennial, smooth or somewhat rough, diffusely or densely branched, 
prostrate herb, often with a woody root-stock. Stems many from the 




Fig. 192, Polygonum barbatum, x; Fig. 193, P. glabrum, x; Fig. 194, 
P. pkbeium, X 1J; Fig. 195, Rum-ex dentatus, (a) leaf, X J, (6) flowering branch, X J, 
(c) fruit, x 3. 

root, up to 1| ft. long, terete, grooved ; lower internodes often as long 
as the leaves or longer, upper shorter, often very short. Leaves 1/6-2/3 in. 
Jong, sessile or shortly stalked, linear, linear-oblong, or the shorter 


ones sometimes obovate, acute or obtuse ; stipules hyaline, lacerate to 
the middle and fimbriate, nerves rather obscure, excurrent. Flowers 
axillary, solitary, or in clusters of 2-4, subsessile ; perianth leaves about 
1/10 in. long, pink, with green midrib, obtuse or the two outer ones 
acute ; styles 3. Nut shortly trigonous, brown, smooth and shining, 
(Fig. 194.) 

A common weed of cultivated and waste grounds ; abundant in drying up 
ponds and other damp localities. Flowers can be seen throughout the year, but 
these are most about from February to June. 

The species is very variable. In the Flora of British India on the basis of the 
length of the internode, length and shape of the leaves, degree or oxsertion of the 
flower, acutenoss of the perianth-leaves, etc., ten varieties are recognized, but all 
these pass insensibly into one another. 

2. P. glabrum Wittd. ; FL Brit. Ind., V, p. 34. A tall erect glabrous 
plant, 2-5 ft. high. Stem stout, not much branched, usually tinged with 
red. Leaves 4-9 in. long, lanceolate, acuminate, gradually narrowing at 
the base, usually gland-dotted ; ochrea 1-H in. long, truncate, eciliate 
at the mouth. Flowers white or rosy, in terminal panicled racemes 2-4 
in. long ; peduncles up to 1 in. long, glabrous ; bracts 1/6 in. long, truncate 
or rounded, glabrous or rarely shortly ciliate ; perianth-segment 1/8-1/4 in. 
long, ovate-oblong, obtuse, eglandular ; stamens 6-8 ; styles 2, rarely 3, 
connate below. Nut about 1/8 in. long, biconvex, rarely trigonous, brown- 
black. (Fig. 193.) 

Occurs on the banks of Chhota Ravi. Flowers : May-October (?). 

3. P* barbatum Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., V , p. 37. An annual 
herb, 1J-3 ft. high, erect or decumbent below. Stem glabrous or nearly 
so. Leaves 2-7 in. long, sessile or subsessile, linear-lanceolate or 
lanceolate, acuminate or acute, tapering or sometimes rounded at the 
base, margin and midrib beneath shortly ciliate ; ochrea with cilia at the 
mouth exceeding the length of the tube, strigose. Flowers white, in 
slender spiciform racemes 2-4 in. long ; peduncles glabrous or nearly so ; 
bracts crowded, glabrous or sparingly and shortly ciliate at the margin ; 
perianth leaves 1/10 in. long, eglandular ; stamens 5-8 ; styles always 3, 
connate below. Nuts 1/12 in. long, trigonous. (Fig. 192.) 

Common near water. 

2. Rumex Linn. 

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves radical and alternate ; stipules 
often disappearing with age. Flowers in axillary clusters or in whorls 
arranged in simple or panicled racemes ; sepals 6, 3 outer unchanged, 3 
inner enlarging in fruit, entire or toothed ; stamens 6, in three pairs ; 
ovary 3-gonous ; styles 3 ; stigmas fimbriate. Nut included in the usually 


enlarged inner sepals, angles acute. Embryo lateral, nearly straight ; 
cotyledons linear or oblong. 

R. dentatus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 59. An erect annual, 
1-3 ft. high. Stem grooved, glabrous. Leaves radical and alternate, 
glabrous ; radical up to 6 in. long or longer ; upper smaller, mostly 2-4 in. 
long ; all oblong, obtuse, rounded or cordate at the base, or the upper 
ones oblanceolate or linear ; margin often crisped ; petiole 1/2-3 in. long. 
Flowers arranged in leafy or leafless, close or distant whorls on simple 
or panicled racemes, bisexual ; pedicel about 1/5 in. long, with articulation 
near the base. Fruiting sepals nearly as long as the pedicel, ovate or 
oblong-ovate, acute or obtuse, with an oblong smooth tubercle on the 
back and broad densely reticulate and irregularly toothed wings ; 
teeth many, short, stout, straight, without hooks ; fruit about 1/10 in. 
long, sharply trigonous. (Fig. 195.) 

A common wood during winter, especially near damp places. In such localities 
the leaves are much larger than on plants growing in dry situations. 

Muehlenbeckia ptatyclados Meissn. (Cocolobtt platydada F. Muoll.). This is 
an interesting shrub, with the branches much flattened and converted into phyllo- 
clades. The leaves are produced only during the moist season. The greenish white 
flowers are borne m small clusters at the nodes. It us a native of Solomon Islands, 
but is frequently cultivated in the gardens. 

Antigonon leptopus Hook. <{ Am., a native of Mexico, is another member 
of the Polygonacea 1 commonly grow n locally. It is a beautiful climber producing 
clusterH of pink or \\hito flowers during the rainy and cold seasons. 


Herbs, shrubs or trees, often with milky juice. Leaves alternate, 
sometimes opposite, or opposite above and alternate below, mostly 
simple, rarely divided or compound ; stipules usually small, sometimes 
replaced by glands or thorns. Inflorescence various, usually complex ; 
first branching often racemose and subsequent ones cymose, or all 
cymose ; in Euphorbia the partial inflorescence (called cyathium) is so 
condensed as to give the appearance of single flower, consisting of 
a perianth-like involucre and many male flowers of single naked stamens 
surrounding a solitary female flower consisting of a naked pistil. Flowers 
usually small, often minute, always unisexual, monoecious or dioecious, 
regular, hypogynous ; perianth mostly of one whorl, green or rarely 
petaloid, rarely double, with 4-5 small petals, often wanting in one or 
both sexes : segments valvate or imbricate ; disk entire or of separate 
glands or ; stamens 1-rnany, free or connate ; anthers 2-celled, opening 
lengthwise, transversely or by pores ; gynsecium superior, mostly of 3 
more or less united carpels ; ovary trilocular, ovules 1-2 in each cell, 


anatropous, pendulous from the inner angle of the cell, with ventral 
raphe ; micropyle usually covered by a caruncle ; styles as many as the 
carpels, free or connate, entire or divided ; stigmatie surface usually on 
the inner face of the styles or style-arms. Fruit almost invariably a 
schizocarp-capsule splitting into three 2-valved 1-2-seeded cocci, rarely 
a dnipe or nut. Seeds with or without an aril, mostly albuminous ; 
embryo straight, with flat cotyledons. Oenera about 220, species nearly 
4,000, throughout the world, but chiefly tropical and absent from the arctic 

Key to the genera. 

Partial inflorescences cyathiums . . . . 1 . Euphorbia. 

Inflorescence not a cyathiuin. 

Leaves small, simple, entire, distichous . . 2. Phyllanthus. 

Leaves not distichous. 

Petals present in both sexes ; flowers in 
axillary bracteate racemes. Stella tely 
tomentose herbs with sinuate- toothed or 
lobed leaves . . . . . . 3. Chrozophora. 

Petals absent ; flowers in terminal sub- 
panicled racemes. A tree-like glabrous 
herb with palmately serrate-lobed leaves . . 4. JRicinus. 

1. Euphorbia Linn. 

Herbs or shrubs with copious milky juice. Stems slender and leafy 
or tall, thick and fleshy. Leaves alternate or opposite. Flowers monoe- 
cious ; inflorescence a cyathium of many male and one female flowers in 
a small 4-5 lobed turbinate or campanulate perianth-like involucre ; 
lobes with thick glands at the sinuses ; glands often with a petal-like 
spreading white or coloured limb. Male flowers a pedi celled stamen 
without any perianth ; anther-cells usually globose. Fern, flowers a 
solitary, pedicelled, 3-celied ovary in the centre of the involucre, also 
without perianth ; ovule one in each cell ; styles 3, free or connate, simple 
or 2-fid. Fruit a capsule of three 2-valved cocci, separating elastically 
from the centre and dehiscing ventrally or both ventrally and 
dorsally. Seeds albuminous ; embryo with broad and flat cotyledons. 

Key to the species. 

A cactus-like shrub or small tree with thick fleshy 

prickly largely leafless branches . . 1. E. Royleana. 

Herbs with slender throughout leafy stems. 

Leaves all alternate or alternate below and 
whorled or opposite above. Plants erect. 



Involucre with 4 glands. 

Involucral glands reniform ; leaves spa- 

thulate or obovate 
Involucral glands semi-lunate ; leaves 

linear or linear-lanceolate 
Involucre mostly with a single large gland . . 
Leaves opposite. 

Leaves more than 1/2 inch long. 

Glands of the involucre with a prominent 

membranous petaloid limb 
Glands of the involucre with a narrow 

or without a limb 

Leaves less than 1/2 inch long 1 ; prostrate 
herbs. Capsules hairy. 

Cocci keeled, seeds with 4 G shallow or 

deep transverse wrinkles. 
Cocci pubescent all over ; seeds with 
faint wrinkles ; leaves with obscure 

2. E. helioscopia. 




Cocci ciliate on the keels only ; seeds 
with deep wrinkles ; leaves with 
three prominent nerves . . 8. 

Cocci rounded at the back, hirsute ; seeds 

faintly pitted ; leaves quite entire 9. 
Capsules glabrous. 

Leaves as long as broad ; seeds smooth 10. 
Leaves much longer than broad ; seeds 
obscurely transversely wrinkled 11. 

E. dracunculoidet 
E. geniculata. 

E. hypericifolia. 
E. pihilifera. 

1 . E. thy mi folia. 

E. prostrata. 
E. granulata. 
E . m icrophylla . 
E. Clarke ana. 

1. E. Royleana Boiss. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 257. An erec 
glabrous fleshy cactus-like shrub up to 15 ft. high ; stem sometimes u] 
to 1 ft. or more thick ; branches straight, ascending, with 5-7 broa< 
flat faces and as many thick obtuse undulate wings. Leaves few, inserter 
on the wings of the branches, alternate, 3-6 in. long, sessile, spathulate 
entire, rounded or mucronate, thick and fleshy, soon falling off ; stipule 
spiny, persistent on the wings of the branches. Involucres 1/2 in. ii 
diameter, greenish yellow, arranged in small subsessile axillary cymes o 
3 or more flowers ; lobes 4, spathulate, fimbriato ; glands rounded 
brownish ; styles long, free nearly to the base. Capsule nearly 3/4 in 
across, trigonous, glabrous, on a stalk up to 1/2 in. long ; cocci compressed 
(Fig. 196.) 

Commonly planted in hedges ; flowers during summer. New leaves mostl 
appear during the rainy season. 


2. E* helioscopia Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., 7, p. 262. A glabrous 
erect annual herb, 1/2-2 ft. tall. Stem little or unbranched below, 
copiously 5-, 3- and 2-parously cymosely branched above ; branches 
umbellate, divaricate. Leaves alternate on the main stem, in, whorls of 
5, 3 or 2 above, 1/2-2 in. long, shortly stalked, spathulate or obovate, 
glabrous or sparsely hairy, rounded at the apex, finely toothed. Involucres 
in umbellate cymes, 1/10 in. across, turbinate, 4-toothed ; glands 4, 
yellow, reniform, entire ; styles free to the base. Capsule 1/8 in. in 
diameter, globose, smooth ; cocci rounded at the back. Seeds turgidly 
oblong or subglobose, deeply reticulately pitted. (Fig. 197.) 

A common weed of gardens during winter. Extends in the western Himalayas 
up to 8,000 feet. Flowers from January onwards. 

3. E, dracunculoides Lamk. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 262. A 
glabrous annual, 0-18 in. high. Stems many from the base, erect, 
cymosely sub-umbellately branched above. Leaves lower alternate, 
1-3 in. long, sessile, linear or linear- lanceolate, acute or subacute ; floral 
leaves opposite or whorled, shorter, broader. Involucres solitary, 
nearly sessile, 1/10 in. across, campanulate or turbinate, glabrous outside, 
hairy within ; lobes ovate, ciliate ; glands semi-lunate ; styles short, free, 
shortly 2-fid. Capsule 1 /8- 1 /6 in. in diameter, smooth ; cocci with a median 
dorsal nerve, but scarcely keeled. Seeds oblong, with a whitish leprous 
tuberculate testa. (Fig. 198.) 

A weed of cultivated fields. Flowers : December-April. 

4. E. gcniculata Orteg. ; Nov. PL Hort. Matr. Dec. 1797, p. 18. 
An annual nerb, 1-3 ft. high ; intemodes below the inflorescence usually 
very long. Leaves alternate below, opposite above, 2-4 in. long, oblong- 
ovate or oblong-lanceolate, crenulate or sub-entire ; stipules glandular ; 
floral leaves narrower, often pale near the base. Involucres in dense 
corymbose cymes, 1/10 in. broad at the flowering time, campanulate ; 
gland mostly ] , exceptionally 2 or 3, long-stalked, with expanded disciform 
hollow top ; styles connate below, 2-fid. Capsule 1/6-1/5 in. across, 
smooth. Seeds dark-grey. (Fig. 200.) 

This species is a native of tropical America, but has now established itself 
as a weed of cultivated fields or gardens throughout India. Flowers practically 
throughout the year. 

5. E, hypericifolia Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., V, p. 249. An erect or 
spreading annual, herbaceous or somewhat woody below ; branches 1/2-2 
ft. long, glabrous or sparsely pubescent ; nodes often swollen. Leaves 
opposite, 1/3-1 \ in. long, 1/4-3/4 in. broad, shortly petioled, elliptic-oblong, 
obtuse or rounded, unequal-sided at the base, serrulate ; stipules minute, 
subulate. Involucres minute, cup-shaped, many or a few in axillary 
pedunculate cymes, 1/4-1/2 in. in diameter ; peduncles mostly 1/4-3/4 in. 



Fig. 196, Euphorbia Royleana, (a) floworing branch X i, (6) leaf, X , (c) fruit, 
X 3 ; Fig. 197, E. heliscopia, (a) flowering shoot, x , (6) cyathium, X 2 ; Fig. 198, 
E. dracunculoide*, (a) flowering shoot, x $, (6) oyathium, x 2 ; Fig. 199, E. 
hypericifolia, (a) flowering branch, x }, (6) cyathium, X 4. 


long, with a pair of leaves just below the involucres ; lobes of the involucre 
narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, longer than the glands ; glands 4-5, 
shortly stipitate, rounded or transversely elliptic, green, bordered by a 
minute white or pink petaloid limb ; styles short, deeply 2-fid. Capsule 
1/12 in. across, glabrous or pubescent. Seeds ellipsoid, reddish brown, 
somewhat shining, smooth or with shallow transverse pits. (Fig. 199.) 
In waste places. Flowers throughout the year. 

6. E. pilulifcra Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 250. Erect or 
ascending annual herb, 1/2-2 ft. high (or long), hispid with long crisped 
hairs. Main stem terete ; branches often 4-angled. Leaves opposite, 
3/4 If in. by 1/33/4 in., shortly petioled or subsessile, obliquely oblong- 
lanceolate, acute, toothed or serrulate, dark green above, pale beneath ; 
stipules minute, linear, caducous ; floral leaves minute. Involucres 
numerous, 1/25 in. long, campanulate, pubescent, crowded hi axillary 
and terminal dense pedunculate or sessile globose cymes ; lobes subulate ; 
glands 4, shortly stipitate, red- tipped, without or with a very narrow 
limb ; styles bifid to the base. Capsule 1/20 in. across, hairy ; cocci 
compressed, keeled ; seeds pale-brown, ovoid, acutely angled, faintly 
transversely wrinkled. (Fig. 201.) 

A very common weed in all places. Flowers and fruits all the year round. 

7. E, thymifolia Burm. ; FL Brit. Ind., V, p. 252. A more or 
less hispidly pubescent, prostrate, generally pale green, annual herb ; 
branches many, divaricate, 4-12 in. long, spreading flat on the ground. 
Stems pale copper. Leaves opposite, spreading, 1/8-1/4 in. long, ovate or 
oblong, obtuse, obliquely truncate or subcordate at the base, crenulate 
in the upper part, rather thick, glabrous or pubescent beneath ; nerves 
obscure ; petiole minute, often pinkish ; stipules lateral, subulate, fimbriate. 
Involucres 1-3 in the axil of a leaf, especially on crowded terminal 
branchlets, green or pinkish, 1/25 in. long, turbinate, pubescent ; lobes 
short, ciliate ; glands minute, stipitate, deep red, with a minute pinkish 
or without a limb. Capsule about 1/25 in. across, shortly stalked, erect, 
pubescent all over ; cocci obtusely keeled. Seeds 4-angled, with 5-6 
shallow transverse wrinkles. 

There is no specimen of this in the Panjab University Herbarium > but it is 
likely to occur within the area. 

8. E. prostrata Ait. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 266. Habit similar to 
that of the preceding species, but plants dark green. Stem glabrous or 
pubescent, pinkish. Leaves opposite, distichous, 1/8-1/3 in. long, shortly 
petioled, elliptic or obovate, obtuse, obliquely rounded at the base, 
entire, slightly wavy or obscurely crenulate, glabrous or somewhat 
puberulous beneath ; under- surface pinkish ; basal nerves 3, generally 






Fig. 200, Euphorbia geniculata, (a) flowering branch, X f , (6) young cyathium, 
X3, (c) fruiting cyathium, x3; Fig. 201, E. pttulifera, (a) flowering branch, Xj, 
(b) cyathium, x 6 ; Fig. 202, E. prostrata, (a) plant, X |, (b) cyathium, X 4 ; Fig. 203, 
Phyllanthus Niruri, (a) small plant, x J, (6) flowering twig, X 1, (c) female flower, 
X 3, (d) male flower, x 6, (e) stamens, x 9. 


distinct ; stipules interpetiolar, triangular. Involucres subsolitary, 
axillary, about 1/30 in. long, on stalks as long or longer, campanulate, 
pinkish or red ; limb of the glands very small or obsolete. Capsule about 
1/20 in. across ; cocci prominently keeled and ciliate on the keels. Seeds 
4-angled, with 4-6 deep transverse wrinkles. (Fig. 202.) 

This is the commonest species out of the small-leaved forms of the genus in 
the area of this flora. Flowers throughout the year. 

9. E* granulata Forsk. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 252. A hispidly- 
villous herb, with many prostrate, very brittle, 3-8 in. long branches 
from the root ; root in old plants crowned by a short root-stock. Leaves 
opposite, very small, 1/10-1/8 in. long, minutely petioled, obovate, oblong- 
obovate or orbicular, rounded or retuse at the apex, unequal-sided at the 
base, entire, villous on both surfaces ; stipules minute, ciliolate. 
Involucres axillary and on short leafy branchlets, subsolitary, subsessile, 
turbinate, hairy ; lobes short, oblong, obtuse, ciliate ; glands usually 
without a limb ; styles very short, 2-fid. Capsule 1/20 in. across ; cocci 
rounded at the back, without a keel, hirsute. Seeds faintly pitted. 

It is not clear if this species is annual or perennial. Boissier describes it as 
annual, but Hooker from the presence of a root -stock in the old plants thinks it to 
be certainly perennial. 

10. E, microphylla Heyne. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 252. Glabrous 
or sparsely hairy annual. Stems many, 3-12 in. long, slender, prostrate, 
spreading in a rosette from the root, much distichously branched, whitish, 
brittle. Leaves opposite, 1/6-1/4 in. long, nearly as broad, obliquely oblong, 
rounded-oblong or subquadrate, rounded or retuse, entire or more or 
less toothed towards the apex, coriaceous; stipules minute, iri,i'i-j;il ir. 
2-partite or laciniately toothed. Involucres 1/30 in. across, sub-solitary 
axillary, very numerous, throughout the length of the branches, cam- 
panulate, shortly stalked ; bracts at the base of the involucral 
stalks subulate ; lobes of the involucre triangular, acute, nearly entire ; 
glands very shortly stipitate ; limb very small, sinuately-lobed ; styles 
very short, 2-fid. Capsule about 1/15 in. across, glabrous ; cocci obtusely 
keeled. Seeds smooth, bluish white, mucose when moistened. 

Weed of cultivated fields and waste places. Flowers throughout the year. 

11. E. Clarfceana Hook.f. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 253. A glabrous, 
annual herb ; branches many, crowded from the root, divaricate, prostrate, 
spreading, or rarely suberect. Stem pale, filiform, with a few scattered 
hairs towards the tip. Leaves opposite, mostly 1/6-1/2 in. long, 1/12-1/6 in. 
broad, nearly sessile, often crowded towards the end of short branchlets, 
linear-oblong, entire or toothed at the rounded tip, obliquely rounded or 
somewhat auricled towards one side at the base ; stipules setaceous 


from a broad toothed base. Involucres axillary, 1/30 in. across, chiefly 
towards the apex of lateral branches, campanulate, glabrous; lobes 
lanceolate, toothed, longer than the glands ; limb of the glands obsolete 
or nearly so ; styles very short. Capsule 1/18 in. across, quite glabrous ; 
cocci keeled. Seeds pale-brown, acutely 4-angled, obscurely transversely 

Common in cultivated fields. 

The following species of Euphorbia are commonly grown in the local gardens : 

1. E. pulcherrima Willd. (Poinsettia pulcherrima R. Grab.). This is an 
unarmed shrub. The upper floral loaves are brightly coloured, crimson or yellow, 
iah white. It is for the sake of these that it is cultivated in gardens under the 
popular name of Poinsettia. Propagation can be easily carried on by cuttings. 
It is a native of Mexico. Flowers during winter. 

2. E. splendcns Boj. It is a prickly undershrub, a native of Madagascar 
with numerous long straight sharp thorns, alternate, spathulate, mucronate, 
leaves and scarlet showy involucres in dichotomous cymes. Flowers during the 
cold season. 

2. Phyllanthus Linn. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, distichous, quite entire. 
Flowers small, monoecious, usually in axillary clusters, apetalous. Male 
flower : Sepals 4-6, imbricate, in 2 series ; disk glandular or ; stamens 3-5 
in the centre of the flower ; filaments free or connate ; anthers 2-celled, 
oblong or didymous, rarely reniform, cells parallel or diverging, dehiscence 
extrorse, vertical or transverse by the confluence of the cells ; pistillode 0. 
Female flower : Sepals as in male flowers ; disk glandular ; ovary mostly 
3- celled ; styles free or connate, usually 2 -fid, with slender arms ; ovules 
2 in each cell. Fruit of 3 or rarely more, crustaceous or coriaceous, rarely 
bony, 2-valved cocci, with or without a separable coriaceous, rarely fleshy, 
epicarp. Seeds 3-gonous, without a strophiole ; testa crustaceous ; 
albumen fleshy ; cotyledons flat or flexuous. 

P. Niruri Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 298. An erect herb, 1/2-2 ft. 
high, glabrous, often branching from the base. Leaves 1/4-1/2 in. long, 
subsessile, elliptic-oblong, rounded, obtuse or rarely acute, pale-green, 
glaucous beneath ; nerves few, obscure ; stipules lanceolate-subulate. 
Flowers numerous, axillary, minute. Male flowers solitary or 2-3 together, 
almost sessile ; sepals 5-6, 1/40 in. long, orbicular ; disk of minute glands ; 
anthers 3, sessile on a short column, didymous, reniform. Female flowers 
solitary, shortly pedicellate ; sepals 5-6, 1/20 in. long, oblong, subacute, 
with broad white margins, not <Mi1ur<jin< in fruit, spreading, not reflexed ; 
styles very short, free, 2-lobed. Capsule 1/16-1/12 in. across, depressed- 


globose, smooth hardly lobed, thinly crustaceous. Seeds trigonous, 
with equal parallel slender ribs and faint transverse striae. (Fig. 203.) 

A very common annual weed, especially in somewhat damp places. 

P. Embelica Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 289. It is a moderate -sized deciduous 
tree, which is often grown in the gardens for the sake of its fruit. This is about 
1/2-1 in. in diameter, fleshy, and contains 3 bony 2-valved cocci. Styles are connate 
below and are twice 2-fid. The fruit is at first acid, but afterwards becomes sweet 
to taste. It is commonly pickled or made into jam. It is much used in Indian 
medicine, and along with bark and leaves in dyeing and tanning. Vern., amid 
or aold. Flowers : April-June. 

3. Chrozophora Neck. 

Diffuse, densely hispid or stellately tomentose herbs or undershrubs. 
Leaves alternate, sinuate-toothed or lobed, wavy or plaited, 2-glandular 
at the base. Flowers in sessile axillary bracteate racemes, monoecious ; 
bracts 1-fid. ; males crowded in the upper part of the raceme ; females 
solitary, pedicelled. Male flower : Calyx globose or ovoid, splitting into 5 
valvate segments ; petals 5, short ; disk obscure ; stamens 5-15 ; filaments 
connate below in one or more whorls ; anthers oblong, cells contiguous, 
parallel ; pistillode 0. Female flower : Sepals narrow ; petals narrow or ; 
disk-glands short, broad ; ovary 3-celled ; styles erect or spreading, 
2-fid ; ovule 1 in each cell. Capsule of 3 hispid, tomentose or scaly, 
almost fleshy, 2-valved cocci. Seeds without a strophiole ; testa shining ; 
albumen fleshy ; cotyledons broad, flat. 

Key to the species. 

Ovary and capsule with stellate tomentum and 
silvery scales. 

A prostrate herb ; stamens about 15 in two 

whorls . . . . ..l.C. tinctoria. 

An erect undershrub ; stamens 5 2. C. obliqua. 

Ovary and capsule with stellate tomentum but 
without silvery scales. 

Erect herb ; leaves pale, up to 4 in. long ; 

sepals of female flowers triangular . . 3. C. plicata. 

A prostrate herb ; leaves dark-brown, less 
than 1| in. long ; sepals of female flowers 
linear . . . . . . . . 4. C. prostrata. 

1. C. tinctoria A. Juss, ; FL Brit. Ind., V, p. 408. An annual 
prostrate herb, softly stellately tomentose in all parts ; branches up to 
1 ft. long. Leaves l-2 in. long, from ovate and sinuate-toothed or 
entire to rounded and obtusely lobed, thick, softly tomentose on both 



surfaces ; petiole 1/2-4 in. long. Racemes short, lengthening in fruit. 
Male flowers numerous ; stamens mostly about 15 in 2 whorls ; pedicel of 
female flowers at length decurved and up to 3 in. long in fruit. Capsule 
1/3 in. across ; ovaries and capsules stellately tomentose and clothed with 
silvery scales. (Fig. 204.) 

Common on the Ravi bank and at other places. Flowers : MarchMay. 


Fig. 204, Chrozophora tinctoria, x J ; Fig. 205, Ricinus communis, 
(a) twig bearing male flowers, X J, (6) female flowers, X J. 

2. C. obliqua A. Juss. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., 7, p. 409. An erect or 
suberect undershrub, much branched, thickly stellately tomentose. 


Leaves 1-2 in. long, ovate, sinuate-toothed ; petiole nearly as long or 
longer ; stamens 5 ; ovaries and capsules stellately tomentose and with 
silvery scales. 

This has been collected from Ferozepore by Thomson and may occur near 

3. C plicata A. Juss. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 409. An erect hoary 
annual up to 2 ft. high ; lower part usually without branches, sparingly 
branched above. Leaves 2-5 in. long, ovate to orbicular, entire or sinuate- 
toothed, often obscurely 3-lobed, thick, pale-green, stellately hairy on 
both surfaces, scabrid on the upper surface ; petiole nearly equalling the 
blade. Racemes many-flowered ; stamens about 15 in two whorls ; 
sepals of female flowers triangular. Capsules 1/3 in. across, densely 
stellate hairy, but without silvery scales ; fruiting pedicels often 2-3 in. 

Occurs throughout India, but appears to be not abundant near Lahore and 
there are no specimens in the Panjab University Herbarium. 

4. C, prostrata Dalz. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 410. A prostrate 
stellately woolly herb, diffusely branched from the base. Leaves 1/2-1 J 
in. long and nearly as broad, broadly ovate or orbicular, deeply bullate, 
often dark-brown, finely pubescent above, densely stellate- woolly beneath. 
Racemes few-flowered ; stamens about 15 in two whorls ; sepals of the 
female flowers linear. Capsule 1/4 in. across, stellately woolly but without 
silvery scales ; its pedicel never greatly lengthening. 

Hooker includes this under C. plicata, but more probably it is a distinct species. 
There are no specimens in the Panjab University Herbarium, but it was collected 
by Thomson from Lahore. 

4. Ricinus Linn. 

A tall glabrous annual or sometimes a small perennial tree. Leaves 
alternate, broad, palmately 7-many-lobed, gland-serrate. Flowers 
large, in terminal sub-panicled erect racemes, monoecious, apetalous, 
upper male, lower female ; disk 0. Male fl. : Calyx membranous, 
splitting into 3-5 valvate segments ; stamens very many ; filaments 
connate, much branching ; anther-cells distinct, distant, subglobose, 
divergent ; pistillode 0. Female fl. : Calyx spathaceous, caducous ; 
ovary 3-celled ; styles short or long, spreading, often very large, entire, 
2-fid or 2-partite, feathery or papillose ; ovule 1 in each cell. Capsule of 
three 2-valved cocci. Seeds oblong, smooth ; testa crustaceous ; albumen 
fleshy ; cotyledons broad, flat. (Fig. 205.) 

' R, communis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 457. Leaves 6-18 in. 
in diameter, green or reddish ; petioles 4-12 in. long. Male flowers 1/2 in. 
across ; female calyx nearly as long ; styles often deeply coloured. Capsule 


1/2-1 in. in diameter, globose-oblong, smooth or echinate. Seeds mottled, 
with whitish caruncle. Vern., Arand. (Fig. 205.) 
This is the castor-oil plant. 


Trees, shrubs or herbs, with usually alternate, rarely opposite, simple 
or palmately divided, stipulate leaves. Flowers small, inconspicuous, 
usually unisexual, monoecious or dioecious, rarely bisexual, in cymes or 
cymose spikes, panicles or clusters, or crowded on the surface of a flat, 
concave or globose fleshy receptacle or (in Ficus) on the inner surface of 
a closed globose receptacle ; bracts and bracteoles variable ; perianth 
equally or unequally toothed, lobed or partite ; stamens generally as many 
as and opposite to the perianth segments, sometimes less ; anthers 
2 -celled ; rudimentary pistil in male flowers sometimes present ; ovary 
superior, 1- celled ; ovule solitary, erect or pendulous ; style often excentric, 
simple or 2-fid, sometimes very short or absent. Fruit various, a simple 
drupe, samara or more generally an achene, or compound and consisting 
of a confluent mass of perianths and pericarps and in which the 
receptacle also sometimes takes part (as in Ficus). Seeds albuminous 
or exalbuminous ; embryo various. A large family, genera about 110, 
species nearly 1,500, chiefly tropical or sub-tropical. 

Key to the genera. 

Leaves palmately divided to the base, segments 

lanceolate . . . . 1. Cannabis. 

Leaves not as above. 

Flowers in spikes . . . . 2. Morus. 

Flowers in axillary clusters . . 3. Pouzolzia. 

Flowers on the inner wall of globose closed 

fleshy receptacles . . . . 4. Ficus. 

1. Cannabis Tournef. 

A tall erect herb. Leaves alternate or the lower opposite, upper 
1-3- lower 5-11 -partite ; segments lanceolate, serrate ; stipules free. 
Flowers small, generally dioecious ; male flowers clustered in short axillary 
paniculate cymes ; sepals 5, imbricate ; stamens 5, erect in bud ; pistillode 
; female flowers in axillary racemes ; bracts convolute, leafy ; perianth 
hyaline, embracing the ovary or ; ovary sessile ; style central, arms 2, 
filiform, caducous ; ovule pendulous. Fruit a compressed, crustaceous 
achene. Seed flattened ; albumen on one side, fleshy ; embryo curved ; 
cotyledons broad, thick, subequal ; radicle upcurved, incumbent. 


C sativa Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., F, p. 487. Annual, very rarely 
perennial, 4-8 ft. high ; leaves 4-8 in. long. Flowers green. Hemp ; 
Vern., bhang. (Fig. 206.) 

Common on the Ravi side. The plants come out during winter and flower 
mostly from February to May. It is a native of Central Asia and W. India, but 
is now widely cultivated in many other tropical and temperate countries. 

A valuable fibre is obtained from the inner bark of the stem, which is used in 
making ropes, etc. In America the plant is largely cultivated for this purpose. 
In India the plant is largely grown for the sake of the narcotic resin which exudes 
from it and which is used both as a drug and as a stimulant like opium. There 
are three chief forms of the drug : Bhang consists of the mature dried leaves with 
their resinous deposit, Ganja of female flowering tops with rosin on them packed 
together and Charas is the resin knocked off from the twigs. The last comes mostly 
from Central Asia. The first is usually made into a liquor ; the second and third 
are usually smoked. In small doses those produce a pleasant excitement, but large 
doses produce delirium and catalepsy. The sale of these drugs is kept in chock 
by a licensing system. 

2. Morus Linn. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, entire, toothed or lobed ; basal 
nerves 3 ; stipules small, lateral, lanceolate, caducous or deciduous. 
Flowers mono- or dioecious ; male flowers in catkins ; sepals 4, imbricate ; 
stamens 4, inflexed in bud ; pistillode turbinate ; female flowers in pseudo- 
spikes ; sepals 4, decussate, imbricate, accrescent and succulent in fruit ; 
ovary included, straight, 1 -celled ; style central, 2-partite or 2-fid ; ovule 
pendulous. Fruit a spike or head of many achenes enclosed in the 
succulent perianths, the whole forming a composite berry (sorosis). 
Seed subglobose ; albumen fleshy ; embryo incurved ; cotyledons oblong, 
equal ; radicle ascending, incumbent. 

1. M* alba Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., F, p. 492. A medium-sized 
deciduous tree ; young parts, petioles and under-surface of the leaves 
more or less pubescent. Leaves mostly 2-3 in. long, ovate, acute or 
shortly acuminate, serrate or crenate-serrate, often 3-lobed ; base truncate 
or cordate ; petiole 3/4-1 in. long. Flowers greenish ; male and female 
usually on different branches, occasionally on different trees ; male 
catkins 1/2-lf in. long, rather lax, slightly pubescent ; female spikes ovoid, 
on peduncles as long as the spikes ; sepals of the female flowers glabrous 
or slightly hairy, the two inner flat or concave, the outer ones keeled ; 
style-arms free to the base, glabrous or nearly so. Fruit 1/2-1 in. long, 
ovoid, white or red and ultimately black when ripe. The mulberry ; 
Vern., tut. (Fig. 208.) 

Probably a native of China, but now naturalized in many other countries. 
Common in the Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) plantations at Shahdara and Changa 





Fig. 206, Cannabia aativa, (a) vegetative branch, x , (6) male inflorescence, 
X |, (c) female flowers, X 2 ; Fig. 207, Pouzolzia pentandra, X i ; Fig. 208, Morus 
alba, (a) branch with pistillate spikes, xi, (b) leaf, X J, (c) female flowers, x3; 
Fig. 209, Ficus bengalensis, x i ; Fig. 210, J 7 . religiosa, X J. 


The timber is used in the manufacture of tennis and badminton rackets, hockey 
sticks and other sporting goods. In the gardens the trees are much grown for the 
sake of the edible fruits. This is the mulberry which is chiefly used throughout 
North- Western India for providing food for the silk-worms. 

Flowers during March and April. New leaves also appear about this time. 

The trees of following other species of Morus are also here and there found 
at Lahore : 

M. indica Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., F, p. 492. This is very similar to M. alba 
and may be only a variety of the same. Leaves are often deeply lobed, sharply 
serrate and largely caudate -acuminate. Female spikes are usually distinctly shorter 
than their peduncles ; style -arms are hairy or papillose and connate below for one- 
fourth their length. Fruit 1/2 in. long, black when ripe. 

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens. There are several trees on the Race 
Course Road at Lahore. Flowers at the end of February, before M. alba. 

M. lasvigata Wall. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 492. Fruit nearly white when ripe, 
2-3 in. long, juicy, very sweet. 

The plants are commonly cultivated for the sake of the edible fruit. 

M. atropurpurca Roxb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 491. Fruits 3-6 in. long, cylin- 
dric, sweet, dark-purple. 

A native of China, occasionally grown in the local gardens. 

3. PouzoUia Oauz. 

Herbs. Leaves opposite and alternate, 3-nerved, with free stipules. 
Flowers unisexual, in axillary clusters. Male flower : perianth 3-5-lobed 
or -parted, segments valvate ; stamens 3-5, inflexed in bud ; pistillode 
clavate or globose. Female flower : perianth tubular, 2-4- toothed, 
fruiting sometimes angled, winged or swollen ; ovary included ; style 
jointed on to the top of the ovary and deciduous ; ovule erect. Fruit 
an achene closely invested by the perianth, crustaceous. Seed 
albuminous ; cotyledons ovate. 

P. pentandra Benn. ; FL Brit. Ind., F, p. 583. An erect or decum- 
bent herb, 2-3 ft. high, diffusely branched, nearly glabrous. Leaves 
subsessile ; the lower opposite, 1-4 in. long, oblong- or linear-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, strongly 3 -nerved ; the upper mostly alternate, 
smaller, narrower. Flowers in clusters in the axil of the upper smaller 
leaves ; male pedicellate, with 5-partite perianth and 5 stamens. Fruiting 
perianth with 2 or 3 broad lateral wings. (Fig. 207.) 

This species has been collected from the canal side at Lahore. Flowers during 

4. Ficus Linn. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent ; sap milky. Leaves alternate, 
rarely opposite, entire, lobed, serrate or toothed ; stipules connate, 


covering the apical bud, often quite large, caducous, leaving an annular 
scar. Flowers minute, unisexual, on the inner surface of fleshy globose 
receptacles (commonly called figs), the mouth of which is closed by 
imbricate bracts ; flowers often mixed with bracts and bracteoles. Male 
flower: perianth 2-6-fid or -partite, imbricate ; stamens 1-2, rarely 3-6, 
erect in bud. Female flower : perianth of the male, or imperfect, or 
; ovary straight or oblique ; style excentric ; ovule pendulous. Gall 
flowers like the female, but longer stalked ; ovary without ovule or seed, 
occupied by a pupa of some kind of small wasps belonging to the Chalcideos. 
Achenes crustaceous or fleshy. Seeds with scanty albumen; embryo 
curved ; cotyledons equal or unequal ; radicle upcurved. 

In the genus Ficus, thoro are five kinds of flowers, male, female, psoudo- 
bisexual, neutor and gall flowers. Pseudo- bisexual and neuter flowers are very rare 
and do not occur in the Lahore species. In F. benyalensis, F. religiosa and F. 
infectoria, male, female and gall flowers occur in the same receptacles, male near 
the top, gall in the middle arid female at the bottom of the receptacles. In the 
other species male and gall flowers are found in one kind of receptacles and the 
female in another kind. The two kinds of receptacles are, however, externally 
quite similar. 

Key to the species. 
Figs sessile. 

Leaves obtuse at the apex . . . . 1. F. bengalensis. 

Leaves with a long drawn out tip . . 2. F. religiosa. 

Figs pedunculate . . . . 3. F. palmata. 

1. F. bengalensis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 499. A large 
ever-green tree ; aerial roots numerous from the horizontal branches, 
which on reaching the ground thicken and form supports to the crown ; 
young parts softly pubescent. Leaves 4-8 in. long, 25 in. broad, 
ovate or elliptic, entire, obtuse, rounded, subcordate or narrowed at the 
base, 3-7 -nerved, thick and coriaceous ; petiole 1/2-2 in. long, not jointed 
to the blade ; stipules 3/4-1 in. long. Figs axillary, in pairs, 1/2-3/4 in. 
across, sessile, with rounded bracts at the base, globose, puberulous, red 
when ripe ; male flowers many, near the mouth of the receptacle, 1- 
stamened. Banyan ; Vern., bark or bor. (Fig. 209.) 

Commonly cultivated ; often self-sown. The young plants grow on other 
trees, brick walls, sides of wells and in other similar situations. 

2. F, religiosa Linn. ; Fl. Brit, hid., F, p. 513. A large deciduous 
tree, leafless for a short time during the hot weather, glabrous in all 
parts. Leaves 4-7 in. long, 2^-5 in. broad, broadly ovate, linear- 
acuminate at the apex, entire, 5-7-nerved, shining above ; base rounded, 
truncate or cordate ; petiole 3-4 in. long, jointed to the blade ; stipules 
minute. Figs in axillary pairs, 1/2 in. across, sessile, with 3 bracts at the 
base, depressed-globofee, glabrous, dark-purple when ripe ; male flowers 


few or in many figs 0, near the mouth of the receptacle, 1-stamened. 
Vern., Pipal. (Fig. 210.) 

As commonly grown as Ficus bengalensis, often self-sown and in similar 

3. F, palmata Forsk. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., V, p. 530. A shrub or 
small tree, deciduous, young parts pubescent or tomentose. Leaves 
1^-5 in. long, orbicular-ovate, rounded, acute or apiculate, entire, dentate 
or serrate, often 3-5-lobed, rounded or cordate at the base, 3-nerved, 
membranous, scabrous above, tomentose beneath ; petiole 1-2 in. long ; 
stipules 1/3 in. long, ovate, acute. Figs axillary, solitary or in pairs, 1/2-1 
in. across, on peduncles 1/2-1 in. long, with 3 or more acute bracts at the 
base, globose or pear-shaped, pubescent, yellowish-purple when ripe ; 
male flowers numerous in the upper part of the receptacle, 3-6-stamened. 
Vern., Phaguri or PJiagwra. 

Occurs as undergrowth in the forests on the Ravi bank. Also sometimes 

The following other species of Ficus are also grown : 

F. Carica Linn., the cultivated fig. It is very similar to and perhaps not speci- 
fically distinct from F. palmata. It is propagated by cuttings. Vern., anjir. 

F. infcctoria Roxb. It is a good shade tree and is often planted in the plains. 
Leaves entire, ovate, acuminate, smooth, petiole jointed to the blade. Figs 
axillary, sessile or pedunculate, white when ripe. Vern., paldkh. 

F. glomerata Roxb. A deciduous tree. Leaves elliptic -ovate or lanceolate, 
nearly symmetrical at the base, basal nerves 3. Figs on special leafless branches or 
in clusters on the old wood, red, orange or purple when ripe. Vern., gular. 

Occasionally planted in gardens and on road-sides. Occurs in Changa Manga 
forest plantations. 

A few more species of Ficus are here and there planted in the Lahore gardens. 
For these reference may be made to Parker's ' A Forest Flora for the Punjab with 
Delhi and Hazara '. 


Deciduous trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, stipulate, petiolate, 
simple. Flowers dioecious, both male and female in catkins, one under 
each bract, but without bracteoles ; perianth ; disk in the genus Salix 
of 1 or more glands, in Populus cup-shaped ; stamens in male flowers 
2-many ; filaments free or partially united ; anthers 2- celled ; pistillode 
; ovary in the female flowers sessile or stipitate, 1 -celled, containing a 
few to many anatropous ovules on 2-4 parietal or sub -basal placentas ; 
style or short ; stigmas notched or lobed. Fruit on ovoid or lanceolate 
capsule opening by 2^4 valves and containing several or many minute 
exalbuminous seeds, each enveloped in a tuft of long silky white hairs. 
Genera 2, species about 200, chiefly in the north temperate countries. 



Key to the genera. 

Petiole less than 1/2 in. long ; leaves lanceolate ; 

disk rounded of 1-2 glands 
Petiole more than 1/2 in. long ; leaves nearly 

or ovate ; disk cup- shaped 

1. Salix Linn. 

1. Salix. 

2. Populus. 

Leaves usually shortly petioled, lanceolate. Disk of 1, usually 
posterior, or of 2 anterior and posterior glands ; stamens 1-12, usually 2. 
Capsule 2-valved. 

The following two species are occasionally cultivated in the gardens and on 
the road-sides. The first, however, grows wild in the sub-himalayan districts. 

Key to the species. 

Male catkins 2-5 in. long ; stamens 5-10; female 

catkins 3-5 in. long ; capsule distinctly stalked 
Male and female catkins up to 1 in. long ; stamens 

2 ; capsule sessile 

1. S. tetrasperma Eoxb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., F, p. 626. A small tree ; 
young branches silky. Leaves 2-6 in. long, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 

1. 8. tetrasperma. 

2. S. babylonica. 

Fig. 211, Salix tetrasperma, (a) branch bearing a spike of male flowers, xj, (6) 
male flower, x 4 j. 


usually serrulate, acute or acuminate, pale or white beneath ; petiole 1/4- 
3/4 in. long. Catkins appearing after the leaves, at the end of short leafy 
branchlets, drooping, hairy ; male 2-5 in. long, sweet-scented ; stamens 
5-10 ; female catkins 3-5 in. long. Capsule about 1/5 in. long, stipitate, 
glabrous, 4-6-seeded. (Fig. 211.) 

Occasionally planted in gardens at Lahore. There is a plantation of this 
species at Wazirabad on the banks of Chenab. It grows wild in the sub-himalayan 
districts and the Salt Range along streams. Flowers in March, according to Parker 
also sometimes in September in the Punjab plains. 

2. S, babylonica Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., V, p. 629. A tree with 
drooping branches. Leaves 3-7 in. long, narrowly lanceolate, serrulate, 
acuminate, mostly glabrous ; petiole less than 1/2 in. long. Catkins appear 
with the leaves, 1/2-1 in. long ; stamens 2. Capsule glabrous, sessile. 

It is grown both in the plains and the hills and can be easily recognized by its 
habit. Male trees are more common than the female. The wood is suitable for the 
manufacture of cricket bats. Flowers : February -March. 

2. Populus Linn. 

Leaves usually long-petioled, broader, often lobed ; 3-5-nerved at 
the base ; buds often sticky. Disk cup-shaped, often oblique, entire, 
toothed or lobed ; stamens 4 to numerous. Capsule 2-4-valved. 

P. euphratica Oliv. ; FL Brit. Ind., V, p. 638. A tall tree, 30-50 
ft. high. Petiole 1/2-2 in. long, usually with 2 large glands at the top ; 
leaf-blades 2-3 in. long, very variable, rhomboid-orbicular or -ovate, 
sharply shortly lobed towards the apex ; longer, shortly petioled and 
narrowly oblong on young plants and suckers. Catkins lax, nodding ; 
male 1-2 in. long, female 2-3 in. long ; stamens 8-12 ; disk in female 
flowers with 8-12 linear segments. Capsule shortly stipitate, about 1/3 
in. long, ovoid -lanceolate. 

On river banks in the Punjab plains ; in the Shahdara Forest Plantation ; 
occasionally grown in the gardens. Leafless during January-March ; flowers 
during February. 


Aquatic, freshwater or marine, usually submerged herbs. Leaves 
radical, or on elongated stems and alternate, opposite or whorled. Flowers 
regular, rarely hermaphrodite, usually dioecious, enclosed in an entire 
or toothed spathe or arranged within two opposite bracts. Male flower : 
Sepals 3 ; petals 3 or ; stamens 3-12 or sometimes numerous ; anthers 
2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits ; pistillode usually present. Female 
flower : Mostly solitary, epigynous ; perianth superior ; sepals 3 ; petals 3 
or ; staminodes sometimes present ; ovary inferior, sometimes beaked, 
1-celled, with 3-6 parietal placentas which sometimes protrude to the 



middle of the ovary ; style or style-arms usually 3-6 ; ovules many on 
each placenta, anatropous or orthotropous. Fruit globose or ovoid, 
dry or fleshy, rupturing irregularly. Seeds few or many, without endo- 
sperm, embryo straight, with a thick hypocotyl and usually inconspicuous 
plumule. Genera 16, species about 50, in tropical and temperate regions of 
the world. 

Key to the genera. 

Leaves small, in whorls on slender branching stems 1. Hydrilla. 
Leaves radical, long, narrow ; stem stoloniferous . . 2. Vallisneria. 

1. Hydrilla Rich. 
A submerged leafy freshwater dioecious herb. 

whorls of 3-8, or the lower opposite. 

Leaves short, in 
Male flowers solitary, shortly 

21 2a 



Fig. 212, Hydrilla verticillata, (a) branch, xj, (b) perermating tuber, x 
(c) flower, x2; Fig, 213, Vallimeria spiralis, (a) plant with female flower, X 
<&) female flower, x 1-J. 


pedicelled, in a subglobose sessile muricate spathe ; sepals 3, ovate or 
obovate, green ; petals 3, oblong or cuneiform ; stamens 3 ; anthers large, 
reniform, opening elastically ; pistillode small. Female flowers solitary or 
in pairs, sessile, enclosed in a tubular 2-toothed spathe ; perianth similar 
to that of the male, but the parts linear ; ovary produced beyond the 
spathe into a filiform beak, 1- celled ; styles 3, linear, undivided ; stigmas 
fimbriate ; ovules anatropous. Fruit subulate, smooth or muricate. 
Seeds 2-3, oblong ; testa shortly produced at each end. 

H, verticillata Royle. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., F, p. 659. Stems slender, 
up to 2J ft. long, branched, often rooting at the nodes. Leaves 1/4-3/4 
in. long, linear, linear-oblong or oblong, entire or serrulate, apiculate, 
midrib well marked. Flowers 1/6-1/4 in. long. (Fig. 212.) 

Abundant in all still or slowly running waters, Shalamar gardens, Chhota Ravi 
and various ponds. 

2. Vallisneria Linn. 

A submerged freshwater stoloniferous herb. Leaves all radical, 
very long, linear, giving a tufted habit to the plant. Flowers dioecious. 
Male flowers very numerous, minute, in an ovoid 3-lobed shortly peduncled 
spathe ; sepals 3 ; petals ; stamens 1-3 ; pistillode 0. Female flowers 
solitary in a tubular 3 -toothed spathe terminating a very long filiform 
spiral scape ; perianth similar to that found in the male flowers; staminodes 
3, 2-fid ; ovary narrow, not beaked ; stigmas 3, broad, notched ; ovules 
numerous. Fruit linear, included in the spathe. Seeds numerous, oblong. 

V* spiralis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., V, p. 660. Leaves varying in 
length with the depth of water, mostly 4-6 in. long and 1/4-1/3 in. broad, 
translucent, entire or serrulate at the tips. (Fig. 213.) 

Quite common within the area and throughout India and in most of the tropical 
countries. Flowers throughout the winter months, November March. 

Male flowers when ready to open get detached and rise to the surface of water, 
the expanded perianth acting as a float. The female flowers reach the surface of 
water by the uncoiling of a long spiral stalk (scape) and are pollinated with pollen 
from the floating males. After pollination the stalk coils up again into a close 
spiral carrying the pollinated female flowers to the bottom of the water, where the 
seeds ripen. 


Perennial herbs of diverse habit, mostly terrestrial with tuberous 
roots or root-stock or epiphytic. Stem leafy or scapose ; annual in the 
terrestrial forms ; in the epiphytic forms perennial, often thickened into 
pseudo -bulbs and bearing aerial assimilating roots. Leaves usually 
alternate, often distichous, entire, sheathing at the base, often fleshy. 
Flowers often showy, bracteate, usually hermaphrodite, 7.yjrornorphic, 


solitary or borne in spikes, racemes or panicles ; perianth superior, of 6 
parts in two whorls ; the outer three (sepals) more or less alike or the two 
lateral sometimes connate in a short or long sac- or spur-like base, petaloid 
or green ; the inner three (petals) dissimilar, the two lateral alike, the 
other (labellum) usually very different, often extremely complicated, 
prolonged into a sac or spur containing nectar or nectar-secreting tissue, 
usually on the anterior side of the flower due to the twisting of the ovary 
through 180 ; stamens and style united in a column opposite the labellum ; 
fertile anther usually one (2 in Cyp^edieos), on the front, top or back of 
the column, 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits ; pollen granular or 
coherent in each cell into 1, 2 or 4, mealy, waxy or bony masses (pollinia), 
which are free or attached by pairs or fours directly or by stalks (caudicles) 
to a gland (a viscid portion of the rostellum) ; ovary inferior, 1 -celled, 
with three parietal placentas, only very rarely 3-celled with axile placentas ; 
stigmas sometimes 3, fertile and above the two anthers (Cypripediece), 
but more frequently on the top or concave face of the column, opposite 
the labellum and below the anther, the lateral two fertile, the other 
sterile and transformed into a small outgrowth (rostellum) which lies 
between the anther and the stigmas ; ovules very numerous, minute, 
anatropous. Fruit a capsule, opening by 3 or 6 longitudinal slits. Seeds 
very numerous, minute, with a hyaline testa often drawn out at each 
end or rarely winged, without endosperm and with undifferentiated 
embryo. A large widely distributed family ; species about 5,000 ; mostly 
epiphytic in the tropics and terrestrial in the temperate regions and on the 

Key to the genera. 

Herbs with underground fleshy tubers ; leaves 
appearing after the flowers ; column \ in. long 1. Eulophia. 

Herbs without any prominent underground tubers ; 
leaves present at the time of flowering ; column 
very short .. .. ..2. Zeuxine. 

1. EulopKia R. Br. 

Terrestrial herbs with fleshy underground tubers. Leaves often 
appearing after the flowers, long, narrow. Flowers in erect scapose 
racemes ; sepals free, spreading, subequal ; lateral petals nearly similar 
to the sepals ; labellum adnate to the base of column or to its foot, saccate 
or shortly spurred at the base ; side-lobes erect, embracing the column ; 
middle-lobe spreading or recurved ; column with or without a foot, apex 
entire, margins occasionally winged or lobed ; anther terminal, 2-celled, 
sometimes with two processes at its apex ; pollinia 2, globose, attached by 
caudicles to the rostellum. 



E, Hormusjii Duthie ; Ann. Hoy. Bot. Oard. Gale., IX, part 2, p. 125. 
Tubers 1-1J in. in diameter, depressed. Leaves two, developing after 
flowering, narrowly elliptic, acuminate. Flowering stem 8-12 in. tall, 
stout ; bracts few, loose, membranous, lanceolate, acuminate, sheathing 
at the base. Flowers 8-15 ; sepals and petals nearly 1/2 in. long, narrowly 
oblong or oblanceolate, acuminate or mucronate, white with pink veins 
and with shade of pale -green at the apex ; labellum longer than sepals 
and petals, spurred at the base ; side-lobes deep-purple, erect, rounded, 
entire ; between the side-lobes are three prominent whitish lamellae ; 
middle lobe yellow, spotted with purple, with a coarsely fimbriate disk, 
and undulate and irregularly erose margin ; column 1/3 in. long, with 
a short foot. 

Rare. Only one specimen has been collected from near Lahore. It is pro- 
bably a recent introduction from the hills, the seeds or tubers having been brought 
down by the canals. 

2. Zeuxine Lindl. 

spikes ; 

Small terrestrial herbs without any i-i-l-.-i.-r-- ;> 1 tubers, 
membranous, with sheathing bases. Flowers small, in short 
sepals nearly equal ; dorsal concave, 
cohering with the petals ; lateral free ; 
labellum adnate to the base of the 
column, saccate at the base and with a 
shortly- clawed or sessile, entire or 2-fid, 
terminal lobe ; the basal sac with 2 
hard projections or laminae within ; 
column very short, 2 -winged in front ; 
stigmatic lobes 2, lateral ; anther mem- 
branous, cells contiguous ; pollinia 2, 
pyriform, attached by an oblong gland 
to the erect rostellum. 

Z, sulcata Lindl. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., 
VI, p. 106. A small glabrous herb 
2-10 in. high, plants often gregarious, 
perennating by small underground 
shoots formed at the end of the grow- 
ing season. Leaves 1-2 in. long, linear, 
gradually narrowing to the apex, sessile 
on the hyaline truncate sheaths. Spikes 
densely flowered, 1/2-1 in. long ; bracts 
1/3 in. long, ovate-lanceolate, sharply 

pointed ; flowers nearly as long as the bracts, white or with shades of 
pink ; dorsal sepal ovate ; lateral sepals obliquely lanceolate, connivent ; 


Fig. 214, Zeuxine sulcata, (a) 
plant, xj, (6) roots, xj, (c) 
flower, x2. 


labellum yellow ; anther depressed, very shortly beaked, covered by the 
wings at the apex of the column ; rostellum with two short stout parallel 
arms. Capsule ellipsoid, about 1/2 in. long. (Fig. 214.) 

Common in moist places. Flowers throughout winter, but more abundantly in 
the later part. 


The following plants of this family are commonly cultivated in fields or 
gardens : 

1. Curcuma longa Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., VI, p. 214. Turmeric ; Vein., 

2. Zingiber officinalc Rose. ; FL Brit. Ind., VI, p. 246. Ginger ; Vern., 

3. Canna indica Linn., var. orientalis Rose. ; FL Brit. Ind,., VI, p. 260. 
It is commonly called Canna and is much grown in the gardens for the sake of its 
showy flowers. 

4. Musa paradtsiaca, subsp. sapientum Schum. ; Engl. Pflanzenreich, 
IV, part 45, 1900. The banana ; Vern., Kela. 


Herbs, mostly perennial, sometimes annual, rarely shrubs, with 
fibrous roots or with a creeping rhizome or a bulb or corm ; roots some- 
times tuberous. Aerial stem erect or climbing, leafy or scapose. Leaves 
cauline or radical. Flowers usually hermaphrodite and regular, arranged 
in umbels, spikes, racemes, panicles or fascicles, or axillary or terminal 
and solitary ; bracts usually small and scarious or spathaceous when the 
flowers are arranged in umbels ; perianth leaves 6, in two whorls, petaloid, 
imbricate or the outer valvate in bud ; stamens 6, rarely 3, hypogynous 
or adnate to the perianth ; filaments free or connate ; anthers oblong or 
linear, 2-celled, opening mostly by longitudinal slits ; ovary superior, 
very rarely semi-inferior, mostly 3-celled with axile placentas, or rarely 
1- celled with parietal placentas ; style generally one, entire or divided, 
rarely styles three ; ovules usually numerous, rarely only a few or solitary. 
Fruit a loculicidal or a septicidal capsule, or a berry. Seeds one or many, 
globose or flattened ; endosperm copious ; embryo straight or curved. A 
large world-wide family, in all climates and countries ; most abundant in 
temperate and sub -tropical regions. 

Key to the genera. 

Inflorescence not umbellate . . 1. Asphodelus. 

Inflorescence umbellate . . . . . . 2. Nothoscordum. 



1. Asphodelus Linn. 

Annual or perennial herbs with fibrous roots, fastigiate and united 
in the upper part. Leaves radical, sheathing at 
the base, linear, terete, fistular. Flowers bracteate, 
racemose on a usually much branched leafless 
scape ; perianth white, withering without falling 
down, 6-partite ; segments connate into a tube 
below ; stamens 6, hypogynous ; filaments dilated 
at the base and embracing the ovary ; anthers dorsi- 
fixed, versatile ; ovary 3 -celled ; style filiform ; 
stigma sub-3-lobed ; ovules 2, collateral in each 
cell. Capsule globose, loculicidal. Seed one in each 
cell, 3-quetrous ; testa black ; endosperm cartila- 
ginous ; embryo nearly as long as the endosperm. 

A* tenuifolius Cav. ; Fl Brit. Ind., VI, p. 332. 
Annual. Leaves 6-12 in. long, finely puberulous. 
Scapes several, 1-2 ft. high ; flowers white, laxly 
racemose ; pedicel 1/4 in. long, jointed below the 
middle ; bracts 1/10 in., broadly ovate, scarious, 
with a strong brownish midrib ; perianth segments 
1/4 in. long, oblong, obtuse, with brownish midrib; 
stamens in. long, black. Capsule 1/8 in. long, 
slightly more in diameter. (Fig. 215.) 

A very common weed in cultivated fields during winter. 

Fig. 215, Asphodetua 
tenuifolius, X |. 

2. Nothoscordum KuntJi 

Herbs with tunicate bulbs. Leaves radical, linear, plane. Scapes 
unbranched, naked. Flowers in terminal umbels ; involucral bracts 2, 
connate ; perianth marcescent ; segments 6, connate at the base ; 
stamens 6, filaments dilated at the base ; anthers oblong, dorsifixed, 
introrse ; ovary sessile, 3-locular, ovules many in each loculus ; style 
filiform. Capsule membranous, 3-angled or 3-lobed, loculicidal ; Seeds 
angular- compressed or sub-plane ; testa black, membranous or sub- 
crustaceous ; embryo small. 

N, fragrans Kunth ; Enum. PL, IV, p. 462. An alliaceous herb; 
bulbs 1/2-3/4 in. in diameter. Leaves up to 12 in. long, 1/3 in. broad. 
Scapes 12-18 in. long ; umbels about 10-flowered ; pedicels 1-2 in. long ; 
perianth-segments 1/2 in. long, white. Capsule 1/3 in. across. 

A native of N. America, Mexico, Africa and Mauritius. Recently introduced 
into this country. Common in some gardens as a weed at Lahore. Flowers : 


The following are the common members of the Liliacece cultivated within the 

1. Allium Ccpa Linn., Vern. piyaz (onion). 

2. A. sativum Linn., Vern. lasun (garlic). 

3. Aloe vera Linn. It is a native of North Africa, with thorn-edged, thick, 
soft, pale-green leaves and dull red flowers borne in simple erect spikes. It is 
called locally ghee-kunvdr. 


Erect or floating fresh -water plants, with shoots of sympodial 
construction, the successive axes ending in inflorescences. Leaves with 
floating or raised parallel -veined blades, sheathing at the base. Flowers 
bisexual, usually slightly zygomorphic, arranged in racemes or spikes, 
subtended by a spathaceous leaf- sheath ; perianth -segments 6, petaloid ; 
stamens 6-1, epiphyllous, often somewhat unequal in length and one 
largest of all ; anthers erect or versatile, opening by longitudinal slits or 
pores ; ovary superior, 1- or 3 -celled ; placentation parietal or axile ; 
ovules one to many on each placenta, anatropous ; style slender ; stigma 
nearly entire or lobed. Fruit a 3-valved loculicidal capsule. Seeds small, 
longitudinally ribbed ; endosperm copious ; embryo straight, cylindric. 
Genera 6, species about 36 ; in tropical and sub-tropical countries, chiefly 
tropical Africa and America. 

Key to the genera. 

Perianth-segments nearly free .. ..1. Monochoria. 

Perianth-segments united at the base and forming 
a distinct tube . . . . . . 2. Eichornia. 

1. Monochoria Presl. 

Herbs with short or creeping root-stock. Leaves radical and solitary 
at the top of emerged stem or branches. Flowers racemed, campanulate ; 
perianth- segments nearly free ; stamens 6, one usually largest, with the 
filament toothed on one side ; anthers basifixed, slits terminal, at length 
elongating ; ovary ovoid, 3-celled, many-ovuled. 

M. vaginalis Presl. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., VI, p. 363. Root-stock short, 
suberect. Leaves very variable, up to 6 in. long, 1-2 in. broad, long- 
petioled, from linear to ovate and ovate- cordate, sheaths embracing the 
peduncles, blade few-nerved. Flowers blue, usually spotted with red, 
short-pedicelled, subspicate ; perianth-segments 3/8 in. long, narrow ; 


large anther blue, horned ; others yellow. Capsule less than 1/2 in. long, 
glandular on the outside. 

Found in marshy places. Flowers during and after the rainy season and early 
winter months. 

2. Eichornia Kunth 

Water plants, rooted in the mud and rhizomatous, or free floating 
by means of the swollen petioles. Leaves in rosettes. Inflorescence 
sessile or peduncled, simply racemose or rarely panicled. Flowers with 
a well- developed perianth-tube and distinctly zygomorphic ; perianth 
spreading or limb distinctly 2-lipped : stamens 6, declinate, irregularly 
inserted in the tube ; anthers oblong, dorsifixed ; ovary sessile, 3- celled, 
many-ovuled. Capsule membranous, included in the marcescent perianth, 
ovoid, oblong or linear. 

E. crassipes Solms. ; in DC. Monog. Phan., IV, 527. Adventitious 
roots very numerous. Leaves with long swollen petioles up to 20 in. 
long and ovate blades up to 4 in. long and only slightly less broad. Scapes 
6-10 in. high. Flowers violet-blue. 

Abundant in ponds and tanks, Chota Ravi, etc. It is originally a native of 
tropical America, but has now become widely naturalized in India and in certain 
parts of the country, especially in Bengal, has assumed the form of a pest. 


Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves with a distinct midrib and a 
basal closed sheath, sometimes shortly petioled above the sheath. Flowers 
regular or irregular, bisexual or polygamous, arranged in various manners, 
axillary clusters or terminal cymes or panicles, most often blue or white ; 
perianth- segments 6, distinctly in two whorls ; the outer three sepaloid, 
usually free, rarely united, imbricate, persistent ; inner segments petaloid? 
free and imbricate, or united into a tube at the base, marcescent ; 
stamens 6 or fewer by abortion or degeneration of some into staminodes, 
hypogynous, filaments free or rarely some united, often bearded with 
jointed, sometimes brightly coloured, hairs ; anthers oblong or globose, 
basifixed, 2-celled, often dissimilar, opening mostly by longitudinal 
slits ; ovary superior, sessile or shortly stipitate, 3- or rarely 2-celled, with 
terminal style and usually small capitate stigma ; ovules few to one in 
each cell, axile, orthotropous. Fruit a membranous loculicidal capsule 
opening by 2 or 3 valves, rarely fleshy and indehiscent. Seeds usually 
angled ; testa smooth, muricate, ridged or reticulate ; albumen abundant, 
mealy ; embryo minute, away from the hilum, its position indicated on 
the outside by a disk-like callosity (embryotega or embryostega). 
Genera about 25, species about 300, distributed in warmer parts of the world. 


Commelina Linn. 

Slender herbs, often creeping and rooting from the nodes below. 
Flowers in usually 2 -fid cymes, emerging one at a time from a terminal 
conduplicate spathe ; flowers of the upper branch of cyme small, 
deciduous ; of the lower fertile ; fruiting pedicel and capsule retracted 
within the spathe ; sepals 3, membranous, 2 inner often connate at the 
base ; petals longer, one larger and often clawed ; stamens 3 perfect and 2-3 
imperfect ; anthers oblong, one usually largest ; ovary 3-, rarely 2-celled, 
2 cells 1-2-ovuled, third cell if present 1-ovuled or empty. Capsule hidden 
in the spathe, the posterior cell often indehi scent or 0, or the 2 anterior 
cells empty, connate, indehiscent and forming a persistent ligulate body, 
from which the posterior cell falls away. 

C. benghalensis Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., VI, p. 370. Stems variable 
in length, 1-3 ft. long, slender, diffuse, dichotomously branched from the 
base, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves 1-3 in. long, about half as broad, 
ovate or elliptic-ovate, obtuse or rounded at the tip, sessile or shortly 
petioled, sheath pubescent or villous or both and usually with long hairs 
at the mouth. Spathes 1-3 together, about 1/2 in. long and broad, 
turbinate, auricled on one side, pubescent or hirsute, upper branch of 
cymes 2-3-flowered, lower 1-2-flowered or absent ; flowers blue. Capsule 
1/4 in. long, pyriform, membranous, two cells 2-seeded, dehiscent ; 3rd 
smaller, 1 -seeded, tardily dehiscent. Seeds closely pitted, rugose. 

An annual herb, especially abundant in shady places. Comes up during the 
rains. Flowers and fruits during August-November. Besides the normal 
flowers in this species, underground cleistogamous flowers are commonly formed on 
bracteate peduncles from the lower nodes. Theso are smaller in size and white 
compared with the blue aerial flowers. They regularly produce seed, while the 
aerial flowers often fail to do so. 


Generally perennial, sometimes annual, erect herbs, tufted or with a 
creeping sympodial rhizome ; stems mostly leafy only at the base. Leaves 
mostly in a basal tuft, linear or cylindric, grass-like, sheathing at the 
base or entirely reduced to a sheath. Flowers small, inconspicuous, 
actinom orphic, hermaphrodite or unisexual and dioecious, rarely solitary, 
usually in paniculate or corymbose cymes, terminal or subterminal on 
the scape-like stems with a few leafy bracts ; perianth -segments 6, in two 
whorls, free, lanceolate or oblong, glumaceous, often with scarious margins, 
persistent, imbricate ; stamens 6 or 3, opposite to the perianth leaves, 
hypogynous or nearly so ; anthers 2-celled, basifixed, introrse, opening 
by longitudinal slits ; pollen in tetrads ; ovary superior, 1- celled or 3- 
oelled ; style one or styles 3, long to almost absent ; stigmas three, mostly 


brush-like ; ovules numerous to 3, biseriate on the parietal placentas or 
basilar, anatropous. Fruit 1- or 3-celled capsule, loculicidally dehiscent. 
Seeds with a membranous testa, often produced at each end, endo- 
spermous ; embryo small, straight, in the middle of the endosperm. 
Genera about 15, species about 200, cosmopolitan, but more abundant in 
damp habitats. 

Juncus Linn. 

Glabrous herbs. Perianth with the 3 outer segments keeled or the 
midrib thickened ; stamens 6 or 3 ; ovary 3-, rarely 1 -celled ; style one, 
filiform ; stigmas often spirally twisted ; ovules many. 

J, bufonius Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., VI, p. 392. A pale-green densely 
tufted annual fibrous-rooted herb up to 10 in. high ; stems slender, tricho- 
tomously much branched. Leaves radical or associated with the flowers, 
up to 5 in. long, grass-like. Flowers pale-green, in biparous or helicoid 
uniparous, often flexuous, cymes ; bracts scarious, less than 1/4 in. long ; 
sepals 1/5 in. long ; petals slightly smaller ; both lanceolate, acuminate, 
with membranous margins ; stamens half as long as the sepals. Capsule 
shorter than and closely embraced by the perianth, obovoid and 
mucronate. Seeds numerous, minute, yellow or some times with a black 
lip, finely reticulate. 

Ravi bank ; a winter annual. 


Trees or shrubs. Stem stout or slender, sometimes an underground 
rhizome, but usually above-ground, erect or sometimes scandent, some- 
times very short or almost absent, often covered by the persistent bases 
of the leaves, only exceptionally branching ; primary root soon 
disappearing and replaced by roots from the base of the stem. Leaves 
mostly large, in a terminal crown or scattered in the scandent forms, 
usually pinnately or palmately compound, rarely simple, leaflets 
induplicate or reduplicate in bud, often sharp at the apex ; petiole 
sheathing at the base. Flowers small, actinomorphic, monoecious, 
dioecious, or sometimes bisexual or polygamous, usually 3-bracteolate, 
arranged in spikate or paniculate inflorescences (spadices) enclosed in 
bud by one or more large sheathing bracts (spathes) and situated either 
amongst or below the leaves, rarely terminal and ending the life of the 
tree ; perianth in two 2- or 3-merous whorls ; segments of each whorl 
free or connate, usually coriaceous, valvate or imbricate ; stamens usually 
6, in two whorls, sometimes 3 or numerous ; anthers 2 -celled, opening 
lengthwise, often versatile ; ovary superior, rudimentary or absent ia 
the male flowers, 1-3-, rarely more-, celled, or apocarpous, of three one- 


celled carpels ; stigma usually sessile ; ovule solitary, erect or pendulous 
from the inner angle of each carpel or cell of the ovary. Fruit various, 
berry, drupe or apocarpic. Seeds free or adherent to the endocarp ; 
endosperm horny or bony, sometimes ruminate ; embryo small, in a pit 
in the albumen. A large family, genera about 200, species about 1,500, 
mainly tropical and sub-tropical. 

Phoenix Linn. 

Low or tall dioecious palms. Stem columnar, covered for a con- 
siderable distance with bases of the fallen leaves. Leaves in a crown on 
the top of the columnar stem, pinnate ; leaflets lanceolate or ensiform, 
sides induplicate. Spadices several, branched, interfoliar, erect or 
drooping in fruit, enclosed by a complete coriaceous basal spathe. Flowers 
small, yellowish, coriaceous. Male flower : Calyx cupular, 3-toothed ; 
petals 3, obliquely ovate, valvate ; stamens 6 ; filaments subulate ; anthers 
erect, dorsifixed ; pistillode minute or 0. Female flower : Globose ; calyx 
similar to that of the male, accrescent ; petals rounded, imbricate ; 
staminodes 6, free or connate into a 6-toothed cup ; carpels 3, free ; stig- 
mas sessile, hooked ; ovules erect ; usually only one carpel ripens. Fruit 
an oblong, terete, 1 -seeded berry, with fleshy mesocarp and membranous 
endocarp. Seed oblong, ventrally grooved. 

Key to the species. 

No root suckers ; crown dense . . 1. P. sylvestris. 

Root suckers copious ; crown open . . 2. P. dactylifera. 

P. sylvestris Roxb. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., VI, p. 425. A tall palm, 30-50 ft. 
high ; stem solitary, rough from the persistent leaf-bases ; crown dense, 
hemispheric. Leaves 7-15 ft. long, greyish-green, glabrous ; leaflets 
6-18 in. long and 3/4 in. broad, fascicled, 2-4-farious, shining, rigid, sharply 
pointed ; the lowest converted into long spines up to 4 in. long. Spadices 
2-3 ft. long, erect ; spathes 12-18 in. long, scurfy, separating into two 
boat-shaped valves. Male flowers white, scented, numerous, angular. 
Female flowers distant, roundish. Fruiting spadix 3 ft. long, drooping, 
golden-orange in colour. Fruit 1-1J in. long, orange-yellow, edible. 
Seed about 3/4 in. long and nearly half as broad, rounded at both ends. 
Wild date palm ; Vern., Khajur. 

This species is indigenous to the sub-himalayan districts of the Punjab, but 
cultivated or self-sown trees are common in and round about Lahore and in other 
parts of the plains. The leaves are used for making mats, baskets or hand-fans, 
etc. The trees are commonly tapped for the preparation of toddy or sugar in other 
parts of India, but this is not much practised in the Punjab. Flowers during the 
hot months. 


2. P. dactylifera Linn. ; Sp. PL, 1753, p. 1188. A tall palm up 
to nearly 100 ft. high ; stem usually surrounded at the base by suckers 
clothed with the stumps of the petioles ; crown open. Leaves on the 
average larger than in P. sylvestris, grey ; leaflets distichous, making a 
very acute angle with the rachis. Male flowers white, in short compact 
panicles 6-9 in. long. Fruit 1-1/3 in. long, sweet, edible, reddish or 
yellowish brown. Seeds more or less acute at both the ends. Date 
palm ; Vern., Khajur. 

A native of Canary island, N. Africa and Arabia. It was probably intro- 
duced into India at the time of the first Mohammedan conquest in the beginning of 
the 8th century. It is naturalized in the South- Western Punjab and at Shahdara 
near Lahore. Flowers in the beginning of summer, March -April. 

This species differs from the former more in habit than in botanic characters, 
and it has been suggested by Drudo in Pflanzenfamilien that it is not a distinct 
species. The above description is based on Parker's ' Forest Flora of the Punjab 
with Hazara and Delhi '. For more information reference may be made to the 
* Palms of British India and Ceylon ' by Blatter. 


Perennial, often tall herbs, with a creeping rhizome clothed with 
distichous scales. Leaves erect, distichous, linear, thick and spongy. 
Flowers minute, unisexual, very numerous, densely crowded in terminal 
superposed cylindrical spikes, the male above, the female below, often 
intermixed with hair-like bracteolcs possessing dilated tips ; perianth of 
slender hairs, or absent in the male. Male flower : Stamens 2-5 ; filaments 
free or variously connate ; anthers linear, basifixed, tip of connective 
thickened. Female flower : Ovary superior, 1 -celled, on a long slender 
stalk ; ovule solitary, pendulous ; style capillary, with a narrow or ligulate 
stigma. Clavate-tipped pistillodes frequent among the female flowers in 
some species. Fruit very minute, dry, falling off along with the hairy 
stipes, at length dehiscent ; pericarp membranous. Testa of the seeds 
striate ; albumen floury ; embryo linear, nearly as long as the seed. 
One genus, Typha, in temperate and tropical regions, gregarious in fresh 
water and marshy places. Absent from S. America and $. Africa. 

Typha Linn. 
Characters of the family. 

T. angustata Chaub. & Bory ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., VI, p. 489. Mostly 
5-6, but up to 10, ft. high. Leaves 3/4-1 in. broad, semi-cylindric above 
the sheathing base, often longer than the flowering stem. The male and 
the female spikes usually separated by a long interval. The female 
spikes pale-brown, up to 1/2 in. in diameter in the flowering condition and 



up to 1 in. in diameter in the fruit. Bracteoles of female flowers sub- 
spathulate, equalling the linear stigmas ; both longer than the perianth 
hairs ; female flowers mixed with clavate-tipped pistillodes. Pollen 
simple, globose. 

More or less distributed throughout Northern India. Leaves are used for 
making mats. Flowers during the rainy season. 


Colocasia antiquorum Schott. ; FL Brit. Ind., VI, p. 523. It is much 
cultivated for its starchy tuberous corms. Vern., Kachalu, Arvi. 


Minute or small, gregarious, floating herbs, rootless or with a few 
simple roots ; shoot (frond) not differentiated into stem and leaves, 
dorsiventral. Flowers monoecious, 1-3 together, naked or at first enclosed 
in a membranous spathe ; perianth ; male of 1 or 2 stamens with 1- 
or 2-celled anthers ; female of a sessile, superior, 1 -celled ovary with 
simple style and stigma and 1-7 basal orthotropous, semi-anatropous or 
anatropous ovules. Fruit 1-7 seeded, indehiscent or opening trans- 
versely. Seeds minute, with or without endosperm, and a straight axile 
embryo. Genera 2, species about 20, in the fresh waters of all tropical, 
sub -tropical and temperate countries. 

Fronds with roots 
Fronds without roots 

Key to the genera. 

1. Lemna Linn. 

1. Lemna. 

2. Wolffia. 

Fronds with one or more roots. Vegetative reproduction by 
daughter shoots formed from two lateral pockets. Flowers in small 
pockets on the margins of the frond, usually 2 male and 1 female together 
enclosed in a transitory membranous spathe. Male flower : stamens 1 or 
2, anthers 2-celled, filaments slender. Female flower : ovary with 
1-7 anatropous, semi-anatropous or orthotropous ovules. 

Key to the species. 

Fronds with several roots . . 

Fronds with one root. 

Fronds entire, branches obovoid, soon 
detached . . . . . . 

Fronds serrulate at the tip, hastate, branches 
persistent . . . . . . 

1. L. 

2. L. paucicostata. 

3. i. trisulca. 


1. L, polyrrhiza Linn. ; Syn. Spirodcla polyrrhiza Schleid. ; 
Fl. Brit. Ind., VI, p. 557. Fronds up to 1/3 in. long, broadly obovate or 
orbicular, rather thick, green above and usually purplish beneath ; 
daughter shoots with a small basal lobe ; roots several. Spathe 2-lipped. 
Stamens in the male flower 2. Ovary in the female flower usually with 2 
anatropous ovules. 

This species along with L. oligorrhiza Kurz is placed by some authors in a 
separate genus Spirodela Schleid., distinguished from other species of Lemna by 
the presence of several roots and the daughter shoots of the frond bearing at their 
base a small lobe, which is considered to be a basal leaf. 

2. L* paucicostata Hegelm. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., VI, p. 556. Fronds 
about 1/8 in. long, oblong or obovate-oblong, asymmetric, entire, nearly 
flat on both sides; branches soon detached ; root 1. Ovary in the female 
flower with a single basal orthotropous ovule. 

3. L, trisulca Linn. ; FL Brit. Ind., VI, p. 557. Fronds up to 3/4 
in. long, lanceolate or oblaiiceolate, serrulate at the tip ; daughter shoots 
hastate and remaining attached to the parent frond ; root 1. Ovary in 
the female flower with a single semi-anatropous ovule. 

2. Wolffia Horkel. 

Fronds minute, like grains of sand, subglobose, flattened above, 
rootless ; vegetative reproduction by proliferation of daughter shoots 
from the middle of the base. Flowers bursting through the upper 
surface ; spathe absent. Male flower : solitary, stamen 1, anther sessile ; 
1- celled. Female flower : ovary globose ; style short ; stigma depressed ; 
ovule 1, erect, orthotropous. 

These are the smallest known flowering plants and occur as a green scum 
covering the water surface. 

Key to the species. 

Fronds subglobose beneath . . . . 1. W . arrhiza. 

Fronds conical or subcylindric beneath . . 2. W. microscopica. 

1. W. arrhiza Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., VI, p. 557. Fronds 1/20 in. 
long, nearly oblong, convex above, globose beneath. 

2. W. microscopica Kurz ; Fl. Brit. Ind., VI, p. 558. Fronds 
1/30 in. long, flat above, conical or subcylindric beneath to a depth about 
twice as great as the length. 


Marsh or aquatic herbs, mostly erect, rarely with floating leaves. 
Leaves radical, entire; petiole long ; basal sheath open. Flowers bisexual, 


unisexual or polygamous, pedicellate, 3- or more-bracteate, arranged 
in umbellate or paniculate whorls ; perianth -segments 6, in two whorls, 
the outer 3 sepaloid, imbricate and persistent ; the inner 3 petaloid, 
usually white or pink, imbricate and deciduous ; stamens 6 or more, 
rarely 3, free, hypogynous ; anthers erect, 2-celled, opening lengthwise, 
extrorse ; carpels 3-6 or numerous, free ; ovules solitary, basal, or more 
on the inner angle in each carpel ; style usually persistent. Fruit a 
cluster of small achenes or follicles. Seeds small or minute, curved, 
without endosperm ; embryo horse -shoe -shaped. Genera about one 
dozen, species about 60 ; distribution world-ivide, but mainly in northern 

Key to the genera. 

Flowers 2-sexual ; receptacle flat . . . . 1. Alisma. 

Flowers unisexual or polygamous ; receptacle 

convex . . . . . . 2. Sagittaria. 

1. Alisma Linn. 

Scapigerous perennial marsh herbs. Leaves lanceolate, cordate or 
sagittate. Flowers bisexual, in umbellate or paniculate whorls ; 
receptacle small, nearly flat ; stamens 6 or 9 ; carpels few or many ; 
stigma small and terminal ; ovule solitary, basal, anatropous. Achenes 
compressed or turgid, coriaceous or hard. 

Key to the species. 

Leaves coriaceous, rounded ; style slender . . 1. A. reniforme. 

Leaves membranous, acutely lobed ; style very 

short . . . . . . 2. A. oligococcum. 

1. A, reniforme Don. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., VI, p. 560. Leaves 2-5 in. 
long and 2|-7 in. broad, orbicular, cordate or reniform, broader than 
long, 13-1 7 -nerved, coriaceous, tip round or retuse. Scape 1-3 ft. high ; 
flowers white or pinkish, in large paniculate whorls, long-pedicelled, 1/2 in. 
in diameter ; sepals as long as the petals, at first erect in fruit, finally 
reflexed. Achenes 5-8, not whorled, obovoid, dorsally ribbed, 1/12 in. 
long, awned with the persistent slender subterminal style ; endocarp 
thick, hard. 

2. A* oligococcum F. Muell. ; Fl. Brit. Ind. 9 VI, p. 560. Leaves 
3-6 in. long and 2-3 in. broad, ovate -cordate, with acute lobes, 11-17- 
nerved, membranous, punctate. Scape 6-9 in. long ; bracts in the 
lower whorls very large, 2-3 in. long, lanceolate ; fruiting sepals reflexed. 


Achenes 2-6, in a single whorl, turgid, dorsally keeled, keel tubereled ; 
endocarp thick, hard ; style very short, terminal, deciduous. 

Both these species of AUama have not yet been collected from the vicinity of 
Lahore, but according to the Fl. Brit. Ind., they are found throughout the plains of 
Northern India from Punjab to Bengal, and may be expected to occur within the 
area of this flora. 

2. Sagittaria Linn. 

Aquatic herbs, erect in shallow water, with floating leaves in deep 
water. Leaves long-petioled, cordate or sagittate. Flowers in paniculate 
or spicate whorls, unisexual or polygamous ; stamens 6 to about 24 ; 
carpels numerous, crowded on a globose receptacle, laterally compressed ; 
style terminal or lateral ; stigma papillose ; ovule solitary, basal. Fruit 
a globose head of flattened achenes. 

Key to the species. 

Leaves broadly ovate, deeply cordate ; stamens in 

male flowers 6-10 ; achenes with a broad toothed 

wing all round . . . . 1 . 8. guayensis. 

Leaves hastate or sagittate ; stamens in male 

flowers about 24 ; achenes with an entire wing 2. S. sagittifolia. 

1. S, guayensis H.B. and Kunth ; Fl. Brit, hid., VI, p. 561. 
Herbs with petioles, scapes and pedicels usually hairy. Leaves mostly 
floating, 1-4 in. long and 1-3 in. broad, broadly ovate, deeply cordate, 
obtuse, with radiating obscure nerves, membranous ; petiole long or 
short according to the depth of water. Scape 6-18 in. tall, stout. 
Flowers 2/3 in. in diameter, white, in a few close irregular whorls, shortly 
pedicellate ; flowers of the lower whorls usually ternate, bisexual, 9-12- 
androus ; in the upper whorls more numerous, male, 6-10-androus ; 
anthers cordate. Achenes numerous, flat, surrounded all round by a 
broad toothed wing. 

Gujranwala ; flowers : October-February. 

2. S. sagittifolia Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., VI, p. 561. Aquatic 
with a thick stoloniferous rhizome ; stolons often ending in a tuber. 
Leaves in deep water strap -shaped, when floating lanceolate or elliptic, 
and in shallow water erect with hastate or sagittate blades 2-8 in. long ; 
petiole 8-18 in. long, trigonous, spongy. Scapes 6-18 in. long. Flowers 
in 3-5 whorls of 3-5 each, of lower whorls female, sessile or shortly 
pedicelled, of upper whorls male, longer stalked, 3/4 in. in diam. ; petals 
white, often with purple claws ; anthers sagittate. Achenes obliquely 
obovate, flattened, with a broad, entire or subcrenate wing. 

This species has not been collected so far from the vicinity of Lahore, but may 
occur within the area. 




Perennial or annual aquatic herbs. Leaves submerged or floating, 
opposite, alternate or verticillate, simple ; base sheathing and sometimes 
stipulate. Flowers small, inconspicuous, often green, bisexual, monoe- 
cious or dioecious, axillary solitary or in spikes, sometimes inflorescence 
enclosed in a spathe ; perianth wanting or of 2 or 4 segments or tubular ; 
stamens mostly 1-4, hypogynous or inserted on the perianth segments, 
free in the bisexual, solitary or connate in the male flowers ; anthers 1-4- 
celled ; carpels 1-4, rarely more, free ; style absent, short or long ; ovule 
solitary in each carpel, erect or pendulous. Fruiting carpels free, 
indehiscent. Seeds without endosperm ; embryo straight, usually with a 
large hypocotyl. Genera about 15, species about 150, widely distributed 
in the tropical and temperate parts of the world. 

Key to the genera. 

Flowers bisexual ; perianth leaves 4, green . . 1. Potamogeton. 

Flowers unisexual ; perianth or hyaline. 

Achenes 2-9, style long, stigma obliquely 
peltate . . . . . . 2. Zannichellia. 

Achene 1, style 0, stigmas 2-4 . . . . 3. Najas. 

1. Potamogeton Linn. 

Fresh water submerged herbs with creeping root-stock. Leaves 
submerged and thin, or floating and often leathery, opposite or alternate, 
entire or toothed ; stipules intrafoliaceous. Flowers small, bisexual, 
arranged in pedunculate axillary spikes rising from a membranous spathe, 
ebracteate ; perianth-segments 4, concave, green, valvate, shortly clawed ; 
anthers 4, sessile on the claws of the perianth -segments, 2-celled, extrorse ; 
carpels 4, sessile, free, 1 -celled ; stigma subsessile or decurrent, persistent ; 
ovule solitary inserted in the inner angle of the cell, campylotropous. 
Fruiting carpels coriaceous or spongy, indehiscent. Seed sub-reniform, 
without endosperm ; embryo with a large foot. 

Key to the species. 

Leaves lanceolate, crisped and serrulate, mostly 

about 1/4-1/3 in. broad . . 1. P. crispus. 

Leaves filiform, 1/10 in. or less broad . . 2. P. pectinatus. 



1. P* crispus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., VI, p. 566. Stems slender, 
compressed. Leaves all submerged, distichous, 1-4 in. long, 1/8-1/3 in. 
broad, sessile, semi-amplexicaul, narrowly or broadly lanceolate, crisped, 
serrulate, 3-nerved, translucent ; stipules small, caducous. Peduncle 
long, over 1 inch, curved, tapering upwards ; spike up to 1/2 in. long, 

21 6a 





Fig. 216, Potamogeton crispus, (a) (a') two shoots, one flowering and 
fruiting, X }, (b) achene, x3; Fig. 217, P. pectinatus, (a) plant, xj, (b) tubers, 
x|, (c) inflorescence, x 1, (d) achene, x3; Fig. 218, Zannichellia palustris, 
(a) branch, x J, (b) a node bearing a female flower, x 2, (c) carpels, X 3. 


few-flowered ; flowers about 1/10 in. long. Fruiting carpels 1/8 in. long, 
obliquely ovoid, long-beaked. (Fig. 216.) 

Common in ponds, Shalamar garden, etc. Flowers at the end of the winter. 
Size of the leaf and margin, are very variable. Sometimes the margin is almost 
entire and only slightly crisped. 

2. P. pectinatus Linn. ; Fl. Brit. 2nd., VI, p. 567. Stem filiform, 
densely branched. Leaves all submerged, mostly 3-6 in. long, 1/10 in. 
or less broad, filiform, opaque, 1-3-nerved, margins slightly thickened or 
recurved ; stipules adnate to the leaf -sheath. Spike up to 1 in. long, on 
a 'long filiform peduncle; flowers few, in distant whorls, about 1/10 in. 
long. Fruiting carpels 1/6 in. long, broadly ovate or almost semicircular, 
turgid, smooth, hardly beaked. (Fig. 217.) 

Distribution same as of P. crispus. Flowers : October-April. 

2. Zannichellia Linn. 

Submerged fresh or salt water plants, with slender root- stock and 
filiform stems. Leaves linear, alternate or opposite or crowded at the 
nodes, with a stipular sheathing base. Flowers minute, monoecious, a male 
and female enclosed in one membranous leaf-sheath. Male flower : A linear 
2-3-celled anther ; filament slender. Female flower : Perianth cupular, 
hyaline ; carpels 2-9, usually 4, sessile, with long slender styles and oblique 
peltate stigmas ; ovule solitary, pendulous, orthotropous. Fruiting 
carpels (achenes) sessile or stipitate, indehiscent. Seed with thin testa 
and a subcylindric embryo with the cotyledonary end twice folded on 

Z, palustris Linn., sub-species pedicellata Hook. f. ; Fl. Brit. 
2nd., VI, p. 568. Leaves 1/2-3 in. long, 1/12 in. or less wide. Flowers 
sessile, subsessile or shortly peduncled ; anthers 2-celled. Achenes mostly 
2-4, subsessile, back crenate or tubercled ; style as long as the body of 
the achene or longer, rarely shorter. (Fig. 218.) 

In ponds ; fairly common. 

3. Najas (Naias) Linn. 

Submerged annual water plants. Stem filiform, much branched. 
Leaves small, opposite, alternate or whorled, linear, entire or toothed ; 
base sheathing ; within the sheath a pair of minute scales. Flowers 
minute, axillary, monoecious or dioecious. Male flower enclosed within 
a tubular or inflated, entire or 4-fid spathe ; perianth hyaline, broadly 
tubular ; stamen 1, subsessile ; anther 1-4-celled, opening by longitudinal 
slits. Female flower : Perianth or hyaline and adherent to the carpel ; 
carpel 1, sessile, with 2-4 stigmas ; ovule solitary, basilar, erect, anatro- 
pous. Achenes oblong, usually embraced by the leaf-sheath. Seed with 


membranous testa, no endosperm and a straight embryo with large 
hypoeotyl and radicle. 

N* major All. ; PL Brit. Ind., VI, p. 569. Leaves 1/2-1J in. long, 
1/10-1/6 in. wide, linear, dorsally spinous, pinnatifid-toothed ; teeth 4-8 
on either side, triangular ; sheath with rounded entire sides. Flowers 
dioecious, solitary ; spathe of the male flowers oblong, 2-3-toothed ; 
anther 4-celled ; carpel oblong ; stigmas 2-3, filiform. Achene 1/12-1/8 in. 

In ponds. 


This family contains 3 genera which differ widely from each other. 
Only the genus Ephedra is found within the area of the present flora. 
Its description alone is therefore given below. 

Ephedra Linn. 

Erect or subscandent rigid shrubs ; branches opposite or fascicled, 
terete, striate, young green, older brownish. Leaves opposite or in 
whorls of 3, scaly, rarely produced into green linear blades. Cones 
solitary or fascicled, of decussately opposite bracts, lower of which are 
empty, upper with one axillary flower ; bracts dry or fleshy in fruit. Male 
flower : Perianth of 2 opposite compressed membranous sepals ; anthers 
210, sessile or stipitate on the top of a column formed by the connate 
filaments ; cells 2, globose. Female flower : A naked ovule with the 
outer coat produced into a long tube (tubillus). Seeds usually oblong, 
plano-convex ; testa dry. Species about 30 ; distribution world-wide. 

E* foliata Boiss., syn. E. peduncularls Boiss. ; Fl. Brit. Ind., T 7 , 
p. 641. A tall scandent shrub ; stem up to 4 in. in diam. at the base ; 
branchlets slender, dull green, internodes 1-4 in. long ; leaves in whorls 
of 2 or 3, with green blades up to 1 in. long. Male cones ovate, solitary 
or 2 or 3 together, with peduncles 1-1 J in. long ; flowers few or many ; 
bracts rounded, connate ; stamens 3 or 4 ; column equalling the perianth 
or shortly exserted. Female cones usually in pairs ; tubillus straight, 
exserted. Fruiting bracts succulent, white. Seeds 1/4-1/3 in. long, dark- 

Common at Changa Manga. Flowers during late winter (Feb. -March) ; 
fruits : April. 

The following gymnosperms are commonly cultivated in the local gardens : 
Family Cycadaceae. 

Cycas revoluta Thunb. 
Family Pinaceae, 

1. Pinus longifolia Roxb. Vern., Chir or Chil. 

2. Thuja orientalis Linn. Vem., Morpankh. 

Cupressus funebris End. Weeping cypress ; Vern., Sard. 


Note. For more information Daydon Jackson's Glossary of Botanic 
Terms should be consulted. 


Abortive* Imperfectly developed. 
Accrescent* Enlarging with age, as the calyx in some Solanacese and 

Accumbent* Applied to cotyledons in a bent embryo when their edges 

lie against the radicle as in some Cruciferae. 
Achene* A dry indehiscent one-seeded fruit. 
Achlamydeous* Flowers without a perianth. 
Acicular* Needle-shaped. 
Actinomorphic* Applied to flowers which are regular in shape, i.e., 

which can be divided into two similar halves along two or more 


Aculeate* Armed with prickles. 
Acuminate* With a long gradually tapering tip. 
Acute* With a sharp pointed tip. 
Adhesion* The union of an organ with some other different organ, as 

the union of the calyx with the ovary, or that of the petals with the 

Adnate* Attachment of an organ by its whole length, as the attachment 

of stipules to the petiole in a rose, or that of the calyx to the ovary 

in epigynous flowers. 
Adventitious* Applied to organs which do not arise at their normal 

place, as roots from the stem, or buds from the leaf-margin. 
Albumen* The nutritive substance found in some seeds in addition to 

the embryo. Also called * endosperm '. 
Alternate* Applied to leaves when they arise singly on the stem ; also 

to parts of a flower when the members of a higher whorl are placed 

in the intervals between the members of the lower whorl, as petals 

alternating with sepals. 

Amplexicaul* A leaf which embraces the stem by its base. 
Anatropous* An ovule which has become inverted so that the micro- 

pyle is near the hilum at one end and the chalaza is at the other end. 
Androecium, A term applied to the stamens collectively. 
Anglos perms* Plants which have their seeds enclosed in an ovary. 
Annual* Plants which grow and produce seeds in the course of a single 

season or year and thus complete their life -cycle within one year. 


Anther, The portion of a stamen which contains the pollen. It 

usually consists of two halves or cells which open separately to let 

the pollen out. 

Apetalous, Without petals. 

Apocarpous* When the carpels in a flower are free from each other. 
Appressed, When an organ, as a leaf or a hair, lies flat for its whole 

length against another organ. 
Arborescent, Resembling a tree in shape or size. 
Aril* An expansion of the funicle arising from the placenta and more 

or less enveloping the seed. 
Arista, A bristle-like appendage ; an awn. 
Aristate, Having an awn. 
Armed* Provided with thorns or prickles. 
Auricle, An ear-like appendage to a leaf, etc. 
Awn. A bristle -like appendage. 
Axil, The angle formed between the axis (stem, etc.) and any organ 

such as a leaf attached to it. 
Axillary, Borne in the axil. 


Baccate. Applied to a fleshy fruit. 

Berry. A pulpy fruit with the seeds immersed in the pulp. 

Biennial* Plant which completes its life-cycle in two years, the flowers, 

fruits and seeds being formed in the second year. 
Bifoliate, Two-leaved. 
Bifoliolate. With two leaflets. 
Bilabiate, Two-lipped. 
Bimerous, Composed of two members. 
Bipinnate, When the axes of the second order of a leaf are also like 

the axis of the first order pinnate. 
Bipinnatifid, When the segments of a pinnatifid leaf are also pinna- 

Bisexual, When both stamens and carpels are present in the same 


Blade, The expanded part of a leaf. 
Bract. A leaf -like structure at the base of a flower. 
Bracteate. Possessing bracts. 
Bracteole, A small bract on the stalk of a flower. 
Bulb. An underground shoot with a reduced stem and thick fleshy 

leaves, as in the onion. 
Bulbil. A small bud produced in place of a flower or in the axil of a leaf 

which gets detached and gives rise to a new plant. 
Bullate, Having a blistered appearance. 


Caducous, Falling off very early. 

Caespitosc. Growing in tufts. 

Calyptrate, Applied to the calyx and corolla when these separate off 

as a whole in the form of a cap. 

Calyx, The outermost, generally green, floral envelope. 
Campanulate, Bell-shaped. 
Campy lot ropous. An ovule which is so curved as to bring its micropyle, 

hilum and chalaza all close together. 
Cane scent. Becoming grey or hoary. 
Capitate, Head-shaped, or collected into a head as the flowers of the 

Composite . 

Capitellate, Diminutive of capitate. 

Capsule. A dry dehiscent fruit consisting of more than one carpel. 
Cariopsis, An achenial fruit in which the pericarp adheres to the seed, 

as in the grasses. 
Carpel, A simple pistil or an element of a compound pistil answering 

to a leaf and bearing ovules. 
Caruncle, A wart or protuberance near the hilum of a seed ; also 

called strophiole. 
Catkin, A spike of unisexual flowers which falls off as a whole after 

maturity, as in willows. 

Caudicle, The stalk of a pollinium, as in Calotropis and the Orchids. 
Cauline, Belonging to the stem. 
Centrifugal, Applied to the inflorescence in which the flowers develop 

or open from the centre outwards. 
Centripetal, Applied to the inflorescence in which the flowers develop 

from the outside towards the centre. 

Chalaza, The part of the ovule from where its integuments arise. 
Ciliate, Possessing hairs in the form of a fringe like the eye-lashes. 
Circinate. Rolled in a coil from the tip towards the base, as the young 

fronds of a fern. 
Circumscissile, Dehiscing transversely as if cut circularly around, as 

the capsule of Anagallis. 
Cirrhose* Furnished with tendrils. 
Clavate, Club-shaped. 

Claw, The stalk -like narrowed base of a petal. 
Cleistogamic or cleistogamous. Applied to flowers which are fertilised 

without opening. 

Coccus, A part of a schizocarpic fruit. 
Cochleate, Shaped like a spiral shell. 
Collateral, Placed side by side. 


Column. The solid central body formed by the fusion of the stamens 

and the style, as in orchids. 

Coma* The tuft of hairs at the end of some seeds, as in Calotropis. 
Commissure* The face by which two carpels adhere, as in Umbel- 


Comose* Possessing a tuft of hairs. 
Complanate* Compressed or flattened. 
Conduplicate* Folded lengthwise. 
Cone* The fruit of the pine and other gymnosperms. 
Confluent* Blended into one. 
Connate* United. 

Connective* The part of the stamen which connects the anther-lobes. 
Connivent* Coming into contact or converging. 
Convolute* Rolled up longitudinally from one margin to the other. 
Cordate* Heart-shaped. 
Coriaceous* Leathery. 
Corm* A bulb-like fleshy underground shoot with a thick solid central 

structure surrounded by thin scales. 
Corolla* The inner envelope of the flower which is usually delicate and 


Corolline* Like corolla or attached to corolla. 
Corona* An extra whorl of parts arising as outgrowths either from the 

corolla or the stamens. 
Corrugate* Wrinkled. 
Corymb* A racemose inflorescence in which the lower flower-stalks are 

longer than the upper ones so as to bring all the flowers almost to 

the same level. 

Corymbose* Arranged in a corymb. 
Costate* Ribbed. 

Cotyledons* The seed leaves or the first leaves of the embryo. 
Cremocarp* A dry and seed-like fruit composed of two 1 -seeded carpels, 

separating when ripe into two mericarps, as in the Umbelliferae. 
Crenate* Having rounded teeth. * 

Crustaceous* Of brittle texture. 
Cryptogams* Plants which do not produce ordinary stamens, carpels 

and true seeds. 
Cucullate* Hood-shaped. 
Culm* The hollow stem of grasses. 
Cuneate* Wedge-shaped. 
Cupular* Like a small cup. 
Cusp* A sharp rigid point. 
Cuspidate* Possessing a sharp rigid point. 


Cyme* A flower-cluster of determinate or comrifuiral type. The main 
axis ends in a flower and the lateral branches, one or more, in their 
turn end in flowers and so on. 


Deciduous* Falling in season, as petals falling after flowering. 

Decimate* Bent or curved downwards. 

Decompound* Divided several times. 

Decumbent* Reclining, but with the summit ascending. 

Decurrent* Applied to leaves when they are prolonged beyond their 

insertion and thus run down the stem. 
Decussate* In pairs alternately at right angles. 
Definite* Limited in number ; applied to an inflorescence it indicates a 


Dehiscence* The mode of opening of a capsule or an anther. 
Dentate* Toothed, especially with salient teeth directed outwards. 
Denticulate* Minutely toothed. 
Dladelphous* Having stamens in two bundles. 
Dichasial* Cymes in which two lateral shoots of nearly equal strength 

arise from the primary axis below the flower which terminates 

the apex, the process being repeated by each set of branches. 
Dichlamydeous* Having both whorls of the perianth, calyx and corolla. 
Dichotomous* Forked in pairs. 
Diclinous* Applied to flowers which are unisexual. 
Dicotyledons* Plants in which the embryo has two cotyledons. 
Didymous* In pairs. 
Didynamous* An androecium having four stamens in two pairs, one 

of the pairs being shorter than the other. 
Diffuse* Widely or loosely spreading. 
Digitate* A compound leaf in which all the leaflets arise from the same 

point at the tip of the leaf -stalk. 
Dimerous* Applied to flowers or whorls of a flower, where each whorl 

consists of two parts. 
Dimidiate. Halved, as when half an organ is so much smaller than the 

other half as to seem wanting. 
Dimorphic* Having two forms. 

Dioecious. Plants with male and female flowers on different individuals. 
Disk or Disc* Development of the torus within the calyx or within the 

corolla and stamens ; the central part of a capitulum in Composite 

as opposed to the ray florets ; the expanded base of the style in 



Dissepiment. A partition in an ovary or pericarp caused by the cohesion 
of the sides of the carpels, sometimes spurious as in Cruciferse. 

Distichous* Arranged in two vertical ranks, as the leaves in some 
plants and flowers in many grasses. 

Divaricate* Extremely divergent. 

Dorsal* Relating to or attached to the back ; in a leaf, the side away 
from the axis and therefore the lower surface. 

Drupaceous* Resembling a drupe. 

Drupe. A stone-fruit, such as a plum. The pericarp is usually differ- 
entiated into three layers, the epicarp thin and membranous, the 
mesocarp thick and fleshy, and the endocarp stony, inside \vhich is 
the seed. 


Echinate* Beset with prickles. 

Emarginate. Notched at the apex. 

Embryo, The rudimentary plant found in the seed. 

Endocarp. The innermost layer of the pericarp. 

Emergence. An outgrowth arising from a few superficial layers of an 

Endosperm. The nutritive material or albumen in some seeds in addi- 
tion to the embryo formed within the embryo-sac. 

Ensiform. Sword-shaped. 

Entire. Even and untoothed. 

Epicalyx. An involucre outside the calyx and resembling it. 

Epicarp. The outermost layer of the pericarp. 

Epigynous. Above the ovary, as the corolla in Composite. 

Epipetalous* On the petals or corolla. 

Epiphyte. Growing on an other plant, but not deriving its food from it. 

Equitant. Applied to leaves when they are so placed as to appear 
astride one another. 

Erose. Irregularly toothed. 

Exstipulate. Without stipules. 

Extrorse. Directed outwards. 

Extra-axillary. Beyond or out of the axil. 


Falcate. Sickle-shaped. 

Farinaceous. Of the nature of starch or cniiMiniMir starch. 
Fascicle. A cluster or bundle. 

Fastigiate. Applied to branches which are parallel, erect and clustered. 
Ferruginous. Rust -coloured. 


Fid* A suffix meaning cleft, as 5-fid, meaning cleft into 5 parts. 

Filament* The stalk of an anther ; a thread-like body. 

Fhnbriate* With the margin bordered by long slender processes. 

Fistular, Hollow throughout its length, as the leaf of onion. 

Flabellate, Fan-shaped. 

Flaccid, Limp, flabby. 

Flagellate* Provided with whip-like runners. 

Flagelliform, Like the lash of a whip. 

Floccose* Covered with locks of soft hair or wool. 

Foliaceous, Having the structure of or resembling a leaf. 

Follicle* A fruit produced from a single carpel and opening by the 

ventral suture. 
Fruit, Strictly the fertilised and developed ovary, but often with any 

external integral portion of it. 
Fugacious* Soon perishing. 
Funicle* The stalk of the ovule. 
Furcate, Forked. 
Fusiform, Spindle-shaped. 

Gamopetalous, With united petals. 

Gamophyllous, Applied to a perianth with united segments. 

Gamosepalous, With united sepals. 

Geminate, In pairs. 

Gibbous, With a pouch-like enlargement at the base. 

Glabrous, Smooth, without hairs. 

Glabrescent, Becoming glabrous or nearly so. 

Gland, A definite secreting structure on the surface of an organ. 

Glandular, Furnished with glands. 

Glaucous, Sea-green, bluish-green. 

Globose, Nearly spherical. 

Glochidium, A barbed bristle. 

Glochidiate, Furnished with barbed bristles. 

Glomerate, Compactly clustered. 

Glumaceous, Resembling the glumes of grasses, chaffy. 

Glume, One of the chaff-like structures which occur in the inflorescence 

of the grasses and similar plants. 
Gregarious, Growing in company. 

Gymnosperms* Plants having naked seeds, such as the pines. 
Gynandrous. Applied to stamens which are fused with the pistil, as 

in orchids. 


Gynobasic, Applied to a style which adheres by its base to a prolonga- 
tion of the torus upwards between the carpels, as in the Boraginaceae 
and Labiatae. 

Gynoecium, The pistil or carpels of a flower collectively. 

Gynophore* An elongation of the torus forming a stalk to the pistil. 


Habit* The general appearance of a plant, whether erect, prostrate, 

climbing, etc. 

Habitat* The kind of locality in which a plant grows. 
Halophyte* A plant which grows within the influence of salt water, 

or in soils rich in salt. 
Hastate* Shaped like the head of a spear. Differs from sagittate in 

that the basal lobes are directed outwards. 
Helicoid, Coiled like a snail-shell. 
Herbaceous* Not woody. 

Hermaphrodite* With the stamens and pistils in the same flower. 
Heterogamous* Bearing two kinds of flowers as regards the sex organs. 
Heterophyllous* Having leaves of different forms. 
Hilum* The scar left on a seed where it was formerly attached to the 

funicle ; the place where the funicle is attached to the ovule. 
Hirsute* With rather long, tolerably distinct hairs. 
Hispid* Beset with rougli hairs or bristles. 
Hispidulous* Minutely hispid. 
Homogamous* Bearing one kind of flowers. 
Homogamy* The condition when pollen and stigma of a perfect flower 

ripen at the same time* 
Hyaline* Colourless or translucent. 

Hypocotyl* The axis of the embryo below the cotyledons. 
Hypogynous* Inserted below the ovary. 


Imbricate* Overlapping. 

Imparipinnate* Applied to a pinnate leaf with an odd terminal leaflet. 

Incised* Cut sharply and irregularly. 

Incumbent* Applied to cotyledons when the back of one lies against 

the radicle. 
Indefinite. Too many for easy enumeration ; applied to inflorescence, 

it means racemose. 

Indehiscent* Applied to fruits which do not open. 
Induplicate* With the edges folded inwards. 
Inflorescence* The arrangement of the flowers on the floral axis. 


Infundibuliform, Funnel-shaped. 

Internode, The portion of the stem between two nodes. 
Interpetlolar, Between the petioles, as the stipules of some Rubiacese. 
Introrse, Turned inwards towards the axis. 
Involucel, A secondary involucre, as in Umbelliferae. 
Involucre, A whorl of bracts surrounding several flowers or peduncles. 
Involute, Applied to leaves with their edges rolled inwards (towards 
the upper surface). 

Labiate, Lipped ; usually bilabiate, as in Labiatse. 

Lacerate, Torn. 

Laciniate, Cut into narrow lobes. 

Lamina, The blade or expanded part of a leaf. 

Lanceolate, Applied to a leaf which is long and narrow, tapering to- 
wards both extremities or with the base somewhat broader than 
the apex. 

Legume, A pod, the characteristic fruit of Leguminosae, 1 -celled and 

Ligule, The thin, scarious, often hairy projection from the top of the 
leaf -sheath in grasses or from the upper surface of the petals in 
some flowers ; also the strap-shaped corolla of the ray flowers in 

Ligulate, Furnished with a ligule. 

Limb, The border or expanded part of a gamopetalous corolla as 
distinct from the tube or throat ; the lamina of a leaf or of a petal. 

Linear, Several times longer than wide. 

Lip, One of the two divisions of a bilabiate calyx or corolla ; also 
applied to that petal in Orchids which is different from and usually 
larger than the others. 

Loculicidal, Applied to fruits which open by the dorsal sutures of the 

Lodicule, One of the minute scales outside the stamens in the flower 
of the grasses. 

Loment, Lomentum, A legume which is constricted between the seeds, 
usually falling apart at the constrictions when mature into one- 
seeded parts. 

Lomentaceous, Resembling a loment. 

Lunate, Half-moon-shaped. 

Lyrate, Applied to a pinnatifid leaf with the terminal lobe rounded and 
much larger than the lower ones. 



Marcescent, Withering without falling off. 

Monadelphous, Applied to the stamens when they are united by their 

filaments into a tube or a column. 
Moniliform, Like a string of beads. 

Monochlamydeous, With only one whorl of the perianth. 
Monocotyledons, Plants in which the embryo has only one cotyledon. 
Monoecious, Applied to plants or flowers when unisexual flowers of 

both kinds occur on the same individual. 
Mucronate, Tipped with an abrupt point. 
Multifid. Cleft into many lobes. 
Murlcate. Rough with hard tubercles. 
Muticous. Blunt, awnless. 


Nerve, A simple or unbraiiched vein or slender rib. 

Node, That part of the stem which normally bears a leaf or a whorl 

of leaves. 

Nut, A hard and indehiscent one-seeded fruit. 
Nutlet, A small nut. 


Ofacordate. Heart-shaped with the notch at the apex. 

Obovate, Ovate with the broad end towards the apex. 

Ochrea, Tube formed round the stem by the stipules, as in Polygona- 


Ochreate, Having ochrea. 
Offset, A lateral shoot used for propagation. 
Operculum, A lid. 
Operculate, Furnished with a lid. 
Orthotropous, Applied to an ovule which has a straight axis, the hiluin 

and the chalaza being at the base and the micropyle at the opposite 


Oval, Broadly elliptic. 

Ovary, The part of the pistil containing the ovules. 
Ovate* Shaped like an egg with the broader end at the base. 
Ovule. The unripe seed in the ovary. 

Pale, Palea, The scale-like bracts within the glumes in the flowers of 
grasses ; also the scales on the floral receptacle of many Composite. 


Palmate. Applied to a compound leaf in which the leaflets arise from 

the same point at the tip of the leaf- stalk, like the fingers in the 


Palmatifid* Lobed in the form of a hand. 
Palmatipartite. Palmately lobed nearly to the base. 
Panicle* An inflorescence in which the main racemose axis has its lateral 

branches again branched. 
Paniculate* In the form of a panicle. 
Papilionaceous* Applied to the butterfly- shaped corolla of the Papili- 


Papilla* A soft superficial protuberance. 
Papillose* Covered with papillae. 
Pappose* Furnished with pappus. 
Pappus, The tuft of hairs or scales representing the limb of the calyx 

in Composite. 
Parasite* A plant which grows on and obtains its food from another 

plant which is called its host. 
Parietal* Borne on or belonging to a wall ; applied to a placenta arising 

from the wall of the ovary. 
Partite* Cleft nearly to the base ; parted. 
Patent* Spreading. 
Pectinate* Pinnatifid, with narrow segments set close like the teeth of 

a comb. 
Pedate* Palmately divided or parted with the lateral divisions two- 


Pedicel* The stalk of a single flower. 
Pedicellate* Possessing a pedicel. 
Peduncle* The general term for the stalk of a flower or the stalk of a 

cluster of flowers. 

Pedunculate* Furnished with a peduncle. 
Pellucid* Transparent or translucent. 
Peltate* Target- shaped, as a leaf attached by its lower surface to the 

stalk instead of its margin. 
Pendent* Pendulous, hanging down. 
Pcnicillate. Shaped like a little brush. 
Penni nerved. Pinnately veined. 
Pentamerous* Composed of five members. 
Pentandrous* Having five stamens. 
Perennial* A plant which lasts several years, not dying after flowering 

and fruiting once. 
Perfect* Applied to a flower which is bisexual. 


Per foliate* Applied to a leaf when the stem apparently passes through 

Perforate* Pierced through ; having translucent dots which look like 

little holes. 

Perianth* The floral envelopes, calyx, corolla, or both. 
Pericarp* The wall of the ovary when it is forming the fruit. 
Per is perm* Nutritive material in the seeds which is formed outside the 

embryo-sac, i.e., from the nucellus. 
Petal* One of the parts of the corolla of a flower. 
Petiole* The stalk of a leaf. 
Petiolate* Having petiole. 

Phanerogams* Plants with manifest flowers as opposed to Cryptogams. 
Phyllode* A flattened petiole which takes the form and performs the 

function of a leaf. 
Pilose* Covered with soft hair. 
Pinna* A primary division of a pinnate leaf, which may be again 

Pinnate* Applied to a compound leaf in which the leaflets are arranged 

on the two sides of a common axis (rachis). 
Pinnatifid* Pinnately cleft. 
Pinnatipartite. Pinnately parted. 
Pinnatisect* Pinnately parted down to the rachis. 
Pinnule* A secondary pinna. 
Pistil* The female organ of a flower collectively, con^i^iini; of one or 

more carpels. 
Placenta* The place or process in the ovary to which the ovules are 


Plicate* Folded into plaits. 
Plumose* Feathered. 

Plumule* The primary leaf-bud of an embryo. 

Pod* A legume, but also sometimes applied to other pod-like fruits. 
Pollen* The dust -like grains inside an anther. 
Pollinium* A more or less coherent mass of pollen grains, as in Orchi- 

daceae and Asclepiadacese. 

Polyadelphous* With the stamens in many bundles. 
Polyandrous* Having an indefinite number of stamens. 
Polycarpellary* Applied to a pistil formed of several carpels. 
Polygamous* The condition when unisexual and bisexual flowers occur 

on the same plant. 
Polymorphic* With several forms. 
Polypetalous* Applied to corolla with free petals. 
Polysepalous, Applied to calyx with free sepals. 


Prostrate. Lying flat on the ground. 

Protandrous* Applied to a flower in which the anthers ripen earlier 

than the stigma. 
Protogynous* Applied to a flower in which the stigma ripens earlier 

than the stamens. 
Puberulous* Slightly hairy. 
Pubescent, Clothed with soft hair or down. 
Pulvinus* The swollen base of a petiole. 
Pyrene* A nutlet or the small stones of a drupaceous fruit. 


Quincuntial* Applied to imbricate aestivation, when out of 5 parts, two 
are exterior, two interior and the fifth has one margin exterior and 
one interior. 


Raceme* An (indefinite or centripetal) inflorescence in which the flowers 

are stalked and arranged on a long axis, the oldest being at the 

base and the youngest at the top. 
Racemose, Bearing racemes, or raceme-like. 
Radical* Arising from or near the root. 
Radicle* The primary root of the embryo. 
Raphe* The adnate funicle in an anatropous ovule, the cord or ridge 

connecting the hilum with the chalaza. It may be on the side of 

the ovule turned towards the axis (ventral), or on the face of the 

ovule away from the axis (dorsal). 
Ray* The marginal portion of the head of flowers in Composite when 

distinct from the disk. 
Receptacle* Usually applied to that part of the axis of a flower, which 

supports the sepals, petals, stamens and carpels. Also called torus 

or thalamus. 
Regular* Applied to a flower which is actinomorphic ; when the parts 

of each whorl in a flower are alike. 
Reniforra* Kidney -shaped. 
Repand* With slightly uneven margin 
Replum* A frame-like placenta from which the valves of a dehiscent 

fruit fall away ; applied to the septum of Cruciferse. 
Resupinate* Upside down or apparently so. 
Reticulate* In the form of network. 
Retinaculum* The hook-like process to which the seeds are attached in 

many Acanthaceae. 


Retrorse* Directed backwards or downwards. 

Retuse* With a shallow notch at the rounded apex. 

Rhachilla* A secondary axis in the inflorescence of grasses. 

Rachis* The axis of an inflorescence or of a compound leaf. 

Rhizome, The rootstock ; a stem of a root-like appearance prostrate 

on or underground, sending off roots and bearing scale-leaves. 
Rhomboid. Approaching a rhombic outline ; quadrangular with the 

lateral angles obtuse. 
Rib* A primary vein of a leaf. 
Rostellum* A narrow extension of the upper edge of the stigma in 


Rostrate. Beaked. 
Rosulate* Collected in a rosette. 
Rotund. Rounded in outline, somewhat orbicular. 
Rugose. Wrinkled. 
Rugulose* Slightly wrinkled. 

Ruminate* Looking as though chewed, as the albumen of nutmeg. 
Runcinate* Saw-toothed or sharply incised, the teeth retrorse. 
Runner* An elongated lateral shoot rooting at intervals. The inter- 

mediate parts are apt to perish and new plants are thus produced. 

Sagittate* Shaped like an arrow-head. 

Samara. An indehiscent winged fruit. 

Saprophyte. A plant which lives on dead organic matter. 

Sarmentose. Producing long and lithe runners. 

Scafarid* Somewhat rough. 

Scabrous. Rough to the touch. 

Scale. Any thin scarious body. 

Scaly* Bearing scales. 

Scandent* Climbing, in whatever manner. 

Scape* A leafless floral axis or peduncle arising from the ground. 

Scapigerous. With flowers borne on a scape. 

Scarious* Thin, dry and membranous, not green. 

Scorpiold* Applied to a cymose inflorescence in which the main axis 
(paseud-axis) is coiled in a circulate manner, strictly with flowers 
two-ranked, these being alternately thrown to opposite sides. 

Secund* Parts or organs directed to one side only. 

Seed* The structure produced from the mature ovule. 

Sepal* A segment, free or united with other segments, of the calyx. 


Sepaloid. Resembling a sepal. 

Septicidal* Applied to a capsule dehiscing by the ventral sutures, i.e., 
along the lines of the septa. 

Septifragal. Applied to the dehiscence of a capsule when the valves 
break away from the septa. 

Serrate* Beset with forwardly directed teeth on the margin. 

Serrulate. Finely serrate. 

Sessile* Without a stalk. 

Seta. A bristle or bristle-shaped body. 

Setaceous. Bristle-like. 

Setose. Bristly. 

Sigmoid* Doubly curved like the letter S. 

Silicula. A short siliqua, not much longer than broad. 

Siliqua. The fruit characteristic of the Cruciferae, two valves falling 
away from a frame, the replum, on which the seeds are borne and 
across which a false partition is formed. 

Sinuate. With a deep wavy margin. 

Sinus. A recess or a re-entering angle. 

Spadix* A spike with a fleshy axis, as in the aroids. The flowers are 
generally unisexual and the whole spadix is more or less enclosed in 
a large bract called the spathe. 

Spathe. A large bract enclosing an inflorescence, as in the aroids. 

Spathulate* Obovate with the basal end attenuated. 

Spike. A racemose (indeterminate) inflorescence with sessile flowers on 
an elongated axis. 

S pikelet* A secondary spike ; a cluster of one or more flowers subtended 
by a common pair of glumes as in the grasses. 

Spine. A sharp-pointed woody or hard body. 

Spinose. Furnished with spines ; spinous. 

Spur* A hollow extension of some part of the flower, usually honey- 

Spurious. False. 

Squamose. Scaly or scale-like. 

Squarrose. Rough or scurfy with spreading and outstanding processes. 

Stamen. A male sporophyll in a flower ; one of the elements in the 
androecium bearing an anther. 

Staminal. Relating to the stamens. 

Staminode. A sterile or abortive stamen. 

Standard. The posterior and usually the largest petal of a papiliona- 
ceous corolla. 

Stellate. Star-shaped or radiating like the points of a star. 

Stigma* That part of the pistil which receives the pollen. 


Stipe* Stalk, usually applied to the stalk of a fern frond or that of a 

Stipel* An appendage of a leaflet corresponding to the stipule of a 


Stipellate* Furnished with stipels. 
Stipitate* Having a stipe. 
Stipular* Relating to stipules. 
Stipule. An appendage at the base of a leaf. There are usually two 

to each leaf. 

Stipulate* Possessing stipules. 

Stolon* A sucker, runner or any basal branch which is disposed to root. 
Stoloniferous* Sending out or propagating itself by stolons. 
Stone* The hard endocarp of a drupe. 
Strigose* Beset with sharp-pointed, appressed, straight and stiff hairs 

or bristles. 
Strophiole* An appendage at the hilum of some seeds. Also known as 

Style* The usually attenuated part of the pistil between the ovary 

and the stigma. 

Subaerial* Situated almost on the ground level. 
Suberose* Having a corky texture. 
Submerged* Submersed. Growing under water. 
Subulate* Awl-shaped. 
Sucker* A shoot of subterranean origin. 
Suffruticose* Somewhat shrubby. 
Sulcate* Grooved or furrowed. 
Supine* Prostrate with face upwards. 
Suture* A junction or seam of union ; a line of dehiscence. 
Syncarpous* Composed of two or more united carpels. 
Syngenesious* Applied to andrcecium when the anthers are cohering 

in a ring. 
Synonym* A superseded or unused name. 

Tegmen* The inner coat of a seed. 
Tendril* A filiform organ for climbing. 
Terete* Circular in transverse section ; cylindrical. 
Ternate* In threes. 

Testa* The outer coat of a seed, usually hard. 

Tetradynamous* Having four long and two short stamens, as in Cru- 


Tetragonous. Four-angled. 

Thalamus. Receptacle of the flower. 

Throat . The orifice of a gamopetalous corolla or a gamosepalous calyx. 

Thyrsus* A mixed inflorescence ; a contracted or ovate panicle in which 

the main axis is indeterminate, but the secondary and ultimate 

axes are cymose. 

Thyrsoid. Resembling thyrsus. 

Tomentose. Densely pubescent with matted wool or short hairs. 
Tomentum. Pubescence. 
Torulose* Constricted at intervals. 
Torus* Receptacle or thalamus of a flower. 

Tricarpellary. Applied to ovary with three carpels, free or united. 
Trichotomous. Three-forked. 
Trifoliolate. With three leaflets. 
Trigonous. Three-angled. 
Trilobate. Three-lobed. 
Trilocular. Three-celled. 
Trimorphic. Having three forms. 
Tripartite, Three-lobed nearly to the base. 
Triptnnate. Three times pinnate. 
Triquetrous. With three salient angles. 
Truncate. As though cut off at the end. 
Tuber. A thickened and short subterranean structure, usually a stem 

when it possesses buds or ' eyes ' and scale-leaves, or a root as in 

some orchids. 

Tubercle. A wart-like excrescence. 
Tuberculate. Covered with wart-like excrescences. 
Tuberous. Possessing tubers or resembling a tuber. 
Tumid. Inflated, swollen. 
Turbinate. Shaped like a top. 
Turgid. Swollen but not with air. 


Umbel. An inflorescence, properly indeterminate, in which all the 
pedicels radiate from the same point like the ribs of an umbrella. 

Unarmed * Without thorns or prickles. 

Unclnate. Hooked. 

Undulate. Wavy. 

Undershrub. A low shrub. 

Unguiculate* Ungulate. Contracted at the base into a claw, clawed. 

Urceolate* Pitcher-shaped, urn-shaped, hollow and contracted at the 


Utricle* A small bladdery pericarp, as in some Chenopodiaceae ; a small 
bladdery structure. 


Valvate* The condition when the parts of a floral whorl do not overlap. 
Vein* A strand of vascular tissue in a flat organ, as a leaf ; the branch 

of a nerve. 
Velamen* A parchment-like layer of air-cells on the surface of the 

aerial roots of some orchids, aroids, etc. 
Velutinus* Velvety. 
Ventral* Applied to the upper surface of a leaf and the inner surface 

of a carpel, in opposition to dorsal. 
Ventricose. Swollen or inflated on one side, as the corolla in many 


Venulose. Profusely veined. 
Verrucose* Warty. 
Versatile* Turning free on their support, as anthers on their filaments 

in some stamens. 
Versicolor* Changing colour. 
Verticil* A whorl. 
Verticillaster* A false whorl composed of a pair of opposite cymes, as 

in Labiatse. 

Vexillum* The posterior and usually the largest petal in the papiliona- 
ceous corolla ; the standard. 
Villous* Covered with long soft hairs. 
Virgate* Twiggy. 
Viscid* Sticky. 

Vitta* An aromatic oil tube in the pericarp, as in most Umbelliferae. 
Viviparous* A plant in which the seeds or buds germinate while still 
attached to it. 


Whorl* The arrangement of organs in a circle round an axis. 

Xerophyte* A plant which can subsist in dry localities, as a desert plant. 


Zygomorphic* Applied to flowers which can be divided into equal 
halves in one plane only. 


Abutilon, 48. 
Acacia, 103. 
Acanthaceae, 8, 190. 
Achyranthes, 210. 
Adrak, 244. 
Aegle, 61. 
Aerua, 209. 
Ageratum, 129. 
Ajwain, 123. 
Albizzia, 106. 
Alfalfa, 73. 
Alhagi, 80. 
Alisma, 254. 
Alismaceae, 12, 253. 
Allium, 246. 
Aloe, 246. 
Alternanthera, 210. 
Althaea, 45. 
Alu, 179. 
Alucha, 108. 
Alysicarpus, 82. 
Am, 65. 
Amaltas, 98. 
Amarantaceae, 9, 203. 
Amarantus, 204. 
Amla, 229. 
Ammania, 112. 
Ammi, 121. 
Amrud, 111. 
Anacardiaceae, 5, 65. 
Anagallis, 158. 
Anar, 113. 
Anjir, 237. 
Anthemis, 142. 
Antigonon, 220. 
Antirrhinum, 185. 
Aola, 229. 
Aracese, 11, 252. 
Arand, 232. 
Argemone, 19. 
Arhon, 26. 
Arjun, 110. 
Arnebia, 172. 
Artemesia, 143. 
Aru, 108. 
Asclepiadaceae, 7, 160. 

Asclepias, 164. 
A'sgandh, 181. 
Asphodelus, 245. 
Astragalus, 78. 
Atriplex, 214. 
Atylosia, 94. 

Babul, 104. 
Bahera, 110. 
Baingan, 179. 
Bakla, 88. 
Band-gobi, 26. 
Banyan, 236. 
Bar a Sem, 91. 
Barh, 236. 
Barna, 32. 
Bathu, 213. 
Bauhinia, 99. 
Bel, 61. 

Beriiiicasa, 116. 
Ber, 65. 
Bergia, 44. 
Beta, 216. 
Bhakhra, 56. 
Bhang, 233. 
Bhindi, 51. 
Bidens, 140. 
Blumea, 131. 
Boerhaavia, 201. 
Boh-phali, 55. 
Bombax, 52. 
Bonnaya, 187. 
Bar, 236. 

Boraginaceae, 7, 165. 
Bothriospermum, 171. 
Bottle-brush tree, 111. 
Bottle-gourd, 116. 
Bouganvillea, 202. 
Brahmi booti, 121. 
Brassica, 25. 
Bukain, 62. 

Cactaceae, 5, 108. 
Caesalpinia, 96. 
Gaesalplnlaceae, 5, 96. 
Caesulia, 137. 



Callicarpa, 195. 
Callistemon, 111. 
Calotropis, 161. 
Campanula, 157. 
Gampanulaceae, 7, 157. 
Canavalia, 90. 
Canna, 244. 
Cannabis, 232. 
Cape -goose -berry, 181. 
Gapparidaceae, 3, 29. 
Capparis, 32, 160. 
Capsella, 27. 
Capsicum, 183. 
Carrot, 123. 
Carthamus, 149. 
Carum, 123. 

Caryophyllaceae, 3, 35, 
Cassia, 97. 
Cedrella, 63. 
Celsia, 184. 
Centauria, 148. 
Centipedia, 130. 
Cephalandra, 114. 
Cerastium, 38. 
Chakotra, 61. 
Ghana, 85. 
Charas, 233. 

GhenopodiaceaB, 11, 211. 
Chenopodium, 211. 
Chichinda, 116. 
Chil, 259. 
Chir, 259. 
Chota matar, 90. 
Chrozophora, 229. 
Chui-mui, 107. 
Chukandar, 216. 
Chulai, 205. 
Cicer, 85. 
Cistanche, 189. 
Citrullus, 116. 
Citrus, 60. 
Cleome, 30. 
Clerodendron, 195. 
Cnicus, 145. 
Cocoloba, 220. 
Coculus, 16. 
Colocasia, 252. 
Colocynth, 116. 
Gombretaceae, 5, 110. 
Commelina, 248. 
Commelinaceae, 247. 

Composite, 6, 124. 
Convolvulaceae, 8, 174. 
Convolvulus, 175. 
Conyza, 131. 
Corchorus, 53. 
Cordia, 166. 
Coriander, 123. 
Coriandrum, 123. 
Corn-blue-bottle, 149. 
Corn-cockle, 149. 
Cotula, 142. 
Cousinia, 144. 
Crataeva, 32. 
Crepis, 150. 
Crotolaria, 68. 
Gruciferae, 3, 21. 
Cryptostegia, 164. 
Cucumber, 116. 
Cucumis, 116. 
Cucurbita, 116. 
Cucurbitaceae, 6, 113. 
Cumin, 123. 
Cuminum, 123. 
Cupressus, 259. 
Curcuma, 244. 
Cuscuta, 177. 
Cyamopsis, 74. 
Cyathocline, 130. 
Gycadaceae, 259. 
Cycas, 259. 
Cynoglossum, 169. 

Dsemia, 164. 
Dalbergia, 95. 
Date palm, 251. 
Datura, 182. 
Daucus, 123. 
Dek, 62. 
Dela, 32. 
Desi kapas, 52. 
Desi matar, 90. 
Desmanthus, 102. 
Desmodium, 84. 
Dhania, 123. 
Dhrek, 62. 
Digera, 207. 
Dolichos, 93. 
Duranta, 195. 

Echinops, 144. 
Eclipta, 139. 
Ehretia, 167. 



Eichornia, 247. 
Elatinaceae, 4, 43. 
Ephedra, 259. 
Erigeron, 131. 
Eriobotrya, 108. 
Eruca, 26. 
Ervum, 89. 
Erythrsea, 165. 
Eucalyptus, 111. 
Eugenia, 111. 
Eulophia, 242. 
Euphorbia, 221. 
Euphorbiaceae, 10, 220. 

Fagonia, 56. 

Falsa, 55. 

Farash, 43. 

Farsetia, 23. 

Fennell, 123. 

Feronia, 61. 

Fever nut, 97. 

Ficoidaceae, 6, 116. 

Ficus, 235. 

Foeniculum, 123. 

F our -O' -Clock plant, 202. 

Fragaria, 108. 

French bean, 92. 

Fumaria, 21. 

Fumariaceae, 3, 19. 

Gajar, 123. 
Gagla, 89. 
Galgal, 61. 
Galium, 123. 
Galo, 16. 
Ganja, 233. 
Ganth-gobi, 26. 
Garlic, 246. 
Gastrocotyle, 172. 
Gentianaceae, 7, 164. 
Geraniaceae, 4, 58. 
Ghee-kunvar, 246. 
Ghiya, 116. 
Ghiyatori, 116. 
Gisekia, 119. 
Gnaphalium, 135. 
Gnetaceae, 12, 259. 
Goldbachia, 29. 
Gondi, 167. 
Gossypium, 51. 
Gram, 85. 
Great pumpkin, 116. 

Grewia, 55. 
Guara, 74. 
Quava, 111. 
<Ma&, 108. 
Gul abbas, 202. 
Gulabi, 69. 
tfwZar, 237. 
Gynandropsis, 30. 

&, 244. 
Halim, 28. 
Halon, 28. 
#arar, 110. 
Harmal, 57. 
Heartsease, 34. 
Heliotropium, 167. 
Hemp, 233. 
Henna, 112. 
Herniaria, 202. 
Herpestris, 186. 
Hibiscus, 50. 
Holly-hock, 45. 
Hydrilla, 240. 

Hydrocharitaceae, 10, 230. 
Hydrocotyle, 120. 

Ifloga, 135. 

IllecebraceaB, 9, 202. 
Imli, 99. 
Indian dill, 123. 
Indigofera, 74. 
Indrayan, 116. 
Ipomea, 175. 
Isabgool, 201. 

Jaint, 77. 
Jaintar, 77. 
Jaman, 111. 
Jand, 102. 
Jawan, 57, 80. 
Jawasa, 57, 80. 
Jhana, 76. 
Jhijhan, 78. 
Juncus, 249. 
Juncaceae, 11, 248. 
Jwte, 53. 

Kabuli chana, 85. 
Kachalu, 252. 
Kachnar, 101. 
^, 116. 



Kagzi nimbu, 61. 
Kaith, 61. 
Kakri, 116. 
Kali tori, 116. 
Kandiali, 19. 
Kandiari, 19. 
Kanwal, 18. 
Karela, 116. 
Kashi phal, 116. 
/a karanja, 97. 
, 244. 

MV, 105. 
Khajur, 250, 251. 
Kharbuja, 116. 
Khatti-buti, 58. 
a, 116. 

, 25. 

Kidney bean, 92. 
Kifcar, 104. 
Kochia, 214. 
nr, 32. 

/a, 41. 
Kusumbh, 150. 
Kydia, 52. 

Labiatae, 9, 197. 
Lactuca, 151. 
Lagenaria, 116. 
Lagerstroemia, 112. 
Lagerra, 133. 
Lajwanti, 107. 
Lallomantia, 198. 
Lasun, 246. 
Lasura, 167. 
Lathy rus, 88. 
Launea, 155. 
Lawsonia, 112. 
Lemna, 252. 
Lemnaceae, 12, 252. 
Lens, 89. 
Lepidium, 27. 
Lettuce, 153. 
Leucsena, 102. 
Liliaceae, 11, 244. 
Lima bean, 92. 
Lippia, 194. 
Lokat, 108. 
Lotus, 73. 
Lucerne, 73. 
Luffa, 116. 
Lunak, 41, 216. 

Lycium, 181. 
Lycopersicum, 183. 
Lythraceae, 6, 111. 

Maina, 73. 
Malcolmia, 23. 
Malha, 65. 
Malta, 61. 
Malva, 47. 
Malvaceae, 4, 44. 
Malvastrum, 47. 
Mangifera, 65. 
Manli, 93. 
Mango, 65. 
Marua, 61. 
Masft, 93. 
Masur, 90. 
Matar, 90. 
Matricaria, 141. 
Mazus, 186. 
Medicago, 72. 
Melia, 62. 
Meliaceae, 4, 62. 
Melilotus, 72. 
Melon, 116. 
Melon pumpkin, 116. 
Mendhi, 112. 
Menispermaceae, 2, 15. 
Mentha, 197. 
Mesquite, 102. 
Me^i, 71. 
Mexican poppy, 19. 
Mignonette, 33. 
Mimosa, 107. 
Mimosaceae, 5, 101. 
Mirabilis, 202. 
Mitha nimbu, 61. 
Mollugo, 119. 
Momordica, 116. 
Monochria, 246. 
Mor pankh, 259. 
Morus, 233. 
Moth, 92. 

Muehlenbeckia, 220. 
Mukia, 114. 
Mulberry, 233. 
Muli, 29. 
Mung, 92. 
Mungra, 29. 
Murraya, 61. 
Musa, 244. 



Musk pumpkin, 116. 
Myrobalan, 110. 
Myrtaceae, 5, 111. 
Myrtle, 111. 
Myrtus, 111. 

Najadaceae, 12, 256. 
Najas, 258. 
Narangi, 61. 
Narma, 52. 
Nashpati, 108. 
Nasturtium, 22. 
Nelumbium, 18. 
Nepeta, 198. 
Nicotiana, 182. 
Nil, 75. 
Nilofar, 17. 
Nim, 62. 
Nonnea, 172. 
Nothoscordum, 245. 
Nyctaginaceae, 9, 201. 
Nymphaea, 17. 
Nymphaeaceae, 2, 16. 

Oenanthe, 121. 
Oligomeris, 33. 
Onagraceae, 6, 113. 
Onion, 246. 
Opium poppy, 19. 
Opuntia, 109. 
Orchidaceae, 10, 241. 
Orobanchaceae, 8, 189. 
Orobanche, 190. 
Oxalis, 58. 
Oxystelma, 163. 

Palak, 216. 
Palakh, 237. 
Palmse, 11, 249. 
Palwal, 116. 
Pansy, 34. 
Papaver, 19. 

Papaveraceae, 2, 18. 
Papilionaceae, 5, 65. 
Papra, 21. 
Parkinsonia, 97. 
Pat gobi, 26. 
Peganun, 57. 
Pentatropis, 163. 
Peristrophe, 192. 

Petha, 116. 
Petunia, 183. 
Peucedanum, 123. 
Phaguri, 237. 
Phagwara, 237. 
Pharwan, 43. 
Phaseolus, 91. 
Phoenix, 250. 
Phulai, 106. 
Phul-gobi, 261. 
Phut, 116. 
Phyllanthus, 228. 
Physalis, 179. 
Picridium, 153. 
Pilchi, 43. 
Pinaceae, 259. 
Pinus, 259. 
Pipal, 237. 
Pisum, 90. 
Pitpapra, 21. 
Piyaz, 246. 

Plantaginaceae, 9, 199. 
Plantago, 199. 
Pluchea, 133. 
Poinsettia, 228. 
Polygala, 35. 
Polygalaceae, 3, 34. 
Polygonaceae, 10, 217. 
Polygonum, 217. 
Pomegranate, 113. 
Pontederiaceae, 11, 246. 
Populus, 239. 
Portulaca, 41. 
Portulacaceae, 3, 41. 
Post, 19. 

Potamogeton, 256. 
Potentilla, 107. 
Pouzalzia, 235. 
Prickly poppy, 19. 
Primulaceae, 7, 158. 
Prosopis, 101. 
Psidium, 111. 
Psoralea, 75. 
Pudina, 197. 
Pulicaria, 137. 
Pumelo, 61. 
Punica, 113. 
Pupalia, 209. 
Pyrus, 108. 

Quisqualis, 111. 



Radish, 29. 
Railway creeper, 175. 
Ranunculacese, 2, 13. 
Ranunculus, 13. 
Rangoon creeper. 111. 
Raphanus, 29. 
Rari, 87. 
Ras-bhari, 181. 
Raung, 93. 
Rawan, 93. 
Rawas, 93. 
.flerw, 105. 
Reseda, 33. 
Resedacese, 3, 33. 
Rhamnaceae, 4, 63. 
Rhyncosia, 94. 
Ricinus, 231. 
Rivea, 174. 
Rosa, 108. 
Rosaceae, 5, 107. 
Rubiaceae, 6, 123. 
Ruellia, 191. 
Rumex, 219. 
Rutacese, 4, 60. 

Safed Zira, 123. 

Safflower, 150. 

Sagina, 38. 

Sagittaria, 255. 

Salicacese, 10, 237. 

Salix, 238. 

Salsola, 216. 

Salunak, 41. 

Salvadora, 32, 159. 

Salvadoraceae, 7, 159. 

Salvia, 198. 

San, 69. 

Sankukra, 50. 

Santara, 61. 

Sanukra, 50. 

Saponaria, 36. , 

Sarinh, 107. 

Sarson, 26. 

5am, 259. 

Saunf, 123. 

Saussurea, 147. 

ScitaminesB, 11, 244. 

Scrophulariacese, 8, 183. 

Sem, 94. 

Senebiera, 27. 

Senji t 72. 

Sensitive plant, 107. 
Sesbania, 76. 
Shaddock, 61. 
Shakar Kandi, 175. 
Shalgam, 26. 
Shepherd's Purse, 27. 
Shisham, 96. 
Sida, 47. 
/SW, 207. 
Silene, 36. 
Silk-cotton tree, 52. 
Silybum, 147. 
Simal, 52. 
Simbal, 52. 
Singhara, 113. 
t'rw?, 107. 
Sisymbrium, 25. 
Snake gourd, 116. 
Solanaceae, 8, 178. 
Solanum, 178. 
Sonchus, 154. 
SWa, 123. 
Spanish gourd, 116. 
Spegula, 40. 
Sphenoclea, 158. 
Spilanthes, 140. 
Spinacea, 216. 
Spinach, 216. 
Spirodela, 253. 
Stellaria, 38. 
Strawberry, 108. 
Sueda, 215. 
Sweet pea, 89. 
Sweet potato, 175. 
tfweetf Sultan, 149. 
Sword-bean, 90. 

Zi, 96. 

Tamariacese, 4, 42. 
Tamarind, 99. 
Tamarindus, 99. 
Tamarix, 42. 
Taramira, 27. 
Tarbuz, 116. 
Tephrosia, 76. 
Terminalia, 110. 
Thuja, 259. 
TiliacetB, 4, 52. 
Tinospora, 16. 
Tomato, 183. 
, 26. 



Trapa, 113. 
Trianthema, 117. 
Tribulus, 66. 
Trichosanthes, 116. 
Tridax, 141. 
Trifolium, 69. 
Trigonella, 71. 
True pumpkin, 116. 
Tun, 63. 
Tut, 233. 
Typha, 251. 
Typhaceae, 11, 251. 

Umbelliferse, 6, 119. 
Uraria, 80. 
Urd, 93. 
Urena, 49. 
Urticaceae, 10, 232. 

Vallisnaria, 241. 
Verbaseum, 184. 
Verbena, 193. 
Verbenaceae, 8, 192. 

Vernonia, 127. 
Veronica, 188. 
Vicia, 87. 
Vicoa, 137. 
Vigna, 93. 
Viola, 34. 
Violaceae, 3, 33. 
Volutarella, 148. 

Water chestnut, 113. 
Water melon, 116. 
White siria, 107. 
W Haiti Kilcar, 104. 
Wild date-palm, 250. 
Withania, 181. 
Wolffia, 253. 

Xanthium, 139. 

Zannichelia, 258. 
Zeuxine, 243. 
Zingiber, 244. 
Zizyphus, 64. 
Zygophyllaceae, 4, 55. 

Published by the Panjab University, and Printed by P. Knight, Baptist Mission 
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